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Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre
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Monomictic lakes francisco muñoz maestre

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  • 1. Warm and cold MonomiCtic Lakes Structure and function of two different monomictic lakes, San Pablo lake (warm) and Flakevatn (cold) By: Francisco Muñoz Maestre
  • 2. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 2 ~ INDEX ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................. 4 WHAT IS A LAKE, CHARACTERISTICS AND MONOMICTIC TYPES ...............................................4 Characteristics and typology..............................................................................................5 Physical/thermal lake types...............................................................................................6 San Pablo Lake.................................................................................................... 8 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................... 8 METHOD AND MATERIALS ........................................................................................ 9 STUDY AREA............................................................................................................... 9 LIMNOLOGY OF SAN PABLO LAKE ........................................................................... 10 Limnological classification of the high Andean lakes.............................................................10 Physical and chemical parameters of the San Pablo Lake ......................................................11 Thermal Stratification.....................................................................................................11 Water chemistry.............................................................................................................11 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................. 12 Flakevatn Lake.................................................................................................. 13 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................... 13 MATERIALS AND METHODS..................................................................................... 13 Sampling............................................................................................................................14 Analysis Methods...............................................................................................................14 Temperature and Heat Budget........................................................................................14 Transparency, Color and Turbidity...................................................................................15 Conductivity...................................................................................................................15 pH & Alkalinity................................................................................................................15 STUDY AREA............................................................................................................. 15 RESULTS................................................................................................................... 16 Water column temperature................................................................................................16 Predicted Thermocline depth..........................................................................................16 2005 and 2004 water column temperature profiles..........................................................16 Heat budgets.....................................................................................................................17 Corrections to Strøm 1934 and 1965................................................................................17 Ice cover observations....................................................................................................18 Heat budgetsestimates: 3 strata versus 6 strata...............................................................18
  • 3. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 3 ~ Transparency, Color and Turbidity.......................................................................................19 Conductivity, pH and Alkalinity............................................................................................19 DISCUSION............................................................................................................... 20 Meteorology, Stratification and Heat Budgets......................................................................20 Glacial ooze events, changes in water chemistry and silica content .......................................21 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................... 22 BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................................................................... 23
  • 4. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 4 ~ ABSTRACT We are going to study two lakes, one warm and another cold monomictic lakes, we are going to see the structure and functions if these lakes. Respectively, the first is the lake San Pablo, in Ecuador and the second is the lake Flakevatn in Norwey. Lake San Pablo, the largest lake in Ecuador, is a eutrophic lake due to the input of sewage and other nutrients from the catchment area, which originate from intensive agriculture and land erosion. Lake San Pablo is a monomictic lake with a short mixing period during July to September. Stratification of the lake and mixing processes caused by nocturnal cooling are of great significance for the eutrophication, which occurred mainly during the last decade. Flakevatn, a high mountain glacial lake situated in central Norway, has been investigated for annual heat budgets, minerogenic and biogenic silica content of water and sediment. This lake belongs in a cold monomictic lake category and is estimated to have annual heat budget of 15673 cal cm-2 in the year 2004 and 13074 cal cm-2 in the year 2005. WHAT IS A LAKE, CHARACTERISTICS AND MONOMICTIC TYPES A lake may be defined as an enclosed body of water (usually freshwater) totally surrounded by land and with no direct access to the sea. A lake may also be isolated, with no observable direct water input and, on occasions, no direct output. In many circumstances these isolated lakes are saline due to evaporation or groundwater inputs. Lakes may occur in series, inter-connected by rivers, or as an expansion in water along the course of a river. In some cases the distinction between a river and a lake may become vague and the only differences may relate to changes in the residence time of the water and to a change in water circulation within the system. Lakes are traditionally under-valued resources to human society. They provide a multitude of uses and are prime regions for human settlement and habitation. Good water quality in lakes is essential for maintaining recreation and fisheries and for the provision of municipal drinking water. These uses are clearly in conflict with the degradation of water induced by agricultural use and by industrial and municipal waste disposal practices. The management of lake water quality is usually directed to the resolution of these conflicts. Nowhere in the world has lake management been a totally successful activity. However, much progress has been made particularly with respect to controllable point source discharges of waste. The more pervasive
  • 5. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 5 ~ impacts of diffuse sources of pollution within the watershed, and from the atmosphere, are less manageable and are still the subject of intensive investigations in many parts of the world. Characteristics and typology Origins of lakes In geological terms lakes are ephemeral. They originate as a product of geological processes and terminate as a result of the loss of the ponding mechanism, by evaporation caused by changes in the hydrological balance, or by in filling caused by sedimentation. The mechanisms of origin are numerous differentiated among 11 major lake types (Hutchinson, 1957): Glacial lakes: Lakes on or in ice, ponded by ice or occurring in ice-scraped rock basins. The latter origin (glacial scour lakes) contains the most lakes. Lakes formed by moraines of all types, and kettle lakes occurring in glacial drift also come under this category. Lakes of glacial origin are by far the most numerous, occurring in all mountain regions, in the sub-arctic regions and on Pleistocene surfaces. All of the cold temperate, and many warm temperate, lakes of the world fall in this category (e.g. in Canada, Russia, Scandinavia, Patagonia and New Zealand). Tectonic lakes: Lakes formed by large scale crustal movements separating water bodies from the sea, e.g. the Aral and Caspian Seas. Lakes formed in rift valleys by earth faulting, folding or tilting, such as the African Rift lakes and Lake Baikal, Russia. Lakes in this category may be exceptionally old. For example, the present day Lake Baikal originated 25 million years ago. Fluvial lakes: Lakes created by river meanders in flood plains such as oxbow and levee lakes, and lakes formed by fluvial damming due to sediment deposition by tributaries, e.g. delta lakes and meres. Shoreline lakes: Lakes cut off from the sea by the creation of spits caused by sediment accretion due to long-shore sediment movement, such as for the coastal lakes of Egypt. Dammed lakes: Lakes created behind rock slides, mud flows and screes. These are lakes of short duration but are of considerable importance in mountainous regions. Volcanic lakes: Lakes occurring in craters and calderas and which include dammed lakes resulting from volcanic activity. These are common in certain countries, such as Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, Cameroon and parts of Central America and Western Europe.
  • 6. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 6 ~ Solution lakes: Lakes occurring in cavities created by percolating water in water- soluble rocks such as limestone, gypsum or rock salt. They are normally called Karst lakes and are very common in the appropriate geological terrain. They tend to be considered as small, although there is some evidence that some large water bodies may have originated in this way (e.g. Lake Ohrid, Yugoslavia). Physical/thermal lake types The uptake of heat from solar radiation by lake water, and the cooling by convection loss of heat, results in major physical or structural changes in the water column. The density of water changes markedly as a function of temperature, with the highest density in freshwater occurring at 4 °C. The highest density water mass usually occurs at the bottom of a lake and this may be overlain by colder (0-4 °C) or warmer (4- 30 °C) waters present in the lake. A clear physical separation of the water masses of different density occurs and the lake is then described as being stratified. When surface waters cool or warm towards 4 °C, the density separation is either eliminated or reaches a level where wind can easily induce vertical circulation and mixing of the water masses producing a constant temperature throughout the water column. In this condition the lake is termed homothermal and the process is defined as vertical circulation, mixing, or overturn. The nomenclature applied to a stratified lake, three strata which are defined like: The epilimnion or surface waters of constant temperature (usually warm) mixed throughout by wind and wave circulation, the deeper high density water or hypolimnion (this is usually much colder, although in Tropical lakes the temperature difference between surface and bottom water may be only 2-3 °c), and a fairly sharp gradational zone between the two which is defined as the metalimnion. The name metalimnion is not commonly used and the gradation is normally referred to as the thermocline. Picture made by myself Hypolimnion
  • 7. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 7 ~ The thickness of the epilimnion may be quite substantial, and it is dependent on the lake surface area, solar radiation, air temperature and lateral circulation and movement of the surface water. Commonly, it extends to about 10 m depth but in large lakes it can extend up to 30 m depth. Stratification in very shallow lakes is generally rare since they have warm water mixing throughout their water column due to wind energy input. However, winter or cold water stratification can occur even in the most shallow lakes under the right climatic conditions. The interpretation of a shallow lake has never been satisfactorily defined, although there is a relationship between lake depth and surface area which controls the maximum depth to which wind induced mixing will occur. Therefore, an acceptable definition of a shallow lake is one which will overturn and mix throughout its water column when subjected to an average wind velocity of 20 km h-1 for more than a six hour period. As a general rule, wind exposed lakes of 10 m depth or less are defined as shallow water lakes. The thermal characteristics of lakes are a result of climatic conditions that provide a useful physical classification which is based upon the stratification and mixing characteristics of the water bodies. Now we are going to explain shortly the two monomictic, and after that we will study deeply both:  Warm monomictic lakes occur in temperate latitudes in subtropical mountains and in areas strongly influenced by oceanic climates. In the same way as their cold water counterparts, they mix only once during the year with temperatures that never fall below 4 °C.  Cold monomictic lakes occur in cold areas and at high altitudes (sub- polar). The water temperature never exceeds 4 °C and they have a vertical temperature profile close to, or slightly below, 4 °C. They have winter stratification with a cold water epilimnion, often with ice cover for most of the year, and mixing occurs only once after ice melt.
  • 8. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 8 ~ San Pablo Lake INTRODUCTION The limnology of tropical lakes is of great interest and has become a main field of contemporary limnological research to overcome the lack of knowledge. Tropical lakes are warm water lakes situated in the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America. The chemical and physical properties as well as the biological processes of tropical lakes differ significantly to those of temperate lakes (LEWIS 1987), due to temperature and thermal stratification, radiation and primary production, diversity of fauna and flora and metabolic processes in the water body. Special types of tropical lake are the mountain lakes in the equatorial zone. These lakes are situated directly on the equator where they receive intensive illumination without seasonal variation. Such lakes are found in the Andes at about 3,000 to 4,000 m above sea level. Because of their high elevations these lakes contain cold water at temperatures less than 20 °C. There are only a few lakes of this type, all situated in the Andes of Ecuador, Columbia and northern Peru. This lake is situated at 15 ° south latitude, where a significant seasonal variation of the climate occurs, and cannot be considered an example of an equatorial high mountain lake. The radiation input to tropical lakes is very high and the water body heats up during the daytime and cools at night. Heat transfer between the water surface and the atmosphere produces convective nocturnal mixing. Tropical lakes, situated in the lowland, are polymictic at a high temperature level, and water exchange occurs every night due to divergence and convergence processes. This intensive water exchange, the high radiation and the temperature level are parameters, of adequately accounted for in the nutrient loading concept of Vollenweider (Vollenweider 1968; OECD 1982; TUNDISI 1990). Therefore a modified nutrient loading concept was developed for tropical South American lakes by the Centro Panamericano de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ciencias del Ambiente (CEPIS 1990). However the application of this model to tropical high mountain lakes is questionable and nothing has been learned about eutrophication processes in this type of lake. Investigations are carried out at Lake San Pablo, Ecuador, in the high Andes. The aim of this study is to describe the limnological processes of this type of lakes under consideration of the eutrophication processes. This includes the turnover of the nutrients, the limitation of primary production as well as the succession of phyto- and zooplankton.
  • 9. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 9 ~ METHOD AND MATERIALS Since 1993 there were a lot of investigation in this lake and in these ones, standard limnological equipment is used and analyses are completed following the US Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater and the German Standard Rules for Water Analysis (DEV). Chemical analyses are performed by the Subsecretaria Saneamiento de Quito and the Escuela Politecnica Nacional de Quito (1998-2000), phyto- and zooplankton analyses are completed by the Technical University of Berlin. STUDY AREA Lake San Pablo is a high mountain lake, 2,660 m above sea level (ASL), in the Andes of Ecuador, South America, situated near Otavalo at 0°12 ' north latitude and 78°13 ' east longitude. It is a natural lake, the largest one of Ecuador. Lake San Pablo is a nearly circular lake with a shoreline development factor of 1.21 and a steep slope of the shore. The maximum depth is 35.2 m, and the mean depth is 26.0 m. The lake surface area is 583 hectares, and its volume is 140.106 m3 . The main water source is the Rio Itambi, which contributes 90% of total input, a small creek with a 20-years mean flow of 1.4 m 3 sec 1. The source of the Rio Itambi is 3,600 m ASL, and its catchment area extends to 4,000 m ASL. The outlet is the so called Desaguadera. The water residence time is about 3.2 years (Zevallos, 1992). The catchment area is 14,790 hectares, and the ratio of the catchment to the lake surface amounts to 1:26. The catchment area of the Rio Itambi shows a very high risk of nutrient input from intensive agriculture due to the slope of the area. Agriculture is practiced up to 3,600 m ASL, and up to this elevation, crop growing is the main land use with four to six harvests per year. The intensive cultivation, steep slope of the fields and high precipitation rate results in much erosion as well as a high input of nutrients into the lake. Intensive land use for the past few decades led to the destruction of the ancient wet high mountain forests, and we must Picture took from Limnology of an Equatorial High Mountain Lake in Ecuador, Lago San Pablo by GUNTER GUNKEL
  • 10. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 10 ~ assume that this is one significant factor for eutrophication processes occurring today in Lake San Pablo. About 20,000 people live in the Lake San Pablo area, nearly 5,000 of which inhabit small settlements, while the rest live in rural areas. The lake is important for these people, who use its water for irrigation, take animals there to drink, remove drinking water for themselves, wash clothes there and fish. The sewage from the main settlement is introduced directly through a pipe into the lake. In addition, sewage flows into the Rio Itambi from the rural dwellings. Nevertheless, the lake is used for recreation and boating and is expected to become a centre for tourist activities. LIMNOLOGY OF SAN PABLO LAKE Limnological classification of the high Andean lakes Lake San Pablo can be classified as a cold water lake with a temperature below 20°C. However due to the high heat input from insolation and the lack of seasonal changes, the hypolimnic temperature is rather high. Consequently, the thermal stratification of the lake is weak. Mixing processes may be caused by nocturnal cooling and the development of convergence water currents, which leads to nocturnal mixing. Besides the evaporation rate is high, and this may lead to a cooling of the surface water. Another important factor is the lack of coriolis forces in the equatorial. No deflection of currents produced by the winds occurs under these conditions. Consequently, the effects of wind are greater than in temperate areas. The stability of the thermal stratification is very significant for the distribution of oxygen and nutrients. Investigations to quantify the mixing processes using oxygen isotope concentrations, drifting bodies and continuous registration of the thermal stratification are planned. The biology of cold high mountain lakes is also of interest because these are isolated lakes in the tropics. The colonization of this high mountain area could not have occurred via Central America, and studies of the vertebrates show that it took place via southern South America. Therefore, these ecosystems are normally poor in diversity, and the diversity decreases toward the equator. Another factor that affected the colonization process is human activity, and many species occurring in these lakes are introduced. For example trout and bass were released for fish production, while aquarium plants were accidently introduced. Nothing is known about the succession of the phyto- and zooplankton in these lakes. Because there are no seasons, a climax state could be reached through niche building and diversification of species. However, it is also possible that slight differences in the wind forces and inflow intensity might influence mixing processes and lead to a seasonal succession of species. Another aspect of interest is the effect of high UV-radiation at about 3,000 m ASL, which may lead to a damage of the cells and possibly suppress primary production.
  • 11. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 11 ~ Physical and chemical parameters of the San Pablo Lake Thermal Stratification The water temperature of Lake San Pablo varies between -19°C at the surface and -17°C in deep water with little seasonal variation. The daytime air temperature does not change during the whole year; however rain intensity and wind forces vary slightly to produce a dry and a wet season. A daily warming to 19.5 °C occurs in a water body of about 5 m depth. Nocturnal cooling produced a surface temperature of 19 °C, and there was a mixing due to convective processes to a depth of 15 m, which corresponds to the epilimnion. The oxygen concentrations revealed that the lake was stratified below 15 m and had an anoxic hypolimnion. Little temperature change occurred below 15 m. The temperature isopleths for a whole year show that there is a stratification period from October to June when the epilimnion is about 12 to 15 m deep. However the temperature differences only amount to 1 to 2 °C, and a polymixis of the upper 15 m took place. A mixing period occurs during June to September, promoted by the windy period with little precipitation. In the Andean region shallow lakes with less than about 20 m depth should be polymictic. However stability, wind effect, evaporation, nocturnal cooling, heating by insolation, temperature gradient and absolute temperatures as well as other factors should be considered to evaluate thermal stability. Water chemistry The water of Lake San Pablo is slightly alkaline and has a conductivity of about 250 to 300 μS cm-1 . The calcium content is about 20 mg/1. The phosphorus concentrations were increased by sewage input. During the stratification period, the soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration in the epilimnion was about 0.02 to 0.09 mg1-1 , but it increases up to 0.15 mg-1 during overturn. In the hypolimnion, very high concentrations reaching 0.32 mgl-1 were recorded. A significant stratification of the ortho-phosphate occurs similar to that of the temperature. In the epilimnion, SRP is available during the whole period of stratification, the concentration of total phosphorus ranges from 0.14-0.25 mg1-1 in the epilimnion and to 0.5-0.9 mg-1 in the hypolimnion. During overturn, the mean phosphorus concentration in the epilimnion is 0.36mg1-1 . The concentration of nitrogen is lower, which is typical for tropical areas due to the intensive metabolic processes in the catchment area. The concentration of NH4-N remains below 0.3 mg1-1 , and the concentration of NO3-N are usually below 0.5g1-1 . However, during overturn, the nitrate-N concentration increases to as much as 3mg1-1 . The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus by weight ranged from 7:1 to 0.5:1. Therefore, the production in the lake is limited by nitrogen and not by phosphorus. This limitation by nitrogen should promote a development of blue-green algae because some
  • 12. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 12 ~ species can use the N2 gas as source of nitrogen. However, no significant amount of blue-green algae has been reported in the first three months period of investigations. There may be another factor that is limiting primary production. The stratification of the lake produces a clinograde oxygen profile with supersaturation in the epilimnic zone and a lack of oxygen in the hypolimnion below 15 m depth. The decrease in oxygen must be a result of the high load of organic substances in the inflow from the Rio Itambi, in which the mean oxygen concentration is 5.4 mg 1- 1 , and the mean biological oxygen demand (BOD5) is 12.2 mg1-1 . The isopleths for oxygen confirm that there is a stratification of oxygen and that the hypolimnion of Lake San Pablo is anoxic. This lack of oxygen is a good indication of the trophic state of the lake, which is overloaded with organic matter. The primary production and input of degradable organic substances create a demand for oxygen that the hypolimnion of the lake cannot meet. After overturn, the oxygen saturation is low in the whole lake, ranging from 60 to 80% of saturation. DISCUSSION Lake San Pablo is loaded with a high input of nutrients, which brought about an eutrophication of the lake. This has limited the uses of the water as well as impairing the ecosystem. In Lake San Pablo an increasing rate of decomposition led to a decrease in the oxygen concentration in the hypolimnion, and the sediments became anaerobic. In addition, the number of coliform bacteria is very high, due to the input of wastewater directly into the lake. Using OECD criteria for lake eutrophication, Lake San Pablo must be classified as a eutrophic lake because of its concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen. Actually, it is not possible to evaluate the trophic level of the lake, and additional information is needed to determine the eutrophication processes. Therefore, the mixing processes in the epi- and hypolimnion must be quantified and the internal loading of phosphorus is of great significance. The first investigations on the fauna and flora in Lake San Pablo confirm the assumption, that the colonization of high Andean lakes was obstructed. The Andean equatorial lakes are isolated in the tropical area, and few species arrived via the southern part of South America. This results in low diversity of the fauna and flora.
  • 13. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 13 ~ Flakevatn Lake INTRODUCTION High mountain lakes have recently been focused on by researchers interested in detecting climate changes and sensing atmospheric-borne pollution (Catalan J et al. 2002, Wright and Cosby 2004). Wright et al. 2005 reports recent reductions in acidification of central Norwegian mountain lakes and establishes optimistic atmosphere for the near future. Sensitivity of these remote sites is specifically exemplified by a glacial lake Flakevatn, deemed biologically near sterile. Flakevatn’s research record is limited in size, but offers sufficient appeal for further investigation. This is a semi-arctic lake, since water column temperatures during ‘warm’ years exceed the temperature of maximum density (Strøm 1940). Summer and winter heat budget investigations done on Flakevatn in 1933 and 1965, are rough approximations due to sparse measurements performed on two separate days nearly thirty years apart (Strøm 1934 and Strøm 1966). These estimates are rooted in the classical works by Birge on examining and evaluating heat budgets of lakes (Birge 1914). Heat budget studies are still relevant for investigation, since recent work on Italian lakes links morphometry to heat budgets (Ambrosetti and Barbanti 2002). In addition to having ‘peculiar’ aspects of heat budgets, Flakevatn has been mentioned to occasionally experience late-summer clouding due to heavy runoff of accumulated glacial clay. Glacial ooze events are common in high mountain lakes situated next to glaciers. During 1933 expedition, Dr. Kaare M. Strøm observed Flakevatn to be bluegreen in color and transparent down to 6m depth (Strøm 1934). pH values of Norwegian mountains were investigated as early as 1925 and highly alkaline measurements were associated with phyillite dominant localities (Strøm 1925). MATERIALS AND METHODS In the period of spring/summer 2005, some expeditions were carried out to Flakevatn for study transparency depth, turbidity and the temperature changes in the water column. Sediment samples and water samples were collected for chemical analysis. Qualitative observations of snow cover were done in mid March alongside temperature measurements. Temperature data was obtained using inverting
  • 14. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 14 ~ thermometer with focus on temperature variation beyond 20m depth. The results will confirm or disagree with Strøm’s original estimate of Flakevatn’s annual heat budget. Water samples were collected using standard water sampler and delivered into 250mL or 1L polypropylene bottles. Duplicate samples were taken on special occasions to measure alkalinity, pH and conductivity without disturbing the original sample. All collected water samples were to be stored in 4 ± 0.1°C cooling room allowing for maintenance of samples chemical integrity. pH, alkalinity and conductivity measurements were carried out in a given order. Filtration of the water samples was performed to detect any measurable changes in the pH, alkalinity and conductivity. The study evaluates presence of a glacial ooze event through qualitative (observation) and quantitative means (turbidity measurements). Changes in pH, conductivity and alkalinity at 2m and 10m (epilimnion), are quantifiable chemical aspects of a glacier lake and they test for glacial ooze buffering capacity. Both depths are epilimnion depths serving for comparative differences. Sampling The sampling had two different objectives. Firstly, to measure temperature prior to and post-melting of ice cover at Flakevatn. Secondly, to detect levels of glacial ooze at regular intervals and any resulting changes to water chemistry and silica content. Major constraints on the sampling efficiency were wind, travel and setup time, as well as short day length. Analysis Methods Temperature and Heat Budget Temperature of the water column was measured directly using reversing thermometer. Messenger was released down the thermometer line once the thermometer has reached the desired depth. After 2 minutes, the thermometer was hoisted up. Temperature was recorded from the main scale and adjusted with readings from the auxiliary scale (Welch 1948). Summer and winter heat budgets were determined using reduced thickness method as done in Strøm 1934.
  • 15. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 15 ~ Transparency, Color and Turbidity Transparency was determined using a circular Secci disk measuring 20cm in the diameter. The tabulated depth is the mean between disappearance and reappearance depths. Eye-sight was the final means of judgment. Color was determined against Secci disk at the half depth of its reappearance. The turbidity was measured using highly accurate portable DRT-15CE turbidimeter against reference standards; 0.02, 0.1, 10, 100 NTU (HF Scientific inc. 2004). All turbidity measurements were carried out in 4°C cooling room. The turbidimeter was allowed 30 minutes to adjust to temperature before measurements were carried out. Conductivity Conductivity, or electrolyte content, was measured in microsiemens (μS) cm-1 after samples have reached the room temperature. Conductivity meter (CDM 80) was used for direct measurements. pH & Alkalinity Both were measured using Radiometer Copenhagen meters, a multi-function instrument composed of TT80-Titrator / ABU80- autoburette standard alkalinity meter and PHM 82 standard pH meter. pH measurements were taken at the first stable reading. Titration of the water samples during alkalinity analysis was done using dilute 0.02N HCl. Alkalinity measurements were obtained from slope of titration curves using standard procedure described in Bøyum and Kaasa 2001. STUDY AREA Flakevatn is elevated at 1448m above sea-level, is sited at North Latitude 60°38’ to 60°40’ and about 7°35’ E of Greenwich. This lake is positioned approximately 7km from Finse railway station. It is easily tracked down by way of a tourist trail. The domed glacier Hardangerjøkulen to the south and the mountain range Hallingskarvet to the north, Picture took from Limnological exploration of Flakevatn, a high mountain lake in central Norway. Annual heat budget and silica content by Nemanja Jevremovic
  • 16. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 16 ~ are two geomorphological features that qualify Flakevatn. Hallingskarvet is glaciated in its western part (Strøm 1934). The Caledonian mountain chain, formed hundreds of millions years ago, is the geological backbone of Scandinavia. Today we observe only roots of this mountain chain. The foundation of this massif is archaean rock, minerologically equivalent to granite or slightly gneissic granite (Fægri 1967). Above this base we find a phyllite zone, foliated metamorphic rocks consisting of metamorphous shales and schists. This zone reaches up to 1700m altitude (Strøm 1934). Older archaean rock is found overlying phyllite zone, at the summits of the highest mountains (Fægri 1967). Soil formed through disintegration of this parent rock is qualitatively very poor. Decomposition of plant material introduces humic acids into the soils, further limiting the survival of plants to only tolerant few. Consequently, this soil is easily removed through erosion, exposing great parts of the peneplain (Fægri 1967). RESULTS Water column temperature Predicted Thermocline depth Hanna 1990, Kling 1988, and Baigun and Marione 1995 suggest array of models for determining the planar thermocline depth (zt) in lakes from different regions. Poland and Canada region model was found to be the most appropriate one for central Norway. The planar thermocline depth, Zt, is equal to mixing depth( Zmix ) ± 2.4m. Zmix, = 4.6 (0.5(Maximum Effective Length + Maximum Effective Width))^0.41. Predicted range of thermocline according to this model is 5.1-9.9m. Flakevatn has had temporary stratification at approximately 4-6m in mid august 2005, 8-12m in mid august 2004 and 7-12m in mid august 1933. 2005 and 2004 water column temperature profiles Winter 2005 temperature profile shows almost no presence of a thermocline formation. Sinusoidal appearance of April and May temperature curves still suggests a thermocline at approximately 10m. Throughout the winter/summer period in 2005 temperature changes have shown predictable trends as observed in lakes of alpine character (Kalff 2002). In
  • 17. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 17 ~ July 2005, at the completion of ice melting, Flakevatn had a 0°C surface temperature and isothermous conditions from 2m downwards. During 2005 summer period, the temperature did not rise above 4°C. Unstable stratification on almost daily basis is normal in these conditions. During, thermoclines were developing around 5m depth. These fluctuations are due to different densities of water layers being disrupted and rapidly mixing. In comparison to year 2005, 2004 winter/summer temperature conditions are quite different. Ice partially disappeared in March 2004, a month earlier than it did in 2005. With surface temperature at about 0°C, a weak thermocline is established at about 5m. Relatively isothermous conditions are established at the end of July to start of August (~3.2°C). By mid august, there is a large increase in surface temperatures to 7.2°C and thermocline is positioned at about 10m. Full isothermy appears at the start of September (~5.4°C), signifying the fall turnover. Heat budgets Corrections to Strøm 1934 and 1965 Investigation into Strøm 1934 and 1965 regarding Flakevatn summer and winter heat budgets has to be corrected due to some discrepances. Calculation of the summer and the winter heat budgets in these two studies has been based on a simple reduced thickness method. 4°C is used as a reference temperature. This method is accurate in estimating heat budgets if large number of depth intervals are available. Differences among these values reflect on how accurate the estimates of heat budgets are. The corrected heat budgets show a significant discrepancy in summer and winter heat budgets from the original estimates, being around 250 cal cm-2 and 1600cal cm-2 respectively. Strøm 1934 calculation of summer heat budget was based on seven temperature measurements from a single day, while 1965 calculation of winter heat budget was based on temperature measurements from ten depths. Both winter and summer heat budget calculations were based on temperature averages from three layers, 0-10m, 10- 20m and 20-75m. Summer heat budget estimate (1933), assumed the same temperature from 30-70m. Furthermore, both summer and winter estimates lack 75m temperature measurement, and thus 20-75m layer estimate is in fact 20-70m layer. According to Strøm et al. 1965, the total winter heat budget for Flakevatn is - 22510 cal cm-2 and the summer heat budget is +5792 cal cm-2 . Winter heat budget is the sum of the amount of heat required to melt 150cm thick homogenous ice cover or -
  • 18. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 18 ~ 12000 cal cm-2 and heat required for the Flakevatn’s water mass or -10510 cal cm-2 . Recalculation of Strøm’s estimate of the latent heat required to melt evenly distributed 150cm of ice shows a significant ∼1000 cal/cm2 difference, or it changes the original -12000 cal cm-2 to 10958 cal cm-2 . Recalculation of the heat required for the Flakevatn’s water mass changes the original estimate of -10510 cal cm-2 to 9947 cal cm- 2 . Thus Strøm’s original winter heat budget estimate should be -20905 cal cm-2 . Strøm 1934 original summer heat budget estimate is 5792 cal cm-2 , but when it is recalculated, this value is in fact 6051 cal cm-2 . By summing these two heat budgets, the annual Flakevatn heat budget, based on Strøm 1934 and 1965 three strata and 150cm thick ice, should be 26956 cal cm-2 . Ice cover observations During year 2004 investigation, the ice disappeared on 27th July and it was estimated to have reappeared on 31st October. Year 2005 had similar timing of ice disappearance and reformation, 21st July and October 15th respectively. The total depth of snow and ice covering Flakevatn is estimated to be 2m. Ice cover was penetrated using a standard manual ice drill. The Flakevatn layering in 2005 coincided with layer composition found in 2004. Two ice layers, with combined 40cm thickness, are drastically different from Strøm’s single 150cm ice thickness. Latent heat of evenly distributed 40cm thick ice is calculated to be -2922 cal cm-2 . In total, this change in heat reduces Flakevatn’s original winter heat budget estimate from -20905 cal cm-2 to 13455 cal cm-2 , given that Strøm’s 3 strata method is used. Heat budgets estimates: 3 strata versus 6 strata Latent heat of ice is added to the winter heat budgets. 40cm thick ice cover ice with latent heat of fusion at -2922 cal cm-2 is used in all estimates. Three-layer method is based on Strøm’s three layers (0-10m, 10-20m and 20-75m) while six-layer method uses six layers (0-2m, 2-10m, 10-20m, 20-40m, 40-60m, 60-75m). Winter heat budgets estimated using 3 strata are significantly different from winter heat budgets estimated using 6 layers. However, summer heat budget estimates nearly coincide. The annual heat budget for 2004 and 2005 is based on 6 layers method and is 15673 cal cm-2 and 13074 cal cm-2 respectively. Flakevatn’s annual heat budget is more likely to fluctuate between these two values.
  • 19. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 19 ~ Transparency, Color and Turbidity Strøm 1934, speaks of glacial runoff being the source of the milky grey color in Flakevatn in August 1933. 1933 and 2004 were both warmer years than 2005. Due to higher average summer temperatures in 1933, the greater amounts of glacial melt water must have washed out greater amounts of glacial ooze. In 2005 this was not the case, and most of the water inputs came from the snow melt. On each sampling occasion, Flakevatn was transparent down to 12m depth. At the same time, Flakevatn was observed to be bluegreen in color with no visible glacial ooze. Since Flakevatn is known to receive glacial silt and clay inputs, it is necessary to investigate turbidity as one of qualifiers of lake’s clay particle content. All samples for year 2005 have shown an extremely low turbidity, truly characterizing Flakevatn as a clear-water lake. Conductivity, pH and Alkalinity Conductivity, pH and alkalinity were measured before and after filtration of select set of water samples. Epilimnion depths, 2 and 10m, were examined for any time changes in these three characteristics. September 20th measurements at 2m depth are not present in the dataset. August 4th 2005 was the only date that had a full water column profile. Looking at August 4th 2005 profile, filtration changed very little in the pH, conductivity and alkalinity. These were the conditions prior to anticipated glacial milk event. The time scale of conductivity changes shows an increase in conductivity at the start of August in both filtered and unfiltered samples at 2 and 10m. It is possible that this increase in conductivity in epilimnion is due to the initial pulse of airborne electrolytes trapped within the snow. Stable stratification forming around this time, levels off the concentration of electrolytes until end of September followed with a slight increase in conductivity at the start of October. Both depths are following the same trends, with filtered sample measurements showing only slight deviation from unfiltered conductivities. The time scale of pH changes at two depths of filtered and unfiltered samples shows minor difference in pH. An exception to this is 2m sample measurement at the start of August, followed by a decrease in difference between filtered and unfiltered measurements. September 20th measurement at 10m shows a markedly larger difference with filtration.
  • 20. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 20 ~ The time scale of alkalinity changes shows a different situation at two depths. Filtration at 2m up to end of August, resulted in larger differences in alkalinity than at 10m. This trend reversed at the end of August. September 20th measurement at 10m shows significantly greater difference in alkalinity, similar to difference observed in pH measurements. This difference is possibly due to greatest accumulation of glacial clay in the epilimnion at this time. DISCUSION Meteorology, Stratification and Heat Budgets The analysis of Flakevatn temperature records from 2004 and 2005 shows two drastically different situations. The Poland and Canada model for predicting the thermocline position based on lake morphometric characteristics, anticipates the thermocline in Flakevatn at 5.1 to 9.9m depth. 2005 was a significantly colder year with common isothermous conditions due to water mass being below 4°C. Recurrent winds and probably night frosts would contribute to this interchange between stratified and unstratified water column. Year 2004, similar to year 1933, was a warm year with stable stratification developing in mid august. It would be safe to conclude that Flakevatn is a cold monomictic lake during ‘warm’ years. Finse area meterological records show that the monthly temperature trends have stayed more or less the same over 100 years. In this investigation the mean temperatures of each stratum are obtained from two temperature measurements at the borderline of strata. Calculating the mean temperature of each successive stratum is done by using a lower borderline temperature measurement. This practice introduces error when the temperature is rapidly declining within water column (Birge 1914). Annual heat budget for Flakevatn has been overestimated first in the use of low number of strata for reduced thickness heat budget calculation and second, in the use of too large of an ice cover thickness in determining winter heat budget. Determining winter heat budget appears to be more problematic than evaluating summer heat budget. In the winter months, Flakevatn has a definitive variability in temperatures from 20-75m. The use of a single layer for 20-75m depth as dictated by three-layer method overvalues the winter heat budget in 2004 and 2005 at around 3000 cal cm-2 . In the summer months, Flakevatn has a uniform temperature profile from 20-75m. The differences are measured in hundredths of a degree, allowing for small difference between summer heat budget estimates using either 3 or 6 layer method.
  • 21. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 21 ~ The composition of ice cover is the largest part of the Flakevatn’s winter heat budget overestimation. By using 150 cm thickness of ice, Flakevatn’s winter heat budget was estimated to be 9000 cal cm-2 larger than it is likely to be. Both years 2004 and 2005 showed a varied composition of ice cover with combined thickness being around 40cm. Furthermore, the temperature trends over past century have shown a relatively the same monthly temperature averages. This high mountain lake has been evaluated to have an annual heat budget of 15 673 cal cm-2 during ‘warm 2004 year’ and 13074 cal cm-2 during ‘cold 2005 year’. It would be safe to expect that Flakevatn would continue to have annual heat budget values in between those two values. Glacial ooze events, changes in water chemistry and silica content Glacial ooze events at Flakevatn have been recorded twice in four expeditions (August 1933, June 1965, 2004 and 2005). These are late summer events. Influx of glacial ooze is dependant on the melt water washing off the deposits of freshly crushed bedrock beneath the glacier. In addition to this, precipitation could wash off the deposits of ground bedrock from former glacier locations. In general, the temperature has been lower during summer months (June, July and August), seen in Graph 14 (Appendix 1) 2005 than in 2004 and 1933 by 0.7°C and 0.9°C, respectively. The precipitation in winter months (October-March) has been lower in 2003- 2004 and in 1932-1934, than it was in 2004-2005. On average, these differences were 42mm and 79mm, respectively. Glacial ooze events are dependant on the random chance of melt water encountering significant deposits of ground rock and carrying it off into the lake in a short period of time. It is likely that in 2005, most of the melt water came from the melting of snow cover. Snow cover was observed at Flakevatn in 2005 late into the summer season. Turbidity measurements have shown an upward trend with warming up, due to the snow melt and inputs of clay particles. Higher turbidity in September is due to highest inputs of eroded matter to the lake from surrounding tributaries. Filtration of the epilimnion water samples changed very little in conductivity but pH and alkalinity showed some visible changes with filtration. These changes were noted in the larger divergence of filtered samples pH and alkalinity curves from unfiltered samples later in the season. The statistical significance of these changes was correlated to the minerogenic silica or quantities of glacial ooze. Water samples showed a rise in biogenic silica in the early august Total silica or mainly minerogenic silica at 2m experienced a decrease with formation and reformation of thermocline while at 10m the highest recorded levels were in mid September. The pH values of
  • 22. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 22 ~ epilimnion waters throughout 2005 were measured to be around 6.5 which is drastically different from Strøm 1934 late August pH of 8.2. It is possible that Flakevatn experiences alkaline pH only during glacial ooze events. From conductivity, pH and alkalinity, only alkalinity was found to have a statistically significant relationship with minerogenic silica. There is a suggestion that alkalinity is correlated with glacial ooze quantities and that this is not just a chance event, although low number of samples and more conservative statistical testing showed that support for this relationship is not large enough to confidently claim so. CONCLUSION Thanks to researching information for these essay I found that a lake is not only water, fish, etc, the lake has a lot of characteristics and per this one we can differentiate among all types, and ecology help us with experiments but is still a recent science, so there are not to much knowledge about all this and we have to improve more searching why and how all lake characteristic work, and we will find the relation between the lake and all that is inside it. We can see to in these experiments (more in the second one) that methods from before have been improved rapidly, now we can take the correct results but still we need improve more to can reach our goal, the knowledge of all the things that are surround us.
  • 23. WARM AND COLD MONOMICTIC LAKES Francisco Muñoz Maestre ~ 23 ~ BIBLIOGRAPHY Limnological exploration of Flakevatn, a high mountain lake in Central Norway. Annual heat budget and silica content, by Nemanja Jevremovic (2006) Limnology of an Equatorial High Mountain Lake in Ecuador, Lago San Pablo by GUNTER GUNKEL (2000) Stratification of lakes by Bertram Boehrer and Martin Schultze (2008) Water Quality Assessments - A Guide to Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environmental Monitoring - Second Edition, edited by Deborah Chapman © 1992, 1996 UNESCO/WHO/UNEP (Chapter 7* - Lakes prepared by R. Thomas, M. Meybeck and A. Beim) A revised classification of laked based on mixing, Williams M. Lewis Jr. (1983). http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7019/6587163387_44fbf3e8d9_z.jpg (Blue lake, in the cover) http://www.hidricosargentina.gov.ar/images/indice_lagos/lacar1.jpg (second picture in the cover) http://www.apfanews.com/media/lrgeafp121-canadian-rockies-from- the-air.jpg (Glaciar lake) http://lawr.ucdavis.edu/faculty/gpast/tin.jpg (Volcanic lake) http://enjoyequator.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/sp-see- 5lagosanpablo.jpg (San Pablo lake) http://folk.uio.no/dagkl/Image214-FinsevatnNett.jpg (Flakevatn lake without snow) http://www.finse.uio.no/research/projects/life-science/lake- finsevatn/pictures/DSC_5930_Finsevatn091009_W400.gif?vrtx=thumbnail (Flakevatn lake with snow)

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