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Lecture #1 for CIS Poultry

Lecture #1 for CIS Poultry

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  • A plural term
  • Includes a wide variety of different avian species Chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, pigeons, pheasants, quail, ostrich, etc.
  • Domesticated birds raised primarily for: Food (meat, eggs, liver, etc.) Clothing (feathers, leather) Work/entertainment (carrier pigeons, rollers, fighting birds)
  • “ The covering of the body” Feathers - All birds have feathers and no other animals do Function of feathers: Provide protection from the elements Help regulate body temperature Help streamline the body for flight Different types of feathers Each with a specific function Each with specific structural feathers enhancing its functional purpose Skin is thin and pliable Doesn’t need to be thick since the feathers provide a protective cover Possess feather tracts that arrange feathers in a definite pattern Does not contain sweat glands Contains one major oil gland Located at the base of the tail Oil is removed from the gland when squeezed by the birds beak and the oil is spread over the body feathers during preening
  • “ The covering of the body” Feathers - All birds have feathers and no other animals do Function of feathers: Provide protection from the elements Help regulate body temperature Help streamline the body for flight Different types of feathers Each with a specific function Each with specific structural feathers enhancing its functional purpose Skin is thin and pliable Doesn’t need to be thick since the feathers provide a protective cover Possess feather tracts that arrange feathers in a definite pattern Does not contain sweat glands Contains one major oil gland Located at the base of the tail Oil is removed from the gland when squeezed by the birds beak and the oil is spread over the body feathers during preening
  • “ The covering of the body” Feathers - All birds have feathers and no other animals do Function of feathers: Provide protection from the elements Help regulate body temperature Help streamline the body for flight Different types of feathers Each with a specific function Each with specific structural feathers enhancing its functional purpose Skin is thin and pliable Doesn’t need to be thick since the feathers provide a protective cover Possess feather tracts that arrange feathers in a definite pattern Does not contain sweat glands Contains one major oil gland Located at the base of the tail Oil is removed from the gland when squeezed by the birds beak and the oil is spread over the body feathers during preening
  • Avian digestive system Classified as: Non-ruminant / Monogastric How does it differ from other non-ruminants? Birds don’t have teeth or lips Food swallowed in gulps with no chewing Grasping and particle-size reduction functions assumed by the beak , tongue and gizzard Permits the weight associated with heavy jaws, teeth and muscles to be moved more centrally to accommodate flight Crop - Temporary storage Permits a bird to forage for large amounts of food rapidly and then fly off to digest the meal in safety Permits binging in the evening so that food can be slowly released to supply nutrients during the night time In chickens, food stored during an evening feeding supplies 75% of the nocturnal energy needs In some species, supplies a moist environment where food begins to soften But, in chickens mucous glands only present near the entrance of the crop so dependent on consumed water No enzymes secreted into the crop Cloaca Serves as a storage area for urine and feces Receives the exit ducts of the digestive , reproductive , and urinary systems
  • Consists of duodenum, jejunum, ileum Duodenum forms a loop around the pancreas Receives bile and pancreatic secretions Duodenum ends where the small intestine leaves its association with the pancreas Jejunum extends from the end of the duodenum to the vitelline diverticulum (Meckel’s diverticulum = the remnant of the yolk sac) Ileum extends from the Meckel’s diverticulum to the cecal junction Cecum / ceca Considerable variation in size Ranges from voluminous pairs, to a single cecum to complete absence Highly developed in herbivores and omnivores Site for microbial fermentation of complex carbohydrates Large intestine More accurately referred to as the rectum or colon Typically very short and small in diameter Exception is the ostrich where it is >50% of total intestinal length and is sacculated
  • Consists of duodenum, jejunum, ileum Duodenum forms a loop around the pancreas Receives bile and pancreatic secretions Duodenum ends where the small intestine leaves its association with the pancreas Jejunum extends from the end of the duodenum to the vitelline diverticulum (Meckel’s diverticulum = the remnant of the yolk sac) Ileum extends from the Meckel’s diverticulum to the cecal junction Cecum / ceca Considerable variation in size Ranges from voluminous pairs, to a single cecum to complete absence Highly developed in herbivores and omnivores Site for microbial fermentation of complex carbohydrates Large intestine More accurately referred to as the rectum or colon Typically very short and small in diameter Exception is the ostrich where it is >50% of total intestinal length and is sacculated
  • Liver Predominant bile salt produced varies among species Gall bladder Absent in some avian species: ostrich, hummingbirds, doves, pigeons, parrots Pancreas Supplies digestive enzymes Also produces insulin (hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism)
  • Avian lungs are rigid and do not move during respiration (do not inflate and deflate) Have air sacs Act as bellows Some penetrate the interior of bones ( pneumatic bones) Provide buoyancy for aquatic birds
  • Consists of duodenum, jejunum, ileum Duodenum forms a loop around the pancreas Receives bile and pancreatic secretions Duodenum ends where the small intestine leaves its association with the pancreas Jejunum extends from the end of the duodenum to the vitelline diverticulum (Meckel’s diverticulum = the remnant of the yolk sac) Ileum extends from the Meckel’s diverticulum to the cecal junction Cecum / ceca Considerable variation in size Ranges from voluminous pairs, to a single cecum to complete absence Highly developed in herbivores and omnivores Site for microbial fermentation of complex carbohydrates Large intestine More accurately referred to as the rectum or colon Typically very short and small in diameter Exception is the ostrich where it is >50% of total intestinal length and is sacculated
  • When the yolk comes to full size, it is released from the ovary by the rupture of the follicle along the stigma. The discharged yolk and its germinal disc are engulfed by the infundibulum, and within ten minutes the journey down the oviduct commences. It is in the infundibulum that fertilization will occur if the particular ovum is to become a fertile egg. Once the egg has passed through the infundibulum and the layers of albumen have started to be placed on the yolk, fertilization is impossible. The yolk spends approximately 3 hours in the magnum were the thick albumen is added. This is about half of the total egg white. The remainder of the egg white is added after the shell membranes have been formed and the egg has entered the uterus. The two shell membranes are formed in the isthmus during a period of 1.25 hours. The shell membranes influence the shape of the egg. However, the yolk and the thick albumen do not have the appearance of an egg until water secreted in the uterus, passes through the shell membranes and the egg assumes its characteristic shape. After the thin albumen has been formed inside the shell membranes and the egg assumes its normal size and shape, two spiral cords of thick albumen can be seen extending from the yolk toward the two poles of the egg. These spirals are known as chalazae. The egg spends over 20 hours in the uterus, where calcium carbonate is deposited on the outer shell membrane. When the shell structure is complete, the egg passes into the vagina where it may be retained for a few minutes while a very thin coat of albumen-like material is deposited over the shell. This material is referred to as the bloom or cuticle and functions to fill the pores of the shell. The egg passes through the oviduct small end first, but just prior to laying the egg turns horizontally 180 ° so that the large end of the egg comes out first. This allows for more shell surface area on which uterine muscles may apply pressure prior to the egg-laying process.
  • When the yolk comes to full size, it is released from the ovary by the rupture of the follicle along the stigma. The discharged yolk and its germinal disc are engulfed by the infundibulum, and within ten minutes the journey down the oviduct commences. It is in the infundibulum that fertilization will occur if the particular ovum is to become a fertile egg. Once the egg has passed through the infundibulum and the layers of albumen have started to be placed on the yolk, fertilization is impossible. The yolk spends approximately 3 hours in the magnum were the thick albumen is added. This is about half of the total egg white. The remainder of the egg white is added after the shell membranes have been formed and the egg has entered the uterus. The two shell membranes are formed in the isthmus during a period of 1.25 hours. The shell membranes influence the shape of the egg. However, the yolk and the thick albumen do not have the appearance of an egg until water secreted in the uterus, passes through the shell membranes and the egg assumes its characteristic shape. After the thin albumen has been formed inside the shell membranes and the egg assumes its normal size and shape, two spiral cords of thick albumen can be seen extending from the yolk toward the two poles of the egg. These spirals are known as chalazae. The egg spends over 20 hours in the uterus, where calcium carbonate is deposited on the outer shell membrane. When the shell structure is complete, the egg passes into the vagina where it may be retained for a few minutes while a very thin coat of albumen-like material is deposited over the shell. This material is referred to as the bloom or cuticle and functions to fill the pores of the shell. The egg passes through the oviduct small end first, but just prior to laying the egg turns horizontally 180 ° so that the large end of the egg comes out first. This allows for more shell surface area on which uterine muscles may apply pressure prior to the egg-laying process.
  • When the yolk comes to full size, it is released from the ovary by the rupture of the follicle along the stigma. The discharged yolk and its germinal disc are engulfed by the infundibulum, and within ten minutes the journey down the oviduct commences. It is in the infundibulum that fertilization will occur if the particular ovum is to become a fertile egg. Once the egg has passed through the infundibulum and the layers of albumen have started to be placed on the yolk, fertilization is impossible. The yolk spends approximately 3 hours in the magnum were the thick albumen is added. This is about half of the total egg white. The remainder of the egg white is added after the shell membranes have been formed and the egg has entered the uterus. The two shell membranes are formed in the isthmus during a period of 1.25 hours. The shell membranes influence the shape of the egg. However, the yolk and the thick albumen do not have the appearance of an egg until water secreted in the uterus, passes through the shell membranes and the egg assumes its characteristic shape. After the thin albumen has been formed inside the shell membranes and the egg assumes its normal size and shape, two spiral cords of thick albumen can be seen extending from the yolk toward the two poles of the egg. These spirals are known as chalazae. The egg spends over 20 hours in the uterus, where calcium carbonate is deposited on the outer shell membrane. When the shell structure is complete, the egg passes into the vagina where it may be retained for a few minutes while a very thin coat of albumen-like material is deposited over the shell. This material is referred to as the bloom or cuticle and functions to fill the pores of the shell. The egg passes through the oviduct small end first, but just prior to laying the egg turns horizontally 180 ° so that the large end of the egg comes out first. This allows for more shell surface area on which uterine muscles may apply pressure prior to the egg-laying process.

Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Animal Science POULTRY Lecture 1 Adapted by Tony Seykorafrom a Power Point by Dr. Jacquie Jacob, Poultry Specialist at the U of MN
  • 2. 2007 – includes broilers, laying hens, and turkeys
  • 3. POULTRY• Define the term ‘poultry’
  • 4. POULTRY• Define the term ‘poultry’ – Singular or plural?
  • 5. POULTRY• Define the term ‘poultry’ – Singular or plural?
  • 6. POULTRY• Define the term ‘poultry’ – Singular or plural? – What specie(s) are considered poultry?
  • 7. POULTRY• Define the term ‘poultry’ – Singular or plural? – What specie(s) are considered poultry? • Chickens, turkeys, • geese, ducks, pigeons, • pheasants, ostriches, • quail, etc.
  • 8. POULTRY• Define the term ‘poultry’ – Singular or plural? – What specie(s) are considered poultry? • Chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks, pigeons, pheasants, ostriches, quail, etc. – What are poultry raised for?
  • 9. POULTRY• Define the term ‘poultry’ – Singular or plural? – What specie(s) are considered poultry? • Chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks, pigeons, pheasants, ostriches, quail, etc. – What are poultry raised for? • Meat, eggs, feathers/down, livers, entertainment, work (e.g., pigeons that carry messages)
  • 10. POULTRY PHYSIOLOGY• How does poultry anatomy and physiology differ from mammalian anatomy and physiology?
  • 11. POULTRY VS MAMMALIAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY• Integument - “The covering of the body” – Feathers - All birds have feathers and no other animals do• Function of feathers: – Provide protection from the elements – Help regulate body temperature – Help streamline the body for flight
  • 12. • Integument - “The covering of the body”Different types of feathers – Each with a specific function – Each with specific structural feathers enhancing its functional purpose
  • 13. • Integument - “The covering of the body”• Skin is thin and pliable – Doesn’t need to be thick since the feathers provide a protective cover – Possess feather tracts that arrange feathers in a definite pattern – Does not contain sweat glands – Contains one major oil gland – Located at the base of the tail • Oil is removed from the gland when squeezed by the birds beak and the oil is spread over the body feathers during preening
  • 14. SKIN• Specialized types of skin: – Scales of the shanks and toes
  • 15. Feet Shank Toes
  • 16. SKIN• Specialized types of skin: – Scales of the shanks and toes – Comb and wattles – The beak is covered by a thin layer of skin – Ear lobes
  • 17. CombBeakEar lobeWattle
  • 18. POULTRY VS MAMMALIAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY• Digestive system – Differences ?
  • 19. CHICKEN DIGESTIVE TRACT Beak Esophagus Small intestine Large IntestineDuodenal loop Cloaca Crop Ceca EsophagusProventriculus Gizzard
  • 20. Avian digestive system•Classified as: Non-ruminant / Monogastric•How does it differ from other non-ruminants?•Birds don’t have teeth or lips•Food swallowed in gulps with no chewing
  • 21. Grasping and particle-size reduction functions assumed by the beak, tongue and gizzard Permits the weight associated with heavy jaws, teeth and muscles to be moved more centrally to accommodate flight
  • 22. Crop - Temporary storage Permits a bird to forage for large amounts of food rapidly and then fly off to digest the meal in safety
  • 23. Permits binging in the evening so that food can be slowly released to supply nutrients during the night time In chickens, food stored during an evening feeding supplies 75% of the nocturnal energy needs In some species, supplies a moist environment where food begins to soften But, in chickens mucous glands only present near the entrance of the crop so dependent on consumed water No enzymes secreted into the crop
  • 24. •Koilin - a tough layer made of a carbohydrate-proteincomplex to protect the muscles in the gizzard and toaid in digestion
  • 25. CHICKEN DIGESTIVE TRACT Beak Esophagus Small intestine Large IntestineDuodenal loop Cloaca Crop Ceca EsophagusProventriculus Gizzard
  • 26. Purple heron Marabou Rail Sparrow-hawk Different types of avian ceca Helmet guinea fowl Barn owl Northern screamer Great Bustard Ostrich Source: Jozefiak et al., 2002
  • 27. Considerable variation in size Ranges from voluminous pairs, to a single cecum to complete absence Highly developed in herbivores and omnivores Site for microbial fermentation of complex carbohydrates
  • 28. Large intestine More accurately referred to as the rectum or colon Typically very short and small in diameter Exception is the ostrich where it is >50% of total intestinal length and is sacculated - divided into a series of pouches.
  • 29. CLOACA• Serves as a storage area for urine and feces• Receives the exit ducts of the digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems
  • 30. CHICKEN DIGESTIVE TRACT Beak Esophagus Small intestine Large IntestineDuodenal loop Cloaca Crop Ceca EsophagusProventriculus Gizzard
  • 31. • Liver – Predominant bile salt produced varies among species• Gall bladder – Absent in some avian species: ostrich, hummingbirds, doves, pigeons, parrots• Pancreas – Supplies digestive enzymes – Also produces insulin (hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism)
  • 32. Taste• Taste acuity poorer than for mammals – Taste receptors • Humans: 9,000 • Rabbits: 17,000 • Chicken: 250-350 • Pigeon: 37-75 • Japanese quail: 62 • Ducks: 375 • Parrots: 300-400• Birds can taste the same four primary flavors (sour, sweet, bitter, salty) but with less acuity
  • 33. Smell• Sense of smell not well developed in birds – Exceptions: Kiwi, some vultures and seabirds – Flowers and fruits that rely on birds for pollination and seed dispersal - would it be beneficial to the plants to be scented?
  • 34. SKELETAL SYSTEMSKeel
  • 35. POULTRY VS MAMMALIAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY• Skeletal system – Differences ?
  • 36. SKELETAL SYSTEMSKeel
  • 37. SKELETAL SYSTEMKEEL
  • 38. Birds that have a keel, whether they can fly or not,are called carinate birds. KEEL BONE
  • 39. Ratite – No keel bone
  • 40. POULTRY VS MAMMALIAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY• Respiratory system
  • 41. HUMANSTidal respiration
  • 42. CHICKENS
  • 43. Inspiration Expiration
  • 44. Avian Genetics• Mammals • Birds – Male XY – Male ZZ – Female XX – Female ZW – Males determine sex – Females determine of offspring sex of offspring
  • 45. POULTRY VS MAMMALIAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY• Reproductive system
  • 46. Avian reproductive tractOvary Ruptured follicle Stigma Mature ovum Infundibulum MagnumOviduct Isthmus Part of large intestine Uterus/ Shell gland Vagina Cloaca
  • 47. When the yolk comes to fullsize, it is released from theovary by the rupture of thefollicle along the stigma.
  • 48. The discharged yolk and itsgerminal disc are engulfed bythe infundibulum, and withinten minutes the journey downthe oviduct commences.
  • 49. It is in the infundibulum thatfertilization will occur if theparticular ovum is to becomea fertile egg. Once the egghas passed through theinfundibulum and the layers ofalbumen have started to beplaced on the yolk, fertilizationis impossible.
  • 50. The yolk spends approximately 3hours in the magnum where thethick albumen is added. This isabout half of the total egg white.The remainder of the egg white isadded after the shell membraneshave been formed and the egghas entered the uterus.
  • 51. The two shell membranes are formed in theisthmus during a period of 1.25 hours.However, the yolk and the thick albumen donot have the appearance of an egg until watersecreted in the uterus, passes through theshell membranes and the egg assumes itscharacteristic shape.
  • 52. The egg spends over 20 hoursin the uterus, where calciumcarbonate is deposited on theouter shell membrane.
  • 53. When the shell structure iscomplete, the egg passes into thevagina where it may be retained fora few minutes while a very thin coatof albumen-like material isdeposited over the shell.This material is referred to as thebloom or cuticle and functions to fillthe pores of the shell.
  • 54. The egg passes through theoviduct small end first, but justprior to laying the egg turnshorizontally 180° so that the largeend of the egg comes out first.This allows for more shell surfacearea on which uterine musclesmay apply pressure prior to theegg-laying process.
  • 55. Ovary
  • 56. Ovulation Video
  • 57. Avian reproductive tractOvary Ruptured follicle Stigma Mature ovum Infundibulum MagnumOviduct Isthmus Part of large intestine Uterus/ Shell gland Vagina Cloaca
  • 58. Infundibulum Video
  • 59. Avian reproductive tractOvary Ruptured follicle Stigma Mature ovum Infundibulum (Fertilization) Magnum (Albumen)Oviduct Isthmus (Shell membranes) Part of large intestine Uterus/ Shell gland (Water & Shell) Vagina (Bloom/cuticle) Cloaca
  • 60. Avian male reproductive tract Avian system similar to mammalian system, but testes are located inside the abdominal cavity
  • 61. Questions?