Urban and Territorial Geography  ing. Gianfranco Minniti & Milazzo Team contribution Bruxelles – 25/29 Jan 2011
Urbanization <ul><li>Urban  Rural </li></ul><ul><li>Why it’s impossible to distinguish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a continuum o...
<ul><li>How can we measure urbanization? </li></ul><ul><li>no measurement based on census data can be done without making ...
Urbanization <ul><li>For Pierre George the only possible definition of the term “city” can be obtained from the only chara...
<ul><li>Behaviourism related to experience and behavioral patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Structural related to the activities ...
Urbanization <ul><li>Variables involved </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Techn...
Urbanization <ul><li>Characteristic Urban Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Central functions in relation to adjacent areas </li...
Urbanization > 80 % 60-80 % 40-60 % 20-40 % < 20 % Urbanization Rate Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geog...
Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>The  counterurbanization  should not be construed as an abandonment...
Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>In the coming decades more than 85% of world population growth will...
Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>Phenomenon of urban gigantism </li></ul><ul><li>The city ceases to ...
Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>Agglomeration </li></ul><ul><li>(Tokio, New York,  Paris  , London)...
Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>Conurbation </li></ul><ul><li>(Genova,  Gallarate-Busto   Arsizio-L...
Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>Metropolitan area </li></ul><ul><li>(Roma,  Milano , Napoli, Torino...
Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>City region </li></ul><ul><li>(Roma, Napoli,  Milano , Barcelona, L...
Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city a metropolitan area will develop over the urban centers; its growth involve...
Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city  Urbanization Suburbanization (Urban sprawl) Disurbanization Reurbanization...
Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>Closing the loop does not involve a return to origins </li></ul><ul...
Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>These transformations naturally leads to consider the city as a con...
  The contemporary city   <ul><li>The urban sprawl cancels the social and morphological differences between cities and the...
The contemporary city <ul><li>The city rises to the role of service center </li></ul><ul><li>The places of residence are d...
The contemporary city <ul><li>The population density generally exceeds 100 residents per hectare of urbanized area </li></...
The contemporary city <ul><li>In most developed countries a regression of secondary functions has occurred to the benefit ...
The End Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
Parma
Lucca
Paris
Gallarate-Busto Arsizio-Legnano
Milano – Metropolitan Area
Milano – city-region
Milano – city-region
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Urban and Territorial Geography

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Urban and Territorial Geography

  1. 1. Urban and Territorial Geography ing. Gianfranco Minniti & Milazzo Team contribution Bruxelles – 25/29 Jan 2011
  2. 2. Urbanization <ul><li>Urban Rural </li></ul><ul><li>Why it’s impossible to distinguish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a continuum of settlements picture we cannot establish a dividing line between urban and rural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing concept of “urban character ” picture the conditions evolve (example: we pass from fortified walls to satellite settlements born with the industrialization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inadequacy of official definitions </li></ul></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  3. 3. <ul><li>How can we measure urbanization? </li></ul><ul><li>no measurement based on census data can be done without making mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>referring to population density may help to define the measurement of urbanization but does not solve the problem of separating urban from rural areas </li></ul>Urbanization Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  4. 4. Urbanization <ul><li>For Pierre George the only possible definition of the term “city” can be obtained from the only characteristic common to all forms of urban civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>The city is a socio-cultural organism </li></ul><ul><li>Community (individuals adhere to a mutual pact) </li></ul><ul><li>Culture (the community feels to belong to a place and gives it a typical environmental feature) </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  5. 5. <ul><li>Behaviourism related to experience and behavioral patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Structural related to the activities of the population and the mutation of the economic structure </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic related to the different concentration of population </li></ul>Urbanization Sociological interpretation Economic interpretation Adaptability Lampard has identified three core concepts Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  6. 6. Urbanization <ul><li>Variables involved </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Social organization </li></ul><ul><li>Key stages </li></ul><ul><li>Primitive collective adaptation to the physical and social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Final stabilization of the primitive tendencies </li></ul><ul><li>Classical limitation of growth due to constraints and circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial decreased restrictions and increased concentration of population </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  7. 7. Urbanization <ul><li>Characteristic Urban Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Central functions in relation to adjacent areas </li></ul><ul><li>Transport functions carried out in major communication lines </li></ul><ul><li>Special functions related to noncontiguous areas </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  8. 8. Urbanization > 80 % 60-80 % 40-60 % 20-40 % < 20 % Urbanization Rate Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  9. 9. Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>The counterurbanization should not be construed as an abandonment of the city for a return to a rural area and then as a symptom of a crisis in the city </li></ul><ul><li>Then it is more correct to speak of periurbanization in which we introduce the concept of urban decentralisation and spread of cities over the surrounding area </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  10. 10. Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>In the coming decades more than 85% of world population growth will materializes in the urban areas of underdeveloped or developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>The urban population growth continues being fed both by its natural increase and by the immigration from rural areas </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  11. 11. Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>Phenomenon of urban gigantism </li></ul><ul><li>The city ceases to be a territorial nuclear institution to become a more or less extended area: </li></ul><ul><li>Agglomeration </li></ul><ul><li>Conurbation </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan area </li></ul><ul><li>City region </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  12. 12. Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>Agglomeration </li></ul><ul><li>(Tokio, New York, Paris , London) </li></ul><ul><li>indicates an extended city that includes a large central municipality, along with surrounding suburbs and satellite towns </li></ul><ul><li>is a monocentric urban area </li></ul><ul><li>reliance connection is related not only to demography but also to facilities </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  13. 13. Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>Conurbation </li></ul><ul><li>(Genova, Gallarate-Busto Arsizio-Legnano , Ruhr Region) </li></ul><ul><li>is an urban area including a number of cities which, due to population growth and urban expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area </li></ul><ul><li>is a form of polycentric urban area </li></ul><ul><li>is formed by the expansion of different units of more or less the same importance which gradually merge </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  14. 14. Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>Metropolitan area </li></ul><ul><li>(Roma, Milano , Napoli, Torino, Firenze, Bari) </li></ul><ul><li>is an area surrounding an urban area or agglomeration which depends on the central city in terms of facilities and is characterized by integration of functions and intensity of inner relations </li></ul><ul><li>essential elements are the presence of a transport network that links together the various areas of the urban metropolitan area and the presence of strong socio-economic interactions within the metropolitan area itself </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  15. 15. Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>City region </li></ul><ul><li>(Roma, Napoli, Milano , Barcelona, Liverpool) </li></ul><ul><li>indicates the hinterland of a city, an agglomeration, a conurbation, a metropolitan area </li></ul><ul><li>the majority of population residing in rural areas, suburbs and towns are employees who commute to a specific city </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  16. 16. Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city a metropolitan area will develop over the urban centers; its growth involves the smaller towns <ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Suburbanization (Urban sprawl) </li></ul><ul><li>Disurbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Reurbanization </li></ul>cities attract population and activities taking them away from the surrounding areas   there is a large-scale decentralization with loss of population and development of activities beneficial to the outer areas the metropolitan areas recover population and activities Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  17. 17. Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city  Urbanization Suburbanization (Urban sprawl) Disurbanization Reurbanization Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  18. 18. Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>Closing the loop does not involve a return to origins </li></ul><ul><li>The development of the city is irreversible </li></ul><ul><li>The next cycle will create something new that will not repeat in any way what happened earlier </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  19. 19. Counterurbanization and life cycle of the city <ul><li>These transformations naturally leads to consider the city as a continuous built-up environment, and realize the pattern of Spread out or reticular city or better Urban Territorial System </li></ul><ul><li>Several contiguous urban territorial systems, linked by functional preferential relations on an area of macro-regional dimension, generate the megalopolis </li></ul><ul><li>When stable relationships exist between these systems a network of cities develops </li></ul><ul><li>The network can be hierarchical (tree, star) or interconnected (networked) </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  20. 20.   The contemporary city   <ul><li>The urban sprawl cancels the social and morphological differences between cities and their environs </li></ul><ul><li>However, the city maintains its centrality for the presence of decision-making places for accessibility to higher level consumption, for the provision of rare services, as well as the presence of a historic, artistic and monumental centre </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  21. 21. The contemporary city <ul><li>The city rises to the role of service center </li></ul><ul><li>The places of residence are decentralized </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of the city (trade and business) </li></ul><ul><li>The sense of city as a community is distorted </li></ul>Increase in technical services <ul><li>Increased barriers to communication </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team Mental Derangement
  22. 22. The contemporary city <ul><li>The population density generally exceeds 100 residents per hectare of urbanized area </li></ul><ul><li>The population is engaged in activities of the secondary but especially of the tertiary and quaternary sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Large endowment of technological infrastructure and diversification of services </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of districts of historical origin or resulting from a spontaneous zoning or determined by the urban planning regulations </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  23. 23. The contemporary city <ul><li>In most developed countries a regression of secondary functions has occurred to the benefit of the tertiary sector </li></ul><ul><li>The advanced tertiary (business services) and quaternary sectors are typical of metropolises and reach the top levels in some world cities (New York, Tokjo, Londra, Parigi) </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolises are affected by social polarization around two types of population: </li></ul><ul><li>– The cosmopolitan one is very rich and bases its income on advanced tertiary and quaternary activities </li></ul><ul><li>– The low-income one , largely formed by immigrants from less developed countries, committed to low-paid or temporary jobs, in the less important service sector or even in the black economy  </li></ul>Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  24. 24. The End Bruxelles 25/29 Jan 2011 – Urban and Territorial Geography – ing. Gianfranco Minniti and Milazzo Team
  25. 25. Parma
  26. 26. Lucca
  27. 27. Paris
  28. 28. Gallarate-Busto Arsizio-Legnano
  29. 29. Milano – Metropolitan Area
  30. 30. Milano – city-region
  31. 31. Milano – city-region

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