THERE ARE A VARIETYOF PROGRAM OPTIONSTHAT PROVIDE SERVICESAND INTERVENTIONS TOINDIVIDUALS WITHDISABILITIES AS EARLY ASPOSSIBLE IN THE LEASTRESTRICTIVEENVIRONMENT.
2Service DeliveryPlacement Options• Regular Classroom• Resource Room• Full-Time Special Class• Community-Based Services• Special School• Residential School• Home/Hospital2
1. General Education (Only accommodations noadditional services) - Students with disabilitiesare educated with students without disabilities,to the maximum extent possible. 2. General Education (push in services) - Is acollaborative teaching model; the ResourceSpecialist or other therapists provides assistanceto students who require help accessing thecurriculum in the general education classroom.
3. Resource Specialist (pull out services) - Studentsare pulled out of the general education classroomby the Resource Specialist to receive academicinstruction in a small group.4. Special Day Class - Is an intensive educationalprogram designed for students who have specialneeds such as Autism, Learning Disabilities orMental Health issues when they cannot beappropriately educated in a general educationenvironment. The types of classes availableusually include mild, moderate or severe.
5. Non-Public School - •An elementary or secondary school , other thana public school, offering education for gradeskindergarten through 12, or any combination ofthereof, wherein any child may legally fulfillcompulsory school attendance requirements•Placement in Non-Public Schools occurs via anIEP when the public school is not able to fulfill itsrequirements to provide a free appropriatepublic education
6. Day Treatment Center - A program designed toaddress a student’s Mental Health and Educationalneeds during the school day only. It usually refers toa licensed or certified facility which is licensed toprovide a behavioral health treatment program,outpatient care, and treatment of mental or nervousdisorders under the supervision of physicians. 7. Residential Treatment Center - A programdesigned for a student who suffers from Severe orChronic Emotional Disabilities in a residentialsetting. Residential treatment centers generally areclinically focused and primarily provide behaviormanagement and treatment for adolescents withserious issues.
8. Home and Hospital Instruction Program- • serve students who have a disability, whichmakes attendance in the regular day classes oralternative education program impossible orinadvisable•The district in which the home or residentialhealth facility is located is responsible forinstructing and educating pupils who must behospitalized or remain at home due to disabilityissues.
FACTORS to CONSIDER IN CHOOSING THESERVICE DELIVERY MODE :• age of the child/individual• Geographical considerations• Child characteristics-type and severity ofdisability• community resources• child and family goals andobjectives• philosophy and beliefs of theprogram and school
PRINCIPLES THAT GUIDE IN THESELECTION OF THE BEST PROGRAM:• Placement in the LRE or most naturalsetting• family focused services• Use of transdisciplinary service deliveryapproach• Inclusion of both developmentally andindividually appropriate practice• inclusion of sound as well asvalue driven practices (Mercado, 2002)
HOME BASED PROGRAMS• Interventions are provided by primarycaregiver working cooperatively with variousprofessionals on implementing specificintervention strategies• interventions are provided in the home, themost natural setting• specialists make regular and frequent visits towork directly with the child/individual to assistand monitor• forming meaningful partnerships
CENTER-BASED PROGRAMS• Programs that are located away from thechild/ individual’s home- setting may bechild-care centers, preschools, public schools,church-based schools, etc.• common settings for children with specialneeds who are over 2 years of age• Professionals from a variety of disciplinesshare their information and expertise whileworking cooperatively as a team• primary service provider is the teacher• Parents are also part of the team
INCLUSIVE SETTINGSProviding services to children withspecial needs in normalizedsettings- mainstreaming and fullinclusion
MAINSTREAMING•The placement of children with disabilities intoeducational programs whose primary purpose into serve typically developing individuals•Must provide the student with an appropriateeducation based on the unique needs of the child• meant to enhance the child’s education throughprovision of a normalized social context forlearning
FULL INCLUSION•The belief that children withdisabilities should be taught inregular classrooms•Most likely require curricularmodifications along withprofessional collaboration andteaming between regular andspecial educators
KEY ELEMENTS OF FULL INCLUSION•Natural proportion at school site (2 to 3 children withdisabilities in class)• zero rejection (all students are accepted including thosewith severe impairments; pupils are not screened orgrouped separately because of their disability• age/grade appropriate placement- children groupedaccdg to chronological age rather than academic abilityor mental age• site based management – principal or administratorplays a large role in planning and administeringprograms for children in the school• use of cooperative learning and peer instruction -
Elements considered when initiating orevaluating a program• high adult to child ratio (1:4 or 5)• well defined program and philosophy with staff;commitment to approach• extensive and cooperative planning for instruction• high level of family involvement•Implementation of definite plants to improve parentingand offer support services to families• interdisciplinary involvement• individualized instructional objectives and continuousevaluation and revision when necessary
•Experimentation and evaluation in a variety oftechniques to determine those most effective in meetingthe individual objectives• strong emphasis on language development• provision of positive reinforcement and effective use ofprinciples of behavior management, task analysis andmodeling•Continuous in service training program and evaluation
REFERENCES:Teaching Filipino Children with Autism (RevisedEdition), Edilberto Dizon, EditorEarly Intervention for Exceptional Children, LectureHandouts compiled by Ricci A. Mercado, College ofEducation, University of the PhilippinesInclusive Early Childhood EducationDavid Dean Richey & John Wheeler