Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint

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Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint

  1. 1. Chapter 26 Animals
  2. 2. 26 – 1 Introduction to the Animal Kingdom• Of all the kingdoms of organisms, the animal kingdom is the most diverse in appearance
  3. 3. What Is an Animal?• Animals are Multicelular• Animals are Eukaryotic heterotrophs• Animal cells lack cell walls• Animals belong to the kingdom Animalia• The bodies of most animals contain tissues• Ex.)epithelial, connective tissue (bone, blood) nervous tissue• Animals are informally grouped into 2 categories
  4. 4. Invertebrates• Animals that don’t have a backbone• Over 95% percent of all animal species are grouped into this category
  5. 5. Vertebrates• Animals that have a backbone
  6. 6. What Animals Do To Survive • Animals carry out the following essential functions:
  7. 7. 1. Feeding/Digesting
  8. 8. Intracellular digestion• Process in which food is digested inside cells
  9. 9. Extracellular digestion• Process in which food is broken down outside the cells in a digestive tract
  10. 10. 2. Respiration (gas exchange)Ex.) skin, gills, lungs
  11. 11. 3. Circulation
  12. 12. Open circulation• System in which blood is not always continued within a network of blood vessels
  13. 13. Closed circulation• System in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels
  14. 14. 4. Excretion
  15. 15. 5. Response
  16. 16. 6. Movement/Support
  17. 17. Hydrostatic skeletons• Layers of circular and longitudinal muscles that enable movementEx.) worms
  18. 18. Exoskeleton• External skeleton; tough external covering that protects and supports the body of many invertebratesEx.) insects
  19. 19. Endoskeleton• Structural support located inside the bodyEx.) sea stars, humans
  20. 20. 7. Reproduction• Can be sexual or asexual
  21. 21. Hermaphrodites• Individuals that have both male and female reproductive organs
  22. 22. External fertilization• Eggs are fertilized outside the female
  23. 23. Internal fertilization• Eggs are fertilized inside the female
  24. 24. Oviparous• Eggs hatch outside the mother
  25. 25. Ovoviviparous• Eggs hatch inside the mother
  26. 26. Viviparous• Babies are born live and get nourishment from the mother
  27. 27. Trends in Animal Evolution• Complex animals tend to have high levels of cell specialization and internal body organization, bilateral body symmetry, a front end or head with sense organs and a body cavity
  28. 28. Cell Specialization and Levels of Organization • As animals evolved, their cells have become specialized to carry out different functions • Ex.) Movement, digestion, nervous system
  29. 29. • Large animals need greater efficiency in body processes than smaller animals• Groups of specialized cells form tissues, which join together to form organs and organ system - all of which work together to carry out a variety of complex functions
  30. 30. Body SymmetryAsymmetry – no symetryEx.) sponges
  31. 31. Radial symmetry• Body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the bodyEx.) jelly fish, sea star
  32. 32. Bilateral symmetry• Body plan in which only a single imaginary line can divide the body into 2 equal halvesEx.) worms, insects, chordates
  33. 33. Cephalization• Most animals with bilateral symmetry also have a trend toward cephalization
  34. 34. Cephalization• Concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animals body• Organisms with cephalization can respond to the environment in more sophisticated ways than can simpler organisms
  35. 35. Body Cavity Formation• Most animals have a body cavity which is a fluid filled space that lies between the digestive tract and the body wall• A body cavity is important because it provides a space in which internal organs can be suspended so that they are not pressed on by muscle or twisted out of shape by body movements• Body cavities also allow for specialized regions to develop, and they provide room for internal organs to grow and expand
  36. 36. Adaptive Radiation• Over the course of evolution, the appearance of new adaptations – such as jaws and paired appendages – has launched adaptive radiations in chordate groups
  37. 37. Adaptive radiation• Rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms
  38. 38. Convergent Evolution• Adaptive radiations sometimes produce species that are similar in appearance and behavior, even though they are not closely related. This trend is called convergent evolution
  39. 39. Kingdom Animalia Major Phyla
  40. 40. Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
  41. 41. Asymetrical
  42. 42. Some specialized cells
  43. 43. Phylum Cnidaria
  44. 44. Radial Symmetry
  45. 45. Stinging Cells
  46. 46. Tentacles
  47. 47. Nerve Net
  48. 48. Two Body Forms
  49. 49. Cnidarian Lifecycle
  50. 50. Asexual Reproduction
  51. 51. Coral
  52. 52. Sea Anemones
  53. 53. Box Jellyfish
  54. 54. Portuguese Man-of-War
  55. 55. Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms
  56. 56. Flattened Body, one opening
  57. 57. Bilateral Symmetry
  58. 58. Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
  59. 59. Budding
  60. 60. Some are parasites
  61. 61. Tape worm mouth parts
  62. 62. Phylum Nematoda Roundworms
  63. 63. Round Body, tapered at both ends, two openings
  64. 64. Bilateral symmetry
  65. 65. Heartworm
  66. 66. Ascaris
  67. 67. Trichinella
  68. 68. Elephantitus
  69. 69. Phylum Mollusca Mollusks
  70. 70. One Shell
  71. 71. Two Shell
  72. 72. No Shells
  73. 73. Nautilus
  74. 74. Squid
  75. 75. Octopus
  76. 76. Bilateral Symmetry
  77. 77. Phylum Annelidia Segmented Worms
  78. 78. Leech
  79. 79. Clamworm
  80. 80. Feather dusters
  81. 81. Phylum Arthropoda Arthropods
  82. 82. Arthropod Traits• Segmented body, jointed legs, exoskeleton• Bilateral symmetry• Tissues and organs – Open circulatory system – Complete digestive tract – Simple excretory organs – Brain and nerve cords• Sexual reproduction (separate sexes)
  83. 83. 5 Major Arthropod Classes
  84. 84. Centipedes
  85. 85. Millipedes
  86. 86. Crustaceans
  87. 87. Crustaceans
  88. 88. Crustaceans
  89. 89. Crustaceans
  90. 90. Crustaceans
  91. 91. Insects
  92. 92. Insects
  93. 93. Insects
  94. 94. Arachnids
  95. 95. Arachnids
  96. 96. Arachnids
  97. 97. Arachnids
  98. 98. Phylum Echinodermata Echinoderms
  99. 99. Echinodermata = Spiny Skin
  100. 100. Water Vascular System
  101. 101. Tube Feet
  102. 102. Radial Symmetry
  103. 103. Brittle Sea Star
  104. 104. Sea Star
  105. 105. Sand Dollar
  106. 106. Sea Urchin
  107. 107. Sea Cucumber
  108. 108. Sea Star Eating
  109. 109. Phylum Chordata Chordates
  110. 110. Chordate Traits• Dorsal notochord at some time• Pharyngeal gill slits (or pouches) at some time• Dorsal hollow nerve cord at some time• Bilateral symmetry
  111. 111. Chordate Traits• Tissues and organs of vertebrates – Backbone – Brain and nervous system – Closed circulatory system – Complete digestive tract – Paired kidneys – Gills or lungs – Paired image forming eyes• Sexual reproduction (separate sexes)
  112. 112. Invertebrate Chordates 2 groups
  113. 113. Tunicates
  114. 114. Lancets
  115. 115. Vertebrate Chordates 7 classes
  116. 116. 1. Agnatha
  117. 117. Lamprey
  118. 118. 2. Chondrichthyes
  119. 119. 2. Chondrichthyes
  120. 120. 2. Chondrichthyes
  121. 121. 3. Osteicthyes
  122. 122. 3. Osteicthyes
  123. 123. 3. Osteicthyes
  124. 124. Swim Bladder
  125. 125. 4. Amphibia
  126. 126. 4. Amphibia
  127. 127. 4. Amphibia
  128. 128. Two Stage Life Cycle
  129. 129. 5. Reptilia
  130. 130. 5. Reptilia
  131. 131. 5. Reptilia
  132. 132. 6. Aves
  133. 133. 6. Aves
  134. 134. 6. Aves
  135. 135. 6. Aves
  136. 136. 7. Mammalia
  137. 137. 7. Mammalia
  138. 138. 7. Mammalia
  139. 139. 7. Mammalia
  140. 140. 7. Mammalia

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