CHAPTER ONE CREATING RESPONSIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
Four Beliefs <ul><li>All individuals are capable of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The teaching talent to help all students l...
Students at Risk for School Failure <ul><li>Students with disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special education </li></ul><...
CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS AT RISK FOR SCHOOL FAILURE <ul><li>Cognitive and metacognitive Deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Low ...
INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS (IEP) <ul><li>Individualized Instruction – Instruction that enables the student to wor...
Categories of Disabilities that Qualify for Special Education <ul><li>specific learning disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>spe...
IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act <ul><li>4 Basic Educational Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Non-discriminatory a...
INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS <ul><li>Must be designed and implemented for each student (age 3 through 21) with a di...
2004 Reauthorization of IDEA IEP must state the following: <ul><li>PLOP (present levels of performance) </li></ul><ul><li>...
2004 Reauthorization of IDEA (continued) <ul><li>Individual accommodations  </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons the child cannot par...
Public Law 99-457 <ul><li>PL 99-457 provides an  individualized family service plan  (IFSP) for infants and toddlers (birt...
COMPONENTS OF AN IEP <ul><li>Levels of performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum-based measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><...
PARTICIPANTS IN IEP MEETINGS <ul><li>The law specifies who must participate in IEP meetings: </li></ul><ul><li>A represent...
PARENTAL PARTICIPATION Specific Steps: <ul><li>Notify parents early enough. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule meeting at a mutual...
COMPUTER GENERATED IEPS <ul><li>Create new IEPs </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor procedural safeguards </li></ul><ul><li>Update r...
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES AND RELATED PRACTICES <ul><li>Least Restrictive Environment </li></ul><ul><li>According to IDEA, the ...
LRE Continuum of Services <ul><li>3 Major Categories </li></ul><ul><li>General Class </li></ul><ul><li>Special Class </li>...
CONTINUUM OF EDUCATIONAL PLACEMENTS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>The General Education Classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special materials and consulta...
REINTEGRATION OF STUDENTS <ul><li>Evaluate each student’s needs and progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that instruction is...
MOVEMENT FROM MAINSTREAMING TO INCLUSION <ul><li>Rationale for Regular Education Initiative (REI) </li></ul><ul><li>Ration...
SUCCESSFUL INCLUSION  AND SUCCESSFUL ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS WITH MILD DISABILITIES <ul><li>Teachers Teaching Tea...
SUCCESSFUL INCLUSION  AND SUCCESSFUL ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT (continued) <ul><li>The Special Education or At-Risk Teacher </l...
Teacher-Parent Collaboration <ul><ul><li>Students with learning problems are more successful when parents and teachers wor...
INSTRUCTIONAL VARIABLES RELATED TO STUDENT LEARNING <ul><li>Focus on time for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure high rates...
Dr. Hiam Ginott (Milwaukee Public Schools, 1990, p. 3 reminds teachers of the need to recreate caring environments: <ul><l...
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SPED420_ch1_lect

  1. 1. CHAPTER ONE CREATING RESPONSIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
  2. 2. Four Beliefs <ul><li>All individuals are capable of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The teaching talent to help all students learn according to their potential exists in most schools today. </li></ul><ul><li>The knowledge gap between what is known about effective teaching and what routinely is practiced in classrooms is enormous. </li></ul><ul><li>All students need a safe, caring, and positive learning environment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Students at Risk for School Failure <ul><li>Students with disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early intervening services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students from cultural and linguistically diverse backgrounds </li></ul>
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS AT RISK FOR SCHOOL FAILURE <ul><li>Cognitive and metacognitive Deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Low academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Poor memory </li></ul><ul><li>Attention problems and hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Poor social skills </li></ul><ul><li>Poor self concept </li></ul><ul><li>Poor motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Debilitating mood states </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive behavior deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Disruptive behavior </li></ul>
  5. 5. INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS (IEP) <ul><li>Individualized Instruction – Instruction that enables the student to work on appropriate tasks or content over time under conditions that motivate. </li></ul><ul><li>↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Students receive daily instruction tailored to their educational needs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Categories of Disabilities that Qualify for Special Education <ul><li>specific learning disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>speech or language impairments </li></ul><ul><li>mental retardation </li></ul><ul><li>emotional disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>multiple disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>hearing impairments </li></ul><ul><li>orthopedic impairments </li></ul><ul><li>other health impairments </li></ul><ul><li>visual impairments </li></ul><ul><li>autism </li></ul><ul><li>deaf-blindness </li></ul><ul><li>traumatic brain injury </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD—These students receive services under “other health impairments” or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. </li></ul>
  7. 7. IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act <ul><li>4 Basic Educational Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Non-discriminatory assessment of the parameters of the specific disability, with no single measure being the only criterion for evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to FAPE (free, appropriate public education) </li></ul><ul><li>Placement in the “least restrictive environment” </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of supplementary aid and services </li></ul>
  8. 8. INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS <ul><li>Must be designed and implemented for each student (age 3 through 21) with a disability. </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative intent is to serve three primary functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management: Planning tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication: Multidisciplinary team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability: Student progress </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 2004 Reauthorization of IDEA IEP must state the following: <ul><li>PLOP (present levels of performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Annual academic and functional goals </li></ul><ul><li>Special education and related services, supplementary aids and services, program modifications or supports for school personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Extent to which student will not participate with nondisabled children </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2004 Reauthorization of IDEA (continued) <ul><li>Individual accommodations </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons the child cannot participate in regular assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Projected date for the beginning of services, and frequency, location, and duration of services </li></ul><ul><li>Postsecondary goals based on transition assessments when the child is 16 years of age </li></ul>
  11. 11. Public Law 99-457 <ul><li>PL 99-457 provides an individualized family service plan (IFSP) for infants and toddlers (birth through age 2) with disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>The IFSP documents the early-intervention services required by these children and their families. </li></ul>
  12. 12. COMPONENTS OF AN IEP <ul><li>Levels of performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum-based measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annual goals </li></ul><ul><li>Short term objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Description of services </li></ul>
  13. 13. PARTICIPANTS IN IEP MEETINGS <ul><li>The law specifies who must participate in IEP meetings: </li></ul><ul><li>A representative of the school who is qualified to provide or supervise special education (other than child’s teacher) </li></ul><ul><li>The student’s teachers (special education and general education) </li></ul><ul><li>One or both parents </li></ul><ul><li>The student, when appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>An individual who can interpret the instructional implications of evaluation results </li></ul><ul><li>Others at the discretion of the parent or school personnel </li></ul>
  14. 14. PARENTAL PARTICIPATION Specific Steps: <ul><li>Notify parents early enough. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule meeting at a mutually agreed upon time and place. </li></ul><ul><li>If neither parent can attend, use other methods (phone calls or home visits) </li></ul><ul><li>If a meeting is held without a parent in attendance, document attempts to involve the parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a copy of the student’s IEP to the parent upon request. </li></ul><ul><li>** When appropriate, the student is to participate in the planning of his or her IEP. </li></ul>
  15. 15. COMPUTER GENERATED IEPS <ul><li>Create new IEPs </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor procedural safeguards </li></ul><ul><li>Update records </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze and interpret test data </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor academic progress </li></ul>
  16. 16. EDUCATIONAL SERVICES AND RELATED PRACTICES <ul><li>Least Restrictive Environment </li></ul><ul><li>According to IDEA, the term least restrictive environment (LRE) means that, to the extent appropriate, students with disabilities should be educated with students without disabilities. </li></ul>
  17. 17. LRE Continuum of Services <ul><li>3 Major Categories </li></ul><ul><li>General Class </li></ul><ul><li>Special Class </li></ul><ul><li>Special School </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Education (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004-05 school year, the percentages of students with learning disabilities ages 6-21 served in various educational environments were as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>52.1% in general education classrooms for most of the day </li></ul><ul><li>35.4% in separate rooms for 21-60% of the day </li></ul><ul><li>15.8% in separate classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>1.0% in separate environments </li></ul>
  18. 18. CONTINUUM OF EDUCATIONAL PLACEMENTS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
  19. 19. LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>The General Education Classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special materials and consultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Itinerant services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource room assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RTI </li></ul>
  20. 20. REINTEGRATION OF STUDENTS <ul><li>Evaluate each student’s needs and progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that instruction is based on scientific research. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure evidence-based instruction (RTI model) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider social consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach essential social skills. </li></ul>
  21. 21. MOVEMENT FROM MAINSTREAMING TO INCLUSION <ul><li>Rationale for Regular Education Initiative (REI) </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale for Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale for Continuum of Alterative Placements </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective on the Movement from Mainstreaming to Inclusion </li></ul>
  22. 22. SUCCESSFUL INCLUSION AND SUCCESSFUL ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS WITH MILD DISABILITIES <ul><li>Teachers Teaching Teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration between general education and special education teachers is required. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RTI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies for increasing consultation time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative consultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistance teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication skills for collaboration </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. SUCCESSFUL INCLUSION AND SUCCESSFUL ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT (continued) <ul><li>The Special Education or At-Risk Teacher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parent Teacher Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop culturally responsive relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent-teacher conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents as teachers </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Teacher-Parent Collaboration <ul><ul><li>Students with learning problems are more successful when parents and teachers work collaboratively. When parents are involved with their child’s education at school, the home becomes the supportive foundation that the student needs to face the daily challenges encountered (Mercer & Pullen, 2009). </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. INSTRUCTIONAL VARIABLES RELATED TO STUDENT LEARNING <ul><li>Focus on time for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure high rates of student success </li></ul><ul><li>Provide positive and supportive learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and maintain a motivational environment </li></ul>
  26. 26. Dr. Hiam Ginott (Milwaukee Public Schools, 1990, p. 3 reminds teachers of the need to recreate caring environments: <ul><li>I have come to the frightening conclusion that, </li></ul><ul><li>I am the decisive element in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>It is my personal approach that creates the climate. </li></ul><ul><li>It is my daily mood that makes the weather. </li></ul><ul><li>As a teacher I possess tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or joyous. </li></ul><ul><li>I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. </li></ul><ul><li>I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. </li></ul><ul><li>In all situations it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated, </li></ul><ul><li>And a child humanized or de-humanized. </li></ul>

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