Special education in an era of inclusion and


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Special education in an era of inclusion and

  1. 1. Special Education in an Era of Inclusion and Standards<br />Amanda Hewitt<br />
  2. 2. Critical Legislation and Federal Initiative<br />Legislation passes to better Special Education<br />No Child Left Behind<br />Individuals with Disabilities Education Act {IDEA}<br />Education for All Handicapped Children Act {PL-94-142}<br />Section 504<br />Americans with Disabilities Act<br />
  3. 3. No Child Left Behind <br />The reauthorization of Elementary and Secondary Education Act {ESEA}<br />NCLB brought these provisions<br />State standardized tests in reading and math<br />Annual testing in grades 3-8<br />Annual statewide progress objectives that all students must meet by 2013<br />Annual Yearly Progress {AYP} evaluation of school district and individual schools<br />All students with disabilities must now meet a challenging set of standards and participate in the testing process.<br />
  4. 4. NCLB cont.<br />Parents and Student Choices under NCLB<br />There are funds available to allow parents to:<br />Move their children attending “failing” schools to attend “better” schools within the district and/or<br />Obtain supplemental educational services from a public/private sector<br />Greater Flexibility to state, school districts, and schools<br />Unprecedented flexibility in the use of federal education funds<br />Puts Reading First<br />Goal and funding to ensure that all students can read by the end of 3rd grade<br />Highly Qualifies Teachers<br />Stresses the need to have “highly qualified” teachers in schools.<br />
  5. 5. For or Against NCLB<br />Those who favor say:<br />Those who oppose say:<br />By including Special Education students, we are getting a true picture of the schools accountability<br />Also, parents, students, and teachers will have higher expectations knowing they have to do well then resulting in higher achievement. <br />The same standard approach can conflict with the individualized needs of students as set by their IEP’s<br />Students will encounter significant amounts of failure in trying to meet the state identified standards and participate in the high stake testing, resulting in a host of negative outcomes. <br />Students who weren’t performing well before, are now expected to perform at an even higher level.<br /> How do you feel about this topic?<br />
  6. 6. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act {IDEA}<br />This is the latest revision on PL-940142. With this revision, a difference between IDEA and NCLB can be seen.<br />IDEA put major emphasis on access to the general education curriculum for everyone. <br />There are 6 major components of IDEA to follow:<br />
  7. 7. Components of IDEA<br />Free, Appropriate Public Education {FAPE}<br />School districts must provide Special Education and related services to meet the needs of individual students. <br />If a school programs is unable to meet the needs of any students, other agencies must provide the necessary service at public expense.<br />Schools must allow furnished transportation and related services when deemed necessary to ensure an appropriate education.<br />
  8. 8. Components of IDEA cont.<br />Appropriate Evaluation<br />In order to receive Special Education and related services for the 1st time, a full and individualized initial evaluation must be conducted.<br />There must be parental consent, an evaluation team, the use of more than one procedure, testing in the students native language, and reevaluations conducted when necessary when determining eligibility.<br />This law states a parent must be part of the team determining eligibility.<br />It also states students with disabilities be included in general and district wide assessments. <br />
  9. 9. Components of IDEA cont.<br />Individualized Education Program {IEP}<br />A written document summarizing a student’s learning program and is required for every student who qualifies for services. <br />Major purposes:<br />Establish learning goals<br />To determine the services the school dostroct must provide to meet those learning goes<br />And to enhance communication among parents and other professionals about the student’s program.<br />
  10. 10. Components of IDEA cont.<br />Least Restrictive Environment<br />Schools must educate children with disabilities, in a general education classroom with peers who are not disabled. <br />Provides children with disabilities the chance of attending a classroom with the most inclusion.<br />
  11. 11. Components of IDEA cont.<br />Parent and Student Participation in Decision Making<br />Parental consent must be documented for every decision involving a child with a disability. <br />Parents have the right to challenge or appeal any decision related to the Special Education process.<br />
  12. 12. Components of IDEA cont.<br />Procedural Safeguards<br />These safeauards protect the rights of both parents and their children. <br />Parents have the right to educational records, to obtain an IEE, the right to request a due process hearing, the right to appeal decisions, and the right to initiate civil action when appealing a final hearing decision. <br />
  13. 13. Education for All Handicapped Children Act {EHA} PL-84-142<br />This is the initial IDEA law. It was reauthorized three times before becoming IDEA in 2004.<br />Originally, it was funding to the states to assist in the development, expansion, and improvement to Special Education programs.<br />It was meant to provide an appropriate education to students who had not in the past. It also ensured the rights of all<br /> children with disabilities.<br />
  14. 14. Section 504<br />Helps kids who are not qualified for IDEA, but still need some accommodations. <br />Any student who has a<br /> mental or physical <br /> impairment that <br /> substantially limits one or <br /> more major life activities <br /> can be qualified. <br />
  15. 15. Americans with Disabilities Act {ADA}<br />1990 legislation that’s critical because it represents civil rights for individuals who are disabled.<br />This law establishes guidelines for employment, public accommodations, transportation, state and local governmental operations, and telecommunication systems. <br />
  16. 16. Key Elements in Schools<br />In today’s schools<br />
  17. 17. Standard Based Education<br />Standard based means that what is taught must be tied to the state-derived content and performance standards that now exist in almost all states in the core subject areas of language arts, math, social studies, and science.<br />The objective of standards is to have a common sets of goals and milestones. <br />
  18. 18. Standard based Education<br />Key features of Standards<br />Content Standard: knowledge, skills, and undetermined standing that students should attain in academic subjects. <br />Performance Standard: levels of achievement that students must meet to demonstrate their proficiency in subjects.<br />Standard: a general statement of what a student should know and be able to do in academic subjects.<br />Benchmark: a specific statement of what a student should be able to do<br />Indicator: a statement of knowledge or skills that a student has demonstrated in order to meet a benchmark.<br />
  19. 19. Inclusion<br />Inclusion is giving children with disabilities the opportunity to have a place in the world and belong.<br />It does not refer to a physical space, but a condition or state of being. <br />Inclusion gives a sense of belonging and acceptance. <br />
  20. 20. What is Inclusion?From online video<br />What it is..<br />What it’s not..<br />BELONGING<br />An attitude, a right, a sense of belonging.<br />Accepting of individual differences, and responding to their needs. <br />Permission to be yourself, with positive interactions with peers. <br />Opprotunities and rewards for students with and without disabilities. <br />More than being physically placed with others.<br />A program<br />A favor<br />A trial period<br />A placed amount of time with others.<br />
  21. 21. Universal Design for Learning {UDL} <br />UDL is the development of educational curricula and materials that include potent supports for access and learning from the start, rendering them effective for a far wider range of students than traditional materials.<br />Main attractions:<br />It doesn’t draw attention to any one individual. <br />It’s proactive instead of reactive.<br />Increases usability for everyone.<br />Capitalizes on new technologies and resources. <br />
  22. 22. UDL cont. <br />A curriculum that has UDL features<br />Goals provide an appropriate challenge for all students<br />Materials have a flexible format, supporting transformation between media and multiple representation of content to support all students learning.<br />Methods are flexible and diverse enough to provide appropriate learning experiences, challenges, and support for all students.<br />Assessment is sufficiently flexible to provide accurate, ongoing information that helps teachers adjust instruction and maximize learning. <br />
  23. 23. UDL from Video<br />UDL is meant to help everyone learn. The way in which everyone learns is as unique as their fingerprints. <br />UDL is meant to be understood by everyone, flexible for all involved, and hit the three networks of learning: recognition, skill and strategy, and caring and prioritizing. <br />To get rid of barriers in a classroom UDL recommends:<br />Use many different ways to represent your material<br />Let students use models and tell you their understandings up to their proficiency<br />And get them interested any way you can and keep them interested!<br />
  24. 24. Response to Intervention {RTI} <br />RTI is a tiered approach at teaching children.<br />Tier One: All students participate in differential instruction delivered by a general education teacher. It is an evidence based core curriculum that meets the needs of about 85% of students.<br />Tier Two: About 15% of students will go onto this level that builds upon the first. It uses strategic evidence and intervention in small groups and is still instructed by a general education teacher or part of his/her team. <br />Tier Three: This is the most intense and only about 5% of students participate. It supplements the two other tiers and uses intense evidence based interventions. It is provided in very small groups and can be offered by a specialist or a Special Education teacher. Only a very small portion of these 5% in tier three will go on to Special Education.<br />
  25. 25. Differentiated Instruction<br />Differentiated Instruction is closely related to UDL. It is the basic idea of individualizing instruction. <br />It is defined as a process to approach teaching and learning for students with different abilities together in the same classroom. <br />
  26. 26. Evidence Based Practice<br />Evidence Based Practices requires teachers to use interventions that have that they are working with the students they are using them for.<br />
  27. 27. Best Practices<br />Deciding between what is best for the child and what is consistent with local policy. <br />Informing parents of their legal rights<br />Knowing that such information will give parents a basis for demanding more extensive services for their child<br />Testifying at a due process hearing when the employer is believed to be at fault<br />And instructing controversial classes.<br />
  28. 28. What I am the most excited about when thinking about becoming a future teacher is to see children with disabilities feel accepted and make friendships with their peers. What I am the most afraid about teaching Special Education is the lack of some parents concerns and love for their children when it comes to their education.<br />