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Chapter one


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Chapter one

  1. 1. Chapter One: Special Education in an Era of Inclusion and Standards<br />can be difficult but are very important for our students.<br />
  2. 2. Legislature Important to Special Education<br />94-142 or Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)<br />2004 IDEA<br />Has had four major revisions (1983, 1990, 1997, 2004) but has the major points of IDEA has stayed intact<br />IDEA helps provide appropriate education to all students, focusing on students with disabilities<br />The 2004 revision put an emphasis on access to general education curriculum for all students identified under the law<br />Free, Appropriate Public Evaluation (FAPE) school districts need to find ways to meet the individual students needs<br />Before receiving services a student must have a full and individual initial evaluation that is consented to by the parents and that parents must be part of the team that determines eligibility<br />An IEP must be written as well as transition planning must occur for the student<br />Students need be have access to their peers in a Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)<br />
  3. 3. Legislature cont…<br />Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)<br />Section 504<br />Any student who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities can qualify for special services under Section 504<br />This law has been expanded and can help cover students that are not covered under IDEA<br />This act is very similar to 504 but it represents the broad civil rights coverage for individuals who are disabled<br />This law establishes guidelines for employment, public accommodations, transportation, state and local government operations, and telecommunication systems<br />
  4. 4. Legislature cont…<br />No Child Left Behind (NCLB)<br />Intent of this law was to find ways to better serve the students with the greatest need and to hold schools more accountable in helping all of their students<br />increased accountability means statewide accountability, that are based on state standards in reading and mathematics, this is measured by annual testing from grades 3-4 and the schools need to meet adequate yearly progress (AYP)<br />Parent and Student choice: this allows parents to move their children from a “failing” school to a “better” school or receive supplemental services<br />Greater Flexibility to states, school districts, and schools for using the federal education funds<br />To Put Reading First; to be sure every child can read at the end of third grade by using scientifically based instruction<br />Highly qualified teachers; the goal was to have fully qualified teachers in every position by 2006 and it is not yet met<br />
  5. 5. Parts of IDEA Explained Further<br />FAPE – School districts must provide special education and related services necessary to meet the needs of students with special learning requirements. If the school programs cannot meet a student’s specific needs, other agencies must provide services at public expense.<br />Individualized Education Program (IEP) – this is a student’s learning program and is required for every student who qualifies for services. Established learning goals are set to determine the services the student will need. These goals and services that will be delivered should be based off of analysis of the student’s present levels of performance.<br />
  6. 6. IDEA cont…<br />Transition planning – these must start before the age of 16, this is a set of activities that will help move the student from school to post-school activities.<br />LRE – specifies that schools must educate children with disabilities in general education settings with their peers who are not disabled, as best as possible. This allows student’s with disabilities to attend school in the most inclusive setting possible.<br />
  7. 7. Standards-Based Education<br /><ul><li>What is being taught in the classroom must be tied to the state-derived tests
  8. 8. The intent of this is to have a common set of goals and mileposts
  9. 9. These test are mainly based off of the core subjects; language arts/English, mathematics, science and social studies but some states have broadened out past these main four
  10. 10. Two types of standards Content and Performance</li></li></ul><li>Standard-Based Cont…<br />Content Standard<br />Performance Standard<br />Knowledge, skills, and understanding that students should attain in academic subjects <br />How well do they know and understand the material<br />Levels of achievement that students must meet to demonstrate their proficiency in the subject<br />How well are they doing and applying the material<br />
  11. 11. Student Accountability<br />Part of NCLB and Standard-Based Education<br />With NCLB this is done through high-stakes standards-based testing, that is done annually <br />Most of the students with disabilities will take the tests or an alternative, these students are allowed specific accommodations but must be documented in their IEP<br />
  12. 12. inclusion<br />Per NCLB and Standards-Based Education<br />Providing persons with disabilities the opportunity to have a place in society<br />Refers to a condition or state of being or a sense of belonging and acceptance<br />By being sure that all students are being allowed in the general education classroom with their peers that are not disabled it allows non-disabled students and disabled students the chance to learn from one-another and accept each other in ways that have not happened before<br />
  13. 13. Universal Design For Learning(UDL)<br />“the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” <br />meets needs of people in a general fashion without drawing attention<br />a proactive approach, avoids retrofitted changes and accommodations<br />making curricula and materials that attend to special needs increases the use of the curricula for all<br />UDL utilizes the use of new technologies and electronic resources<br />Also provides a new way of looking at students with disabilities<br />
  14. 14. UDL Features<br />overall goals are set at an appropriate challenge for all students<br />flexible format for the materials allowing them to be molded in different ways to for all students to be able to learn from them<br />methods are flexible and diverse to provide appropriate learning experiences, challenges, and support for all students<br />assessment is flexible to provide accurate, ongoing information that helps teachers adjust instruction and maximize learning<br />
  15. 15. Differentiated Instruction<br />The main idea of this concept is that it can be used with a wide range of students, with varying needs, within the general education classroom<br />Meeting each student’s needs to maximize their growth and success by working with them at the level they are at<br />
  16. 16. Evidence-Based Practice – 2004 IDEA requirement of teachers to use interventions that have evidence that they work with populations with whom they are being used<br />Diversity Considerations – this is diversity in many different types of considerations, when we look at special education students we are looking at specifically three of the nine different diversities listed, behavioral, physical/sensory, and intellectual/cognitive, these three align with typical notions of disability<br />Response to Intervention (RTI) – also known as tiered instruction are different levels at which instruction becomes more and more intense and individualized based on the performance of the students and how they react to the intervention methods used<br />Important Definitions<br />
  17. 17. References<br />Polloway, E. A., Patton, J. R., & Serna, L. (2008). Strategies For Teaching Learners With Special Needs (Ninth Edition ed.). (A. C. Davis, Ed.) Columbus, Ohio, United States of America: Pearson Merill Prentice Hall.<br />