Greg welle ppt_sped_413[1]


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Greg welle ppt_sped_413[1]

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Special Education in an Era of Inclusion and Standards<br />By: Gregory Welle<br />
  2. 2. Critical Legislature<br />IDEA- IDEA stands for Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. <br />IDEA (Pl 94-102)- This is the original law of IDEA and states that there must be funding to the states to assist in the development, expansion and improvement of special education programs. The purpose of this law was to provide an equal and appropriate education to all students.<br />IDEA 2004- In 2004, IDEA put a major emphasis on access to to the general education curriculum for all students even if the student has a disability or is provided with special education services. <br />Section 504- Section 504 allows students who may not qualify for special education services or be categorized under IDEA to still be provided different interventions. Any student who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities can qualify for special services under section 504.<br />
  3. 3. Critical Legislature (Cont.)<br />ADA-ADA stands for Americans with Disabilities Act. It began in 1990 and is extremely important to students and their families because it represents broad civil rights coverage for individuals who are disabled. This law establishes guidelines for employment, public accommodations, transportation, state and local governmental operations, and telecommunications systems.<br />NCLB- In 2001, former President George W. Bush passed the No Child Left Behind Act. The major purpose of this act was to better serve the students who are struggling the most in school. NCLB has a number of provisions that differ from the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). They Include: 1.Increased accountability, 2. Parent and student choice, 3.Greater flexibility to states, school districts and schools, 4. Putting reading first and 5. Highly qualified teachers. The NCLB requires testing on an annual basis for all students in grades 3-8 in the areas of reading and mathematics.<br />
  4. 4. Key Elements in Schools Today<br />Standard Based Education- Standard Based Education means that what we teach must correlate with the state-derived content and performances standards that exist in all core subject areas. The main purpose of developing standards is to have a common set of goals and mileposts. Standards may also be developed for other subject areas such as health, art and foreign languages.<br />Classifying Standards- Content Standards: knowledge, skills and understanding that students should attain in academic subjects. Performance Standards: levels of achievement that students must meet to demonstrate their proficiency in the subjects. <br />Student Accountability- The NCLB act underscored the need for accountability through student evaluation. This is done by means of testing on an annual basis for students in grades 3-8 in the areas of reading and mathematics. Most students with disabilities will take the regular district and statewide tests that non-disabled students take. Some students who have more significant needs will be exempt from the regular standard-based test and will be offered an alternative assessment. (The way students take these standard-based tests must be documented in their IEP).<br />
  5. 5. Key Elements in Schools Today (Cont.)<br />Inclusion-Providing Students with disabilities the opportunity to have a place in society. Inclusion implies a sense of belonging and acceptance for all students. 47.32% of all students with disabilities were served in regular classes for at least 80% of the day and 28.32% in resource rooms during the year of 1999-2000. A major goal for special education teachers is to raise the percentage of all students spending the majority of the school day in the general education classroom.<br />RTI-RTI stands for Response to Intervention. This is a multi-tier approach to students with learning and behavior needs. There are three parts of the tier: Tier 1 is high quality core instruction in which students receive quality instruction and achieve expected academic and behavioral goals in the general education setting. Tier 2 is targeted and focused interventions to supplement core instruction. This intervention may be required for learners who do not meet general class expectations and exhibit need for supplemental support. Tier 3 is a high quality intensive intervention which is used to meet significant disabilities. Tier 3 provides students with more significant disabilities and more intensive, evidence based interventions within a range.<br />Universal Design for Learning- Universal Design for Learning is an approach that is used to create an environment that enables all learners to gain knowledge, motivation and confidence for learning. To begin creating your own UDL classroom you must first ask yourself what is my goal and what are the barriers? To eliminate the barriers, use the three UDL principles which are representation (present content to the students in multiple ways and through multiple media), action and expression (give students plenty of options to show and express what they know while giving them feedback), and engagement (give students choices to motivate their passion for learning). <br />
  6. 6. Key Elements in Schools Today (Cont.)<br />Differentiated Instruction- Differentiated Instruction means that all students in the classroom can be accommodated within general education classrooms. The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process.<br />Evidence Based Practice- Evidence Based Practice requires that teachers have evidence that their interventions are effective with the populations for whom they are being used by. Separating valid interventions from invalid interventions can often be a challenge for special education teachers because different strategies work for different students. Today, instructional practices should have a research base if they are to be used with students with special needs.<br />Diversity Considerations- Schools around the United States are filled with diverse students; therefore, it is important that teachers look at several dimensions that affect diversity. These dimensions/characteristics include sexual orientation, economic statuses, English language learners, setting, racial-ethnicity, cultural, behavioral, physical/sensory, and intellectual/cognitive. It is very important that teachers make general assumptions or stereotypes about that student’s diverse characteristics.<br />
  7. 7. What’s the Big Deal?<br />It is important that teachers recognize the significance of applying instructional strategies to students with disabilities. There are no two students that learn the exact same way whether they are disabled or not; therefore, we must continue to use instructional strategies and learn from these strategies when working with disabled students.<br />
  8. 8. Challenges<br />Applying instructional strategies for students who are disabled is not an easy job. Often times teachers may feel stressed, angry, tired, nervous etc. wondering how they are going to apply strategies effectively for those students. <br />Certain concerns that may arise when trying to apply an instructional strategy with a certain student include:<br />Are they understanding the material?<br />Do I have a backup strategy if my initial one is not efficient?<br />Do I have enough time to apply this type of instructional strategy?<br />*These questions and others will arise not only for special education teachers but general education teachers as well!*<br />
  9. 9. Works Cited<br />Polloway, A. Edward. Strategies For Teaching Learners With Special Needs. (2008). Pearson Education Inc.<br />