Education and inclusion (2011)


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PPt for week 25 session of DTES1

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  • Double click The main disability determined treatment/provision in education multiple handicaps were not recognised - possibly because of complexity click Disability/handicap was in hands of the medical profession click Info. passed from medical prof. to schools click click Special school status was high segregation was the educational game
  • Click Problems with this categorisation system click some children might be click and click Some difficulties in educational setting did not fit into this model of labelling Explain ‘ delicate ’
  • Very different attitudes to handicap in last century no idea of concept of PC comment on idiot and cripple very emotive terminology click look how labels have changed explain ebd in proposals for new Code of Practice it has broad category termed ‘ learning difficulties ’ - moderate/specific
  • Click This was a great watershed in education explain its principles Bring out partnership idea - more power to parents and ultimately to older pupils and post 16 students Describe Scholing School incident educationalists in the forefront of identification and assessment There we are more in control of determining the provision More flexible in that the idea of a continuum allows for the blurring of edges
  • Closely linked to provision and therefore to financial issues All of use have special needs at some time - expand It ’ s about ACCESS to the curriculum and to learning environment
  • Closely linked to provision and therefore to financial issues All of use have special needs at some time - expand It ’ s about ACCESS to the curriculum and to learning environment
  • Education and inclusion (2011)

    1. 1. Special Educational Needs and Inclusion
    2. 2. Historical Perspective <ul><li>Before the turn of the 20th century: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ handicap ’ ethos </li></ul><ul><li>medical model </li></ul><ul><li>diagnosis/treatment </li></ul><ul><li>identification within the medical field </li></ul><ul><li>emphasis on ‘ disability ’ not ability </li></ul>
    3. 3. Categories of Handicap before 1981 Education Act Blind Partially sighted Deaf Partially hearing Educationally sub-normal Maladjusted Physically handicapped Epileptic Diabetic Speech defected Delicate Only reference to education or learning
    4. 4. Attitudes to disability Terminology often reflected attitude: ‘ Deaf and dumb ’ ‘ Deaf mute ’ ‘ Mentally defective ’ ‘ Retarded ’ ‘ Feebleminded ’ ‘ Imbecile ’ ‘ Idiot ’ ‘ Cripple ’ Mongolism Downs Syndrome Handicapped Disabled, impaired Maladjusted Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties Educationally subnormal Learning difficulties
    5. 5. The Warnock Report <ul><li>“ The present concept of special educational need is based on the deliberations of the Warnock Committee, which had a governmental brief to investigate and make recommendations about special educational provision, and which published its report in 1978. The Committee brought together and articulated the views that were current among many of those who were working in special education, and it was generally held to represent a major development in official thinking about special educational need. Although not all of its recommendations were adopted, it has been of lasting significance, not least because of its insistence that special educational need and special educational provision are central concerns for all who are involved in education, rather than subjects for specialist interest only. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Beveridge, Sally. (1999). Special Educational Needs in Schools . </li></ul>
    6. 6. 1981 Education Act Operative in 1983 Embraced many of the Warnock Report ’ s recommendations <ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>School psychological and support services expanded </li></ul><ul><li>SEN - compulsory component on all ITT courses </li></ul><ul><li>Role of parents in decision-making increased </li></ul><ul><li>Identification & assessment in educational arena </li></ul>Broad Spectrum MILD SEVERE MODERATE
    7. 7. Special Educational Needs (2002) <ul><li>A child has special educational needs if he or she has a ‘ learning difficulty ’ because: </li></ul><ul><li>the child has significantly greater difficulty in learning than most children of the same age, or </li></ul><ul><li>the child has a disability which needs different educational facilities from those that schools generally provide for children of the same age in the area. </li></ul>
    8. 8. SEN: General Principles <ul><li>A child with special educational needs should have their needs met. </li></ul><ul><li>The special educational needs of children will normally be met in mainstream schools or settings. </li></ul><ul><li>The views of the child should be sought and taken into account. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents have a vital role to play in supporting their child ’ s education. </li></ul><ul><li>Children with special educational needs should be offered full access to a broad, balanced and relevant education, including an appropriate curriculum for the foundation stage and the National Curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>(SEN Code of Practice 2002) </li></ul>  ?
    9. 9. Categories of Special Educational Needs <ul><li>1 Learning Difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Learning Difficulty (SpLD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate Learning Difficulty (MLD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe Learning Difficulty (SLD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulty (PMLD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulty (BESD) </li></ul><ul><li>Speech, Language and Communication Needs (SLCN) </li></ul><ul><li>4 Sensory and/or Physical Difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing impairment (HI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual impairment (VI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-sensory impairment (MSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical disability (PD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5 Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (inc Asperger ’ s Syndrome) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Degrees of response to children with Special Educational Needs <ul><li>1 School Action </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers use Individual Education Plans (IEPs) to record the different or additional provision to be made for the child, teaching strategies, short-term targets for the pupil, success criteria, and what they have achieved . </li></ul><ul><li>School Action Plus </li></ul><ul><li>The school asks for outside advice from the LA ’ s support services, or from health or social work professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Sets out the child ’ s needs in detail and the special educational provision to be made for them – a statutory provision. </li></ul>
    11. 11. * As a proportion of all children with statements of SEN in maintained primary and secondary schools.
    12. 13. Rate of incidence of pupils with statements of SEN in maintained primary and secondary schools: January 2008
    13. 14. Pupils with SEN statements as a percentage of all pupils, England 1994-2008
    14. 15. Deciding where children who have statements are educated (1) <ul><li>A child who has special educational needs and a statement must be educated in a mainstream school unless this would be incompatible with: </li></ul><ul><li>a. the wishes of the child ’ s parents; or </li></ul><ul><li>b. the provision of efficient education of other children. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the only reasons why mainstream education can be refused outright. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Deciding where children who have statements are educated (2) <ul><li>LEAs and maintained schools can only deny mainstream education, against parental wishes, on the grounds that it would be incompatible with the efficient education of other children. A school will only be able to rely on this ground if there are no reasonable steps that either it or the LEA could take to prevent the incompatibility at the school . Clear evidence must be provided to justify why no reasonable steps can be taken. It is envisaged that it will only be possible to demonstrate this in a small minority of cases . </li></ul><ul><li>DfES (2001). Inclusive Schooling </li></ul>
    16. 18. N.B. New ‘ Code of Practice ’ introduced 2002
    17. 19. Rate of incidence of pupils with SEN without statements in maintained primary and secondary schools: Jan. 2008
    18. 20. N.B. New ‘ Code of Practice ’ introduced 2002 SEN pupils without Statements, England 1997-2007 SEN pupils without Statements, England 1997-2008
    19. 22. GCSE achievement by SEN How meaningful is this data?
    20. 23. GCSE achievement by SEN (including English and Maths) So what?
    21. 24. Inclusion <ul><li>“ Inclusion, much more than ‘ integration ’ or ‘ mainstreaming ’ , is embedded in a range of contexts - political and social as well as psychological and educational… </li></ul><ul><li>… inclusive education is really about extending the comprehensive ideal in education. Those who talk about it are therefore less concerned with children ’ s supposed ‘ special educational needs ’ … and more concerned with developing an education system in which tolerance, diversity and equity are striven for. “ </li></ul><ul><li>Skidmore, David. (2004). Inclusion: The Dynamic of School Development . </li></ul>
    22. 25. The Coalition ’ s Plans for SEN <ul><li>Ministers are considering how to ensure parents can send their child with special educational needs (SEN) or disabilities to their preferred educational setting – whether that is a mainstream school, special school or an academy. </li></ul><ul><li>Ministers are considering a range of options including how to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>give parents a choice of educational settings that can meet their child ’ s needs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transform funding for children with SEN and disabilities and their families, making the system more transparent and cost-effective while maintaining a high quality of service; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevent the unnecessary closure of special schools, and involve parents in any decisions about the future of special schools; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support young people with SEN and disabilities post-16 to help them succeed after education; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve diagnosis and assessment to identify children with additional needs earlier. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. The Coalition ’ s Plans for SEN <ul><li>Children ’ s Minister Sarah Teather said: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Children with special educational needs and disabilities should have the same opportunities as other children, but the current system is so adversarial that too often this doesn ’ t happen. I want parents, teachers, charities, teaching unions and local authorities to come forward with the changes they think are needed to make the system better for children with SEN and their families. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents should be in control of their child ’ s education and future. Importantly, they must be involved in discussions and decisions about the support they need rather than feel they have to battle the system. I want to make it easier for parents to choose where their child is educated. </li></ul><ul><li>I want to look at every aspect of SEN – from assessment and identification to funding and education. We need to strip away the cumbersome bureaucracy but ensure there is a better, more comprehensive service for families . ” </li></ul>
    24. 27. Questions <ul><li>Do you think that children with SEN currently have ‘ equality of educational opportunity ’ in schools? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree that all children should be educated in ‘ mainstream ’ schools unless it can be proved otherwise? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there some areas where the policy of inclusion has gone too far? </li></ul><ul><li>In which areas do you think this policy has not gone far enough? </li></ul><ul><li>How might SEN/inclusion policy and practice be improved? </li></ul>