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  • 1. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 2. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 3. IDEA-Definition of Serious Emotional Disturbance (SED)
    • One or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects educational performance
      • Inability to learn not related to other factors
      • Inability to build or maintain satisfactory peer or teacher relationships
      • Inappropriate feelings or behavior under normal conditions
      • Frequently unhappy or depressed
      • Often fearful
      • Definition does not apply to children who are “socially maladjusted”
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1
  • 4. Problems with IDEA Definition
    • Definition is vague and subjective
      • What are “satisfactory” peer and teacher relationships?
      • What does “inappropriate” behavior look like ?
    • The definition, as written, excludes children on the basis for which they are included
      • How does one differentiate between “ socially maladjusted ” and true “emotional disturbance”?
    • Individual teacher expectations and tolerances make identification a difficult and subjective process
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2
  • 5. CCBD Definition of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
    • Behavioral or emotional responses so different from appropriate age, cultural, or ethnic norms that they adversely affect educational performance
      • More than temporary, expected responses to stress
      • Consistently exhibited in two different settings, at least one of which is school related
      • Unresponsive to direct intervention in the general education setting
    • NICHY definition -
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3
  • 6. Common Characteristics of Children with EBD
    • Two primary behavioral excesses
      • Externalizing behaviors (most common behavior pattern)
        • Noncompliance
        • Temper tantrums
        • Property destruction
        • Threats of violence or violence toward peers and/or teachers
      • Internalizing behaviors
        • Overly shy or immature
        • Withdrawn
        • Hypochondria
        • Easily upset and difficult to calm
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4
  • 7. Common Characteristics (cont.)
    • Two-thirds cannot pass competency exams for their grade level
    • They have the lowest grade-point average of any group on IEP
    • They have the highest absenteeism of any IEP group
    • Only 20-25% get a diploma compared to 50% IEP, and 76% regular Ed
    • More than 50% drop out
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 8. Common Characteristics (cont.)
    • Behavioral deficits
      • Academic achievement
        • Low GPA
        • High absenteeism
        • At risk for school failure and early drop out
        • Average IQ 86 but not accurate
      • Social skills
        • Less participation in extracurricular activities
        • Lower quality peer relationships
        • Juvenile delinquency
    • NICHY characteristics-
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-5
  • 9. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 10. Prevalence Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-6
  • 11. Prevalence
    • Prevalence
      • Estimates vary, but about 3% to 5% of school-age population
      • Given prevalence data, many students not receiving specialized services
    • Gender
      • The vast majority are boys
    • Juvenile Delinquency
      • 1999, 2.5 billion juvenile arrests
      • Increase during the Junior high years
      • Half of all repeat
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-6
  • 12. Causes
    • Biological factors
      • Brain injury or dysgenesis
      • Genetics – strongest link - schizophrenia
      • Temperament – difficult child – predisposes
    • Environmental factors
      • Home - Inconsistent parenting practices
      • Community – sexual deviancy, gangs, high crime rate
      • School – largest portion of time, coercive pain control
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-7
  • 13. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 14. Identification and Assessment
    • Screening tests
      • Used to determine if intervention is warranted
      • Behavior rating scales or checklists
    • Projective tests
      • Ambiguous stimuli
      • Limited usefulness for education planning
    • Direct observation and measurement
      • Directly focuses on the child’s problems
      • Useful for educational planning
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-8
  • 15. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 16. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 17. Functional Behavioral Assessment
    • Systematic, data-driven process
      • Informal assessment
        • School records, parent interviews, teacher checklists
      • Direct observation and measurement
        • In-class observation when behavior is likely to occur
      • Hypothesis development
        • All informal and observational data used to develop intervention based on probable cause of the behavior
      • Intervention
        • Teaching functional replacement behaviors
      • Evaluation and modification
        • Data are collected to determine success of the intervention
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-9
  • 18. Functional Behavioral Assessment Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-9
  • 19. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 20. Curriculum Goals
    • Social skills
      • Cooperation skills
      • Appropriate ways to express feelings
      • Responding to failure
    • Academic skills
      • High rates of student response
      • Direct, explicit instruction
      • High rates of teacher praise
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-10
  • 21. Curriculum Goals (cont.)
    • Behavior management
      • Clear school -wide expectation s
      • Positive proactive classroom management strategies
    • Self-management
      • Self-monitoring
      • Self-evaluation
    • Peer mediation and support
      • Peer tutoring
      • Positive peer reporting
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-11
  • 22. School Wide Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 23. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 24. Self-Management Card Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-12
  • 25. Fostering Strong Teacher-Student Relationships
    • Differential acceptance
      • Witness or be the victim of acts of anger without responding similarly
    • Focus on alterable variables
      • Teachers should focus effort on only those variables that make a difference in student learning and can be affected by sound teaching practice
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-13
  • 26. Educational Placement Alternatives
    • More than 50% of students with EBD receive their education in :
      • Separate classrooms
      • Special schools
      • Residential facilities
    • Most students receiving special education because of emotional or behavioral disorders have serious problems that require intensive intervention
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-14
  • 27. Current Issues and Future Trends
    • Revising the federal definition to meet the needs of students
    • Prevention efforts in the community
    • Clarify regulations for disciplining students
    • Improving services for youth in correctional facilities
    • Developing “wraparound” services for families
    • Putting into practice research validated teaching methods
    Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-15