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sped100_ch6

  1. 1. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. IDEA-Definition of Serious Emotional Disturbance (SED) <ul><li>One or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects educational performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to learn not related to other factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to build or maintain satisfactory peer or teacher relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate feelings or behavior under normal conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently unhappy or depressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often fearful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition does not apply to children who are “socially maladjusted” </li></ul></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-1
  4. 4. Problems with IDEA Definition <ul><li>Definition is vague and subjective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are “satisfactory” peer and teacher relationships? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does “inappropriate” behavior look like ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The definition, as written, excludes children on the basis for which they are included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does one differentiate between “ socially maladjusted ” and true “emotional disturbance”? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual teacher expectations and tolerances make identification a difficult and subjective process </li></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-2
  5. 5. CCBD Definition of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders <ul><li>Behavioral or emotional responses so different from appropriate age, cultural, or ethnic norms that they adversely affect educational performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than temporary, expected responses to stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistently exhibited in two different settings, at least one of which is school related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unresponsive to direct intervention in the general education setting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NICHY definition - </li></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-3
  6. 6. Common Characteristics of Children with EBD <ul><li>Two primary behavioral excesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Externalizing behaviors (most common behavior pattern) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noncompliance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temper tantrums </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Property destruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Threats of violence or violence toward peers and/or teachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internalizing behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overly shy or immature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypochondria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easily upset and difficult to calm </li></ul></ul></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-4
  7. 7. Common Characteristics (cont.) <ul><li>Two-thirds cannot pass competency exams for their grade level </li></ul><ul><li>They have the lowest grade-point average of any group on IEP </li></ul><ul><li>They have the highest absenteeism of any IEP group </li></ul><ul><li>Only 20-25% get a diploma compared to 50% IEP, and 76% regular Ed </li></ul><ul><li>More than 50% drop out </li></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8. Common Characteristics (cont.) <ul><li>Behavioral deficits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low GPA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High absenteeism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At risk for school failure and early drop out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average IQ 86 but not accurate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less participation in extracurricular activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower quality peer relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile delinquency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NICHY characteristics- </li></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-5
  9. 9. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. Prevalence Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-6
  11. 11. Prevalence <ul><li>Prevalence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimates vary, but about 3% to 5% of school-age population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given prevalence data, many students not receiving specialized services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vast majority are boys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Juvenile Delinquency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1999, 2.5 billion juvenile arrests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase during the Junior high years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of all repeat </li></ul></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-6
  12. 12. Causes <ul><li>Biological factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain injury or dysgenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics – strongest link - schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperament – difficult child – predisposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home - Inconsistent parenting practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community – sexual deviancy, gangs, high crime rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School – largest portion of time, coercive pain control </li></ul></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-7
  13. 13. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. 14. Identification and Assessment <ul><li>Screening tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to determine if intervention is warranted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior rating scales or checklists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projective tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited usefulness for education planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct observation and measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly focuses on the child’s problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for educational planning </li></ul></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-8
  15. 15. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. Functional Behavioral Assessment <ul><li>Systematic, data-driven process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School records, parent interviews, teacher checklists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct observation and measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-class observation when behavior is likely to occur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All informal and observational data used to develop intervention based on probable cause of the behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching functional replacement behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation and modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data are collected to determine success of the intervention </li></ul></ul></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-9
  18. 18. Functional Behavioral Assessment Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-9
  19. 19. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  20. 20. Curriculum Goals <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate ways to express feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responding to failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academic skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High rates of student response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct, explicit instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High rates of teacher praise </li></ul></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-10
  21. 21. Curriculum Goals (cont.) <ul><li>Behavior management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear school -wide expectation s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive proactive classroom management strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer mediation and support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer tutoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive peer reporting </li></ul></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-11
  22. 22. School Wide Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  23. 23. Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  24. 24. Self-Management Card Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-12
  25. 25. Fostering Strong Teacher-Student Relationships <ul><li>Differential acceptance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Witness or be the victim of acts of anger without responding similarly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on alterable variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers should focus effort on only those variables that make a difference in student learning and can be affected by sound teaching practice </li></ul></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-13
  26. 26. Educational Placement Alternatives <ul><li>More than 50% of students with EBD receive their education in : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate classrooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most students receiving special education because of emotional or behavioral disorders have serious problems that require intensive intervention </li></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-14
  27. 27. Current Issues and Future Trends <ul><li>Revising the federal definition to meet the needs of students </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention efforts in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify regulations for disciplining students </li></ul><ul><li>Improving services for youth in correctional facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Developing “wraparound” services for families </li></ul><ul><li>Putting into practice research validated teaching methods </li></ul>Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. 8-15

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