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Environmental Studies
&
Disaster Management
Somanath Sarvade
Assistant Professor (Agroforestry)
College of Agriculture Balaghat
E-mail: somanath553@jnkvv.org
Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya,
Jabalpur
Water resources
• Water is a very important natural resource.
• The water cycle, through evaporation and precipitation, maintains
hydrological systems which form rivers and lakes and supports a
variety of aquatic ecosystems.
• Water covers 70% of the Earth’s surface, but only 3% of this is fresh
water.
• Of this, 2% is present as polar ice caps and only 1% is usable water in
rivers, lakes and subsoil aquifers.
• At a global level, 70% of the water is used for agriculture, about 25%
for industry, and only 5% for domestic use.
• India uses 90% of its water for agriculture, 7% for industry, and 3% for
domestic use.
• March 22nd is World water Day.
Uses of water
• Water is the raw material in the process of photosynthesis of green plants.
• It protects from dehydration of all terrestrial life.
• It influences global ecology, i.e., weather, global climate; flora and fauna.
• Water is linked with social, economic, political and ecological intricacies.
• Water is required for several purposes such as drinking, bathing, washing,
agricultural production, and industrial production, generation of hydro-power,
and abatement of pollution, navigation, recreation and maintenance of eco-
systems
Rainfall: India can be broadly divided into 20 ecological regions.
• The vast ecological diversity of this country is reflected in the diversity in
available water resources.
• With an average annual rainfall of 1170 mm, India is one of the wettest
countries in the world.
• However, there are large variations in the seasonal and geographical
distribution of rainfall over the country.
• At one extreme are areas like Mawsynram, in the northeast, which is
drenched each year with 11,872 mm of rainfall, and at the other extreme
are places like Jaisalmer, in the west, which receives barely average
210 mm of annual rainfall.
• Though the average rainfall is adequate, nearly three-quarters of the rain
pours down in less than 120 days, from June to September.
Sources Of Water
https://www.nbsslup.in/assets/uploads/clinks/Delineating%20Agro-Ecological%20Regions.pdf
Groundwater:
• India's groundwater resources are almost ten times its annual rainfall. According
to the Central Groundwater Board of the Government of India, the country has
an annual exploitable groundwater potential of 26.5 million hectare-meters.
• Nearly 85% of currently exploited groundwater is used only for irrigation.
Groundwater accounts for as much as 70-80% of the value of farm produce
attributable to irrigation.
• Besides, groundwater is now the source of four-fifths of the domestic water
supply in rural areas, and around half that of urban and industrial areas.
• However, according to the International Irrigation Management Institute (IIMI),
the water table almost everywhere in India is falling at between one to three
meters every year.
• Furthermore, the IIMI estimates that India is using its underground water
resources at least twice as fast they are being replenished.
• Already, excessive ground water mining has caused land subsidence in several
regions of Central Uttar Pradesh.
Surface water:
• There are 14 major, 44 medium and 55 minor river basins in the country.
• The major river basins constitute about 83-84% of the total drainage area.
• This, along with the medium river basins, accounts for 91% of the
country's total drainage.
• India has the largest irrigation infrastructure in the world, but the irrigation
efficiencies are low, at around 35%.
EnviStats-India 2018: Environmental Accounts
S.NO
PRESENT DAY
NAME
ALTERNATE NAME
1 Indus Sindhu (Ancient Name)
2 Jhelum
Vitasta (Ancient Name); Hydaspes (Greek
Name )
3 Chenab Asikini (Ancient Namre); Chandrabhagha
4 Ravi Parusni (Ancient Name); Airavati
5 Beas
Vipasa (Ancient Name); Hyphasis (Greek
Name)
6 Sutlej Sutudri (Ancient Name); Zarodros (Greek Name)
7 Brahamputra Dihang; Tsangpo (Tibetan)
8 Luni Sagarmati
9 Betwa Vetravati
Alternate/ancient/greek names of the rivers
https://lawctopus.com/clatalogue/all-you-need-to-know-about-
indian-rivers-for-clat-2020-general-knowledge/
S.NO RIVER PLACE OF ORIGIN
1 Ganga Gangotri (Uttrakhand)
2 Indus Mansarovar (Tibet)
3 Narmada Maikal hills, Amarkantak (MP)
4 Tapi/ Tapti Satpura Range, Betul (MP)
5 Mahanadi Nagri Town (Chattisgarh)
6 Brahamputra Chemayungdung (Tibet)
7 Sutlej Mt. Kailash (Tibet)
8 Beas Rohtang Pass (Himachal Pradesh)
9 Godavri Nasik (Maharashtra)
10 Krishna Mahabaleshwar (Maharashtra)
11 Cauvery Brahmagiri Hills, Coorg (Karnataka)
12 Sabarmati Udaipur, Aravalli Hills (Rajasthan)
13 Ravi Chamba (Himachal Pradesh)
14 Penner Nandi Hills, Chickballapur (Karnataka)
RIVER AND THEIR PLACES OF ORIGIN
https://lawctopus.com/clatalogue/all-you-need-to-know-about-
indian-rivers-for-clat-2020-general-knowledge/
Inland Water resources of India
EnviStats-India 2018: Environmental Accounts
River
Basin
Water
Availability
EnviStats-India
2018:
Environmental
Accounts
Percentage of geographical area in basin
EnviStats-India 2018: Environmental Accounts
Projected Water Demand in India
EnviStats-India 2018: Environmental Accounts
Fresh water crisis
• On global scale water availability is not a problem itself, but it’s availability in
right form, right time and right place is a problem. Irregularities in duration
and intensity of rainfall cause floods and droughts. Out of the total water
reserves of the world, about 97% is salty water (marine) and only 3% is
fresh water.
• Due to increased demands overuse of groundwater for drinking, irrigation
and domestic purposes has lead to rapid depletion of groundwater in various
regions leading to lowering of water table.
• Pollution of many of the groundwater aquifers has made them unfit for
consumption. Rivers and streams have long been used for discharging the
wastes. due to industrialization river water are being polluted because
industrial residues are pushed into the river. Civilizations have grown and
flourished on the banks of rivers, but being over populated due to fast
growth are polluting the natural resources of water.
Problems associated with water resources
These are some problems associated with use of water
• Water Scarcity (precipitation/evapotranspiration balance, temporal availability, per
capita availability)
• Floods and droughts (spatio-temporal distribution; regular floods related to heavy
winter or spring rains, increasing damage level due to shifting land use (settlements in
flood zones) recurrent summer droughts coinciding with peak demand periods for
agriculture and tourism)
• Groundwater availability and quality (aquifer size and access, yield, saltwater
intrusion, pollution of shallow aquifers)
• Watershed degradation (deforestation, land use, increasing impervious (sealed)
areas due to urbanization the main concern here is land use change (primarily
deforestation and urbanization) and its effects on runoff patterns (flooding) and water
quality including erosion/sediments with subsequent problems such as reservoir
siltation/capacity loss)
• Coastal interaction (salinity intrusion in groundwater and estuaries, coastal pollution
due to pollution runoff)
Floods
• Floods occur most commonly when water from heavy rainfall,
melting ice or snow or combination of these, exceeds the
carrying capacity of the receiving river system.
• During floods, the river carries fertile sediment and deposits it on
the level land called as flood plains which are fertile. Often these
become areas for human settlement.
• In India floods bring much havoc causing loss of life and property
each year. Due to floods, the plains have become silted with mud
and sand, thus affecting the cultivable land areas.
• Extinction of civilization in some coastal areas is mainly due to
floods. In Orissa, soon after the Super cyclone of 2001, the
entire sea coast was adversely affected by high sea tides,
flooding the cropped area and depositing salts on good fertile
soil.
• Flooding can be controlled by building dams upstream.
Droughts
• It is defined as an extended period – season, a year, several years – of
deficient rainfall relative to the statistical multi-year average for the region.
• Lack of rainfall leads to inadequate water required by plants, animals and
human beings.
• A drought leads to other diseases, namely food insecurity, famine,
malnutrition, epidemics and displacement of populations from one area to
another.
Types of drought
Meteorological drought - It is a situation when there is a significant
decrease from climatologically expected and seasonally normal rainfall
over a wide area.
Hydrological drought - Meteorological drought, if prolonged would
result in hydrologic drought with marked depletion of surface water and
consequent drying up of reservoirs, lakes, streams and rivers and also
lowering in ground water table.
Agricultural drought - It occurs when soil moisture and rainfall are
inadequate during the growing season to support healthy crop growth
to maturity causing extreme crop stress, (even wilting) and drastic fall
in yields.
Related to agricultural drought we
may have
(i) atmospheric drought which is frequently caused by low air
humidity and hot dry desiccating winds.
(ii) soil drought, which occurs when soil moisture lags behind
evapotranspiration. This type of drought is usually gradual and
progressive and hence plants are able to adjust to increased
moisture stress.
Consequences of drought
Desertification: It is the process by which an area becomes even more barren, less
capable of retaining vegetation and progresses towards becoming a desert. This is
often a cause of long term disasters. Deforestation, overgrazing etc. bring about
changes in rainfall, temperature, wind velocity etc. and also lead to soil erosion. Such
changes then lead to desertification of the area. The chief causes of desertification are
 Climatic factors
 Human factors: population growth, increased density, reduced nomadism and
loss of grazing lands
 Interactions between climate and culture.
Famine: A famine is a widespread scarcity of food that may apply to any faunal
species, which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional malnutrition,
starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality.
It is a catastrophic food shortage affecting large numbers of people due to climatic,
environmental and socio-economic reasons. The cause of the famine may produce
great migration to less affected areas.
Over utilization of water:
• With the growth of human population, there is an increasing need
for larger amounts of water to fulfill a variety of basic needs.
• Depletion of ground water is due to the withdrawal of water at a rate
far exceeding the natural recharge rate.
• Demand for water is growing by 2.4% per year. At present 28
countries are facing water shortage problem.
• Both surface and ground water resources are utilized for drinking,
agriculture, industrial and power generation.
• Floods, drought, improper use, pollution and disease transmission
are the problems related to water.
Benefits and disadvantages of dams
1. Hydroelectricity generation
2. Year round water supply to ensure higher productivity
3. Equal water distribution by transferring water from area of excess to area of
deficit
4. Helps flood control and protects soil
5. Assure irrigation during dry periods
6. River valley projects provide inland water navigation ,employment
opportunities and can be used to develop fish hatcheries and nurseries
7. River valley projects have tremendous potential for economic upliftment and
will help to raise the standard of living and can help to improve the quality of life
Water is a precious resource and its scarcity is increasing at global level.
There is a pressure to utilize surface water resources efficiently for
different purposes. According to World Commission on Dam Report -
2001 there are 45000 large dams spread over 140 countries
Major benefits of dams
1. Submergence of large areas may lead to loss of fertile soil and
displacement of tribal people
2. Salt left behind due to evaporation increase the salinity of river water
and makes it unusable when reaches down stream
3. Siltation and sedimentation of reservoirs not only makes dams use
less but also is responsible for loss of valuable nutrients
4. Loss of non-forest land leads to loss of flora and fauna
5. Changes in fisheries and the spawning grounds
6. Stagnation and water logging near reservoir leads to breeding of
vectors and spread of vector-borne diseases
7. Growth of aquatic weeds may lead to microclimatic changes.
Disadvantages/problems
• The impacts caused by construction of dams and reservoirs include changes
in the microclimate, loss of vegetable cover, soil erosion, variation in water
table and enhanced seismic activities due to pressure of water.
• In hilly tracts, blasting operations, for road construction can cause
considerable damage to the environment through loosening of hillsides and
resultant landslides, sedimentation of reservoirs, drying up of spring and flash
floods.
• Creation of new settlements for the workmen and rehabilitation of project
oustees in the watershed areas are becoming major problem.
• In many places, dams almost eliminate sediment from rivers downstream,
causing serious problems in the plains where farmers need sediments to
fertilize their fields.
• As a result of the clearing of vast forest land upstream, huge quantities of soil
are washed into the river dams.
• All these factors contribute to siltation rates.
Case study
• Due to Sardar Sarovar project, about 245 villages will be
submerged together in Gujarat and M.P.
• Bodhghat project on Indravati River in M.P. will destroy teak and
sal forests, and spell doom for the last surviving wild buffaloes.
• Due to Narmada valley project 13,744 hectares of forest and
11,318 hectares of cultivated land will be sub-merged and 150,000
people will be displaced.
• Similarly Koel Karo project in Bihar and Tehri dam in Uttarakhand
will be displacing lakhs of people.
Water disputes
• Jordan River basin water is shared by Israel, Syria, Jordon and
Lebanon.
• Nile river water is shared by Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya,
Rwanda, Burindi, Uganda, and Tanzania.
• India and Bangladesh had disputes due to construction of barrage
across Ganges on Hooghly or Hugli .
• Maharashtra, Karnataka and A.P. had disputes due to Krishna river
water.
• Water is a key resource in all economic activities ranging from agriculture
to industry.
• Water is available in two forms i.e. surface water and ground water.
• Changes in climate at a global level had lead to floods and droughts.
• Desertification and famine are the two major problems arise due to
drought.
• Demand of water is increasing day by day and widening the gap between
demand and supply.
• Construction of dams is taken up to ensure a year round water supply but
they also waste large quantities of water due to evaporation and through
seepage into porous bed rocks.
• Water logging and salinity are arising due to the construction of dams.
• Another serious problem is the displacement of population to a larger
extent especially tribes from the homeland and their eventual influx into
urban areas, almost as refugees.
S.N
O
DISPUTE STATES INVOLVED
1 Krishna Water Dispute
Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka, Maharashtra
2
Mahadayi/Mandovi Water
Dispute
Goa, Karnataka,
Maharashtra
3
Vansadhara Water
Dispute
Odisha, Andhra Pradesh
4 Cauvery Water Dispute
Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu,
Karnataka, Kerela
5 Babhali Barrage issues
Maharashtra, Andhra
Pradesh
6 Mulla Periyar Dam issue Tamil Nadu, Kerela
Major river water disputes over the years
and the states involved
https://lawctopus.com/clatalogue/all-you-need-to-know-about-
indian-rivers-for-clat-2020-general-knowledge/
Thank You

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Lecture 3 0ppt Water resources

  • 1. Environmental Studies & Disaster Management Somanath Sarvade Assistant Professor (Agroforestry) College of Agriculture Balaghat E-mail: somanath553@jnkvv.org Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya, Jabalpur
  • 2. Water resources • Water is a very important natural resource. • The water cycle, through evaporation and precipitation, maintains hydrological systems which form rivers and lakes and supports a variety of aquatic ecosystems. • Water covers 70% of the Earth’s surface, but only 3% of this is fresh water. • Of this, 2% is present as polar ice caps and only 1% is usable water in rivers, lakes and subsoil aquifers. • At a global level, 70% of the water is used for agriculture, about 25% for industry, and only 5% for domestic use. • India uses 90% of its water for agriculture, 7% for industry, and 3% for domestic use. • March 22nd is World water Day.
  • 3. Uses of water • Water is the raw material in the process of photosynthesis of green plants. • It protects from dehydration of all terrestrial life. • It influences global ecology, i.e., weather, global climate; flora and fauna. • Water is linked with social, economic, political and ecological intricacies. • Water is required for several purposes such as drinking, bathing, washing, agricultural production, and industrial production, generation of hydro-power, and abatement of pollution, navigation, recreation and maintenance of eco- systems
  • 4. Rainfall: India can be broadly divided into 20 ecological regions. • The vast ecological diversity of this country is reflected in the diversity in available water resources. • With an average annual rainfall of 1170 mm, India is one of the wettest countries in the world. • However, there are large variations in the seasonal and geographical distribution of rainfall over the country. • At one extreme are areas like Mawsynram, in the northeast, which is drenched each year with 11,872 mm of rainfall, and at the other extreme are places like Jaisalmer, in the west, which receives barely average 210 mm of annual rainfall. • Though the average rainfall is adequate, nearly three-quarters of the rain pours down in less than 120 days, from June to September. Sources Of Water https://www.nbsslup.in/assets/uploads/clinks/Delineating%20Agro-Ecological%20Regions.pdf
  • 5. Groundwater: • India's groundwater resources are almost ten times its annual rainfall. According to the Central Groundwater Board of the Government of India, the country has an annual exploitable groundwater potential of 26.5 million hectare-meters. • Nearly 85% of currently exploited groundwater is used only for irrigation. Groundwater accounts for as much as 70-80% of the value of farm produce attributable to irrigation. • Besides, groundwater is now the source of four-fifths of the domestic water supply in rural areas, and around half that of urban and industrial areas. • However, according to the International Irrigation Management Institute (IIMI), the water table almost everywhere in India is falling at between one to three meters every year. • Furthermore, the IIMI estimates that India is using its underground water resources at least twice as fast they are being replenished. • Already, excessive ground water mining has caused land subsidence in several regions of Central Uttar Pradesh.
  • 6. Surface water: • There are 14 major, 44 medium and 55 minor river basins in the country. • The major river basins constitute about 83-84% of the total drainage area. • This, along with the medium river basins, accounts for 91% of the country's total drainage. • India has the largest irrigation infrastructure in the world, but the irrigation efficiencies are low, at around 35%.
  • 8. S.NO PRESENT DAY NAME ALTERNATE NAME 1 Indus Sindhu (Ancient Name) 2 Jhelum Vitasta (Ancient Name); Hydaspes (Greek Name ) 3 Chenab Asikini (Ancient Namre); Chandrabhagha 4 Ravi Parusni (Ancient Name); Airavati 5 Beas Vipasa (Ancient Name); Hyphasis (Greek Name) 6 Sutlej Sutudri (Ancient Name); Zarodros (Greek Name) 7 Brahamputra Dihang; Tsangpo (Tibetan) 8 Luni Sagarmati 9 Betwa Vetravati Alternate/ancient/greek names of the rivers https://lawctopus.com/clatalogue/all-you-need-to-know-about- indian-rivers-for-clat-2020-general-knowledge/
  • 9. S.NO RIVER PLACE OF ORIGIN 1 Ganga Gangotri (Uttrakhand) 2 Indus Mansarovar (Tibet) 3 Narmada Maikal hills, Amarkantak (MP) 4 Tapi/ Tapti Satpura Range, Betul (MP) 5 Mahanadi Nagri Town (Chattisgarh) 6 Brahamputra Chemayungdung (Tibet) 7 Sutlej Mt. Kailash (Tibet) 8 Beas Rohtang Pass (Himachal Pradesh) 9 Godavri Nasik (Maharashtra) 10 Krishna Mahabaleshwar (Maharashtra) 11 Cauvery Brahmagiri Hills, Coorg (Karnataka) 12 Sabarmati Udaipur, Aravalli Hills (Rajasthan) 13 Ravi Chamba (Himachal Pradesh) 14 Penner Nandi Hills, Chickballapur (Karnataka) RIVER AND THEIR PLACES OF ORIGIN https://lawctopus.com/clatalogue/all-you-need-to-know-about- indian-rivers-for-clat-2020-general-knowledge/
  • 10. Inland Water resources of India EnviStats-India 2018: Environmental Accounts
  • 12. Percentage of geographical area in basin EnviStats-India 2018: Environmental Accounts
  • 13. Projected Water Demand in India EnviStats-India 2018: Environmental Accounts
  • 14. Fresh water crisis • On global scale water availability is not a problem itself, but it’s availability in right form, right time and right place is a problem. Irregularities in duration and intensity of rainfall cause floods and droughts. Out of the total water reserves of the world, about 97% is salty water (marine) and only 3% is fresh water. • Due to increased demands overuse of groundwater for drinking, irrigation and domestic purposes has lead to rapid depletion of groundwater in various regions leading to lowering of water table. • Pollution of many of the groundwater aquifers has made them unfit for consumption. Rivers and streams have long been used for discharging the wastes. due to industrialization river water are being polluted because industrial residues are pushed into the river. Civilizations have grown and flourished on the banks of rivers, but being over populated due to fast growth are polluting the natural resources of water.
  • 15. Problems associated with water resources These are some problems associated with use of water • Water Scarcity (precipitation/evapotranspiration balance, temporal availability, per capita availability) • Floods and droughts (spatio-temporal distribution; regular floods related to heavy winter or spring rains, increasing damage level due to shifting land use (settlements in flood zones) recurrent summer droughts coinciding with peak demand periods for agriculture and tourism) • Groundwater availability and quality (aquifer size and access, yield, saltwater intrusion, pollution of shallow aquifers) • Watershed degradation (deforestation, land use, increasing impervious (sealed) areas due to urbanization the main concern here is land use change (primarily deforestation and urbanization) and its effects on runoff patterns (flooding) and water quality including erosion/sediments with subsequent problems such as reservoir siltation/capacity loss) • Coastal interaction (salinity intrusion in groundwater and estuaries, coastal pollution due to pollution runoff)
  • 16. Floods • Floods occur most commonly when water from heavy rainfall, melting ice or snow or combination of these, exceeds the carrying capacity of the receiving river system. • During floods, the river carries fertile sediment and deposits it on the level land called as flood plains which are fertile. Often these become areas for human settlement. • In India floods bring much havoc causing loss of life and property each year. Due to floods, the plains have become silted with mud and sand, thus affecting the cultivable land areas. • Extinction of civilization in some coastal areas is mainly due to floods. In Orissa, soon after the Super cyclone of 2001, the entire sea coast was adversely affected by high sea tides, flooding the cropped area and depositing salts on good fertile soil. • Flooding can be controlled by building dams upstream.
  • 17. Droughts • It is defined as an extended period – season, a year, several years – of deficient rainfall relative to the statistical multi-year average for the region. • Lack of rainfall leads to inadequate water required by plants, animals and human beings. • A drought leads to other diseases, namely food insecurity, famine, malnutrition, epidemics and displacement of populations from one area to another.
  • 18. Types of drought Meteorological drought - It is a situation when there is a significant decrease from climatologically expected and seasonally normal rainfall over a wide area. Hydrological drought - Meteorological drought, if prolonged would result in hydrologic drought with marked depletion of surface water and consequent drying up of reservoirs, lakes, streams and rivers and also lowering in ground water table. Agricultural drought - It occurs when soil moisture and rainfall are inadequate during the growing season to support healthy crop growth to maturity causing extreme crop stress, (even wilting) and drastic fall in yields.
  • 19. Related to agricultural drought we may have (i) atmospheric drought which is frequently caused by low air humidity and hot dry desiccating winds. (ii) soil drought, which occurs when soil moisture lags behind evapotranspiration. This type of drought is usually gradual and progressive and hence plants are able to adjust to increased moisture stress.
  • 20. Consequences of drought Desertification: It is the process by which an area becomes even more barren, less capable of retaining vegetation and progresses towards becoming a desert. This is often a cause of long term disasters. Deforestation, overgrazing etc. bring about changes in rainfall, temperature, wind velocity etc. and also lead to soil erosion. Such changes then lead to desertification of the area. The chief causes of desertification are  Climatic factors  Human factors: population growth, increased density, reduced nomadism and loss of grazing lands  Interactions between climate and culture. Famine: A famine is a widespread scarcity of food that may apply to any faunal species, which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality. It is a catastrophic food shortage affecting large numbers of people due to climatic, environmental and socio-economic reasons. The cause of the famine may produce great migration to less affected areas.
  • 21. Over utilization of water: • With the growth of human population, there is an increasing need for larger amounts of water to fulfill a variety of basic needs. • Depletion of ground water is due to the withdrawal of water at a rate far exceeding the natural recharge rate. • Demand for water is growing by 2.4% per year. At present 28 countries are facing water shortage problem. • Both surface and ground water resources are utilized for drinking, agriculture, industrial and power generation. • Floods, drought, improper use, pollution and disease transmission are the problems related to water.
  • 22. Benefits and disadvantages of dams 1. Hydroelectricity generation 2. Year round water supply to ensure higher productivity 3. Equal water distribution by transferring water from area of excess to area of deficit 4. Helps flood control and protects soil 5. Assure irrigation during dry periods 6. River valley projects provide inland water navigation ,employment opportunities and can be used to develop fish hatcheries and nurseries 7. River valley projects have tremendous potential for economic upliftment and will help to raise the standard of living and can help to improve the quality of life Water is a precious resource and its scarcity is increasing at global level. There is a pressure to utilize surface water resources efficiently for different purposes. According to World Commission on Dam Report - 2001 there are 45000 large dams spread over 140 countries Major benefits of dams
  • 23. 1. Submergence of large areas may lead to loss of fertile soil and displacement of tribal people 2. Salt left behind due to evaporation increase the salinity of river water and makes it unusable when reaches down stream 3. Siltation and sedimentation of reservoirs not only makes dams use less but also is responsible for loss of valuable nutrients 4. Loss of non-forest land leads to loss of flora and fauna 5. Changes in fisheries and the spawning grounds 6. Stagnation and water logging near reservoir leads to breeding of vectors and spread of vector-borne diseases 7. Growth of aquatic weeds may lead to microclimatic changes. Disadvantages/problems
  • 24. • The impacts caused by construction of dams and reservoirs include changes in the microclimate, loss of vegetable cover, soil erosion, variation in water table and enhanced seismic activities due to pressure of water. • In hilly tracts, blasting operations, for road construction can cause considerable damage to the environment through loosening of hillsides and resultant landslides, sedimentation of reservoirs, drying up of spring and flash floods. • Creation of new settlements for the workmen and rehabilitation of project oustees in the watershed areas are becoming major problem. • In many places, dams almost eliminate sediment from rivers downstream, causing serious problems in the plains where farmers need sediments to fertilize their fields. • As a result of the clearing of vast forest land upstream, huge quantities of soil are washed into the river dams. • All these factors contribute to siltation rates.
  • 25. Case study • Due to Sardar Sarovar project, about 245 villages will be submerged together in Gujarat and M.P. • Bodhghat project on Indravati River in M.P. will destroy teak and sal forests, and spell doom for the last surviving wild buffaloes. • Due to Narmada valley project 13,744 hectares of forest and 11,318 hectares of cultivated land will be sub-merged and 150,000 people will be displaced. • Similarly Koel Karo project in Bihar and Tehri dam in Uttarakhand will be displacing lakhs of people.
  • 26. Water disputes • Jordan River basin water is shared by Israel, Syria, Jordon and Lebanon. • Nile river water is shared by Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Burindi, Uganda, and Tanzania. • India and Bangladesh had disputes due to construction of barrage across Ganges on Hooghly or Hugli . • Maharashtra, Karnataka and A.P. had disputes due to Krishna river water.
  • 27. • Water is a key resource in all economic activities ranging from agriculture to industry. • Water is available in two forms i.e. surface water and ground water. • Changes in climate at a global level had lead to floods and droughts. • Desertification and famine are the two major problems arise due to drought. • Demand of water is increasing day by day and widening the gap between demand and supply. • Construction of dams is taken up to ensure a year round water supply but they also waste large quantities of water due to evaporation and through seepage into porous bed rocks. • Water logging and salinity are arising due to the construction of dams. • Another serious problem is the displacement of population to a larger extent especially tribes from the homeland and their eventual influx into urban areas, almost as refugees.
  • 28. S.N O DISPUTE STATES INVOLVED 1 Krishna Water Dispute Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra 2 Mahadayi/Mandovi Water Dispute Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra 3 Vansadhara Water Dispute Odisha, Andhra Pradesh 4 Cauvery Water Dispute Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerela 5 Babhali Barrage issues Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh 6 Mulla Periyar Dam issue Tamil Nadu, Kerela Major river water disputes over the years and the states involved https://lawctopus.com/clatalogue/all-you-need-to-know-about- indian-rivers-for-clat-2020-general-knowledge/