BRIC countries are highlighted here, but there are other emerging economies with increasing role.The significance of the BRIC is partly because of their weight in the global economy, which makes them major trade partners, sources of FDI and sources of influence in global governance.
India Agency for Partnership and DevelopmentSouth African Development Partnership Agency
Trade facts:Bilateral trade Brazil-Africa averaged USD 21 billion in 2007/2009 and growing – Cindes paper 2011It represents 2.3% of Brazil’s imports and 2.3% of the continents imports (2007/09)Main Brazilian exports to Africa: sugar and sugar-based processed products (confeitaria) and meat – 26 and 12 per cent respectively in 2008/10Main Brazilian imports from Africa: oil and minerals (85%) and fertiliser (5%)FDI facts:Significant data gaps (because the way Brazilian companies register their foreign investments – tax heavens)Oil, mining and construction as main sectorsAngola as main destinationTechnical cooperation by SENAI on professional training as vehicle to promote Brazilian businesses* This includes contributions to multilateral orgs (technical cooperation alone under 50 million). The estimate would increase significantly if concessional lending was included (estimated to represent about 42% of total Brazilian assistance)
Issues covered by Brazilian cooperation in agriculture (examples):Technology transfer/extension (Angola)Rural professional training (Angola)Strengthening agricultural research systems (Angola, Cape Verde)Strengthening fitosanitary inspection systems (Angola)Soil conservation techniques (Algeria)Strengthening milk production chain (Algeria, Burkina), meat production chain (Botswana)Introduction of improved varieties of horticultures (Cape Verde), cotton (Benin, Mali, Burkina and Chad) and production techniques (e.g. cocoa in Cameroon and Congo and sugar cane in Congo)Strengthening agriculture coops (Benin, Botswana)Etc.In Ghana:Forest plantations development (Embrapa)Bio-energy – training of human resources on regulation and technology (Embrapa)Biotechnology on cassava – training of human resources (Embrapa)
* (average project size $500,000)Some trends these examples help illustrating:From small one-off to larger and longer projects (projetosestruturantes)Adaptation of successful policies (MaisAlimentos, Aquisição de Alimentos)Modality mixing (TA + concessional lending) – hinting links with commercial transactions?Triangular cooperation – ProSavana in Mozambique
Limited knowledge about Africa is one of the limitations to further expansion of Brazilian private investment in the continent, according to a study by IPEA (2011)
Brautigam (2009) estimates China disbursed about USD1.4 billion to Africa in 2009 as ODAThe Forum on China-Africa Co-operation is a platform established by China and friendly African countries for collective consultation and dialogue and a cooperation mechanism between the developing countries, which falls into the category of South-South cooperation. The characteristics of the Forum are as follows: Pragmatic Cooperation: Its purpose is to strengthen consultation and expand cooperation and its focus is on cooperation. Equality and Mutual Benefit: It promotes both political dialogue and economic cooperation and trade, with a view to seeking mutual reinforcement and common development.CATTF:China Africa Think Tanks Forum
As of 2010, over 100 ‘senior agriculture experts’ had been assigned to 33 African countries, with at least 50 more teams committed in future.
China is forthright about the links between charitable assistance and profit-oriented transactions – both are part of its 'equality and mutual benefit' and 'pragmatic cooperation' approach towards development and contrast with the aid-focused approach to development traditional donors tend to use, at least until Busan (new paradigm)
The International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) is UNDP’s global forum for policy dialogue and South-South learning on development innovations. HQ in Brasília.Poverty in Focus in IPC-IG flagship publication.
Additional Senegal work: research will follow the track of a Chinese official who directed a bilateral cooperation project in agriculture in Senegal for several years and is now involved in a trilateral cooperation project between China-FAO-Senegal. In China, this person works on agriculture extension to Chinese farmers and can therefore offer a view on China's policy within the country and how this is being applied abroad, as well as contrast the frameworks of bilateral and trilateral cooperation.ERSC proposal framed to consider four levels:discourses at the global levelthe political economy of national-level policy processes within the rising powers’ domestic realms…and in their interface with beneficiary country institutionsthe micro-level interactions that emerge around specific cooperation projects in beneficiary countries.
Accra 21-23 March 2012 Brazil and China cooperation foragriculture development in Africa An FAC scoping study by Alex Shankland (IDS), Jing Gu (IDS), Lídia Cabral (ODI) and Lila Buckley (IIED)
Outline Accra 21-23 March 20121. Background2. Research focus and objectives3. Emerging findings4. Upcoming activities5. Future plans
Background Accra 21-23 March 2012 Emerging economies or rising powers are becoming prominent players in international developmentWorld Economic League Table (GDP)Rank 2011 2020 forecast1 US US2 China China3 Japan Japan4 Germany Russia5 France India6 Brazil Brazil7 UK Germany8 Italy UK9 Russia France10 India ItalySource: Centre for Economics and Business Research
Background Accra 21-23 March 2012• Emerging economies are expanding their development cooperation activities• Their role is increasingly recognized by the international aid system - focus on South-South cooperation in Busan HLF4• Trilateral cooperation involving North and South donors is becoming a common feature in the aid business• In 2011, China released its first White Paper on Foreign Aid and South Africa and India launched their official foreign aid agencies• Emerging economies’ focus in Africa and agriculture is significant and remains understudied
Background Accra 21-23 March 2012• A great deal of speculation on the interest of Brazilian farmers to access land in Africa for high-value non-food crop production – some controversial press about deals linking cooperation projects with land concession in Mozambique• Same on China – much press hype in recent years about China’s ‘land grab’ in Africa, but very little evidence of Chinese-owned large-scale export-oriented agriculture production• But the reality, for both countries, seems much more nuanced and complex, with multiple actors engaging in multiple ways
Focus and objectives Accra 21-23 March 2012• Focus: Brazil and China cooperation activities in Africa to support agricultural development• Objectives: (i) document experiences of emerging cooperation programmes, (ii) understand the rationale, novelty and value added of the approaches used and (iii) discuss implications for cooperation practices and for African agricultures• Overarching research question: are the rising powers establishing new paradigms for agriculture development in Africa through their development cooperation programmes?• Issues to cover: institutional mapping, projects inventory, policies and discourse, actors, networks and their agendas, interface with local processes
Brazil findings 1 Accra 21-23 March 2012 General features of Brazilian cooperation• Cooperation as an instrument of foreign policy – solidarity rhetoric dominates but geopolitical drives are visible• Cooperation portrayed as mutually beneficial horizontal (South-South) partnership but economic motivations often concealed• Relatively small in volume (est. USD 362 million* for 2010), though quickly expanding, but offering models developing countries are eager to emulate• New modalities emerging – concessional export credits (including for agriculture) becoming relatively significant and trilateral cooperation• Institutional segmentation and policy void• Coordination gaps – coordination at operational level (ABC) but no obvious direction on content, apart from high level diplomacy• Africa focus strong – 57% of TC in 2010, plus vigorous diplomatic agenda, growing trade and bulging private investment (mining, oil, construction – and a lot of speculation on the interest of Brazilian farmers in accessing African land)
Brazil findings 2 Accra 21-23 March 2012 Overview of Brazilian cooperation in agriculture in Africa• Agriculture as main sector of cooperation in Africa Technical cooperation in Africa, 2003-10• Lusophone countries as main recipients but expanding number of partner Social development countries (currently approx. 26) 2% Other 17% Planning Agriculture• Wide range of issues covered – 2% 26% research, training and transfer of Urban development improved varieties/techniques Public 3% predominant administration 4%• More than 20 Brazilian institutions Energy 5% actively involved Environment• Embrapa dominates portfolio 5% Education and Health 22%• but others gaining space: MDA with its professional training ‘family farming’ focus 14%• Brazilian civil society slowly stepping in Source: ABC
Brazil findings 3 Accra 21-23 March 2012Cotton 4: Benin, Burkina Project highlights Aquisição de Alimentos:Faso, Chad and Mali (since 2009)• Emerges as result of successful Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria and WTO cotton subsidy dispute Senegal (just launched)• Aims to improve quality and • Aims to address food insecurity and productivity of cotton in WA strengthen local food markets region • Led by MDA and MDS• Focused mostly on research • Adapts similar programme in operation and extension within Brazil• Led by Embrapa • Trilateral partnership with WTO and FAO• Approx $5 million for phase I • $2.4 million committed by Brazil• First large project in the agriculture portfolio*Mais Alimentos África: ProSavana: Mozambique (since 2011)Ghana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Senegal • Ag-focused regional developmentand Kenya (just launched) programme along Nacala corridor• Aims to increase productivity and food • Aims to replicate Brazilian savannah security by improving access to transformation technology • Led by Embrapa• Combines concessional credit facility to • Said to combine commercial largescale buy Brazilian agric machinery and and smallscale production systems equipment with technical assistance • Trilateral cooperation Japan-Brazil-• Led by MDA Mozambique• Adapts similar programme in operation • $13 million for phase I (5 yrs) within Brazil since 2008• $640 million worth of credit for 2011- and trends 12
Brazil findings 4 Accra 21-23 March 2012 Emerging hypotheses1. The blending of moral and pragmatic drives in Brazilian cooperation mirrors the competing motivations within government and society with regards to foreign affairs2. Policy void as reflection of segmentation of cooperation framework and domestic agricultural governance3. Contrasting narratives/visions of agricultural development4. The affinities Brazil-Africa are often overestimated and are use as political rhetoric5. Technocratic approach to development, which strips Brazilian domestic experiences of their political baggage and is ill- informed of local politics, society and culture
China findings 1 Accra 21-23 March 2012 General features of Chinese cooperation• China has become the largest trading partner with Africa, reaching USD 160 billion in 2011, according to the Chinese Ministry of Commerce.• Plurality of cooperation(s) and relationships forged: all formal political, social and economic engagement with African countries is guided by the Forum on China Africa Cooperation (FOCAC). However, there are increasing numbers of engagements outside this realm: Chinese immigrants to Africa acting independently; Chinese hires by African firms; some civil society partnerships.• Official rhetoric of equality and mutual benefit through ‘pragmatic cooperation’, promoting ‘political dialogue and economic cooperation and trade, with a view to seeking mutual reinforcement & common development’.• Framed as ‘South-South’ collaboration emphasizing long history of ‘Chinese African friendship’, with China as a developing country leading in the ‘modern revival of developing countries’ worldwide (CATTF 2011).• New modalities emerging – emphasis on economic trade as cooperation; trilateral relationships emerging with OECD donors and UN bodies.
Accra 21-23 March 2012Source: http://afrographique.tumblr.com/
China findings 2 Accra 21-23 March 2012 Overview of Chinese cooperation in agriculture in Africa• Chinese government has committed to building Agriculture Technology Demonstration Centers in 20 countries. Aim is to collaborate with local agriculture ministries to ‘boost agriculture production’ in host countries. Focus on technology transfer: seed varieties; planting techniques; production and (some) processing techniques, clean energy technology.• Mixture of agriculture aid, trade and investment: demonstration centers are aid programs run by Chinese companies and joint ventures which are meant to manage them sustainably after a set time period. Agriculture makes up less than 10% of Chinas outbound investments, but this is growing rapidly.• Mutual benefit discourse informed by ecological optimism about Africa’s agriculture development potential: Benefits host country by introducing new food varieties (eg soy as new protein source); ‘improved’ foods (eg ‘superior’ GM crops); post-production processing techniques (eg packaging to retain freshness). Benefits China by helping meet demand for certain goods (animal feed, cotton, forest products, tobacco)• Focus on government over local communities: Chinese actors tend to focus collaboration on African host country government actors rather than non-state actors. They tend to be surprised when efforts meet with local resistance despite having government approval.
China findings 3 Accra 21-23 March 2012 Emerging hypotheses1. Chinese engagements in Africa are redefining the landscape of ‘aid’ from a paradigm of development assistance to one of development cooperation mixed with development investment2. Agriculture cooperation is guided by a strong belief in the Chinese project of modernization, which has a strong technocratic approach, and an ecological optimism about Africa’s agriculture potential3. Largely ignores socio-cultural contexts of agriculture development and food security, leading to cooperation frustrations and failures4. Emerging trilateral agriculture cooperation initiatives between China-OECD-African partner may address some of these shortcomings, but research on actual experience is sparse
Upcoming activities Accra 21-23 March 2012• FAC public event in Brasília in May: The Role of South-South Cooperation in Agricultural Development in Africa: Opportunities and Challenges• Hosted by UNDP’s International Poverty Centre for Inclusive Growth with co-funding from DFID• High profile guests from Brazilian development cooperation domain (Foreign Affairs, Embrapa, Ministry of Agrarian Development, civil society organisations) as well as from Africa, China and the international research community• Panels on Brazilian cooperation framework, Brazilian agricultural policy and governance, the Green Growth agenda in South-South cooperation, and China-Brazil compared• Poverty in Focus special issue
Future research plans Accra 21-23 March 2012• Mozambique case-study on Brazil cooperation: the dual policy narrative in practice, looking at Nacala corridor project (ProSavana) and new MDA-led initiatives• Senegal case-study on China cooperation: empirical look at the emerging trilateral agriculture engagements, exploring an FAO SSC project jointly implemented by the Chinese and Senegalese Ministries of Agriculture• Wider research proposal (submitted to ESRC rising powers call) for larger 3-yr research project looking at China and Brazil across 4 African countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe) aiming to examine in detail the new relationships in African agriculture
Accra 21-23 March 2012More on the FAC website soon!