Classroom level success factors


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Teaching with poverty in Mind by Eric Jensen
Chapter 5 review and presentation

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Classroom level success factors

  1. 1. Classroom-Level <br />Success Factors<br />High Poverty Schools <br />Making it Happen<br />
  2. 2. Unit Question<br /><ul><li>How can you achieve success of</li></ul>low socio economic students<br /> in your classroom?<br />
  3. 3. Five SHARE FACTORS for Classrooms<br />Standard Based Curriculum and Instruction<br />Hope Building<br />Retooling of the operating system<br />Engaging Instructions<br />Arts, Athletics and advance placement<br />
  4. 4. Standards Based Curriculum<br />Essential Question<br />How important is standard based test<br />
  5. 5. North Star Academy<br />1.<br /><ul><li>Serves 384 Students.
  6. 6. 99 % </li></ul>Minorities<br />90% receive free or reduced-price lunch.<br />-Graduation Rate: nearly 100%<br />-highest rate of four-year college acceptance and attendance of any school<br />in the state of New Jersey.<br />Secret of Accomplishment<br />
  7. 7. Secret of Accomplishment<br />-Provides and commits to ensure students master the content standards.<br />-Developed a set of interim assessments, aligned with the curriculum and state standards (administered every six to eight weeks).<br />Helps teachers <br />understand student needs<br />Results in easy-to- understand spreadsheet.<br />School Principals<br />& Lead Teachers<br />-Do daily walkthrough.<br />-Provide informal feedback.<br />
  8. 8. Assessments<br />Results<br />Data from observation<br />Annalyze and decide which students or group of students needs more remedial education.<br />Teachers draw connections between their instruction and student performance and decide what they need to help students to master the standards. <br />Interventions:<br />-develop plans<br />-provide differentiated instructions<br />-receive training in data management programs and <br />-ask questions as “How can I teach this differently?”<br />
  9. 9. current theory and research<br />-Popham (2004) –The standardized test makers have no interest in selecting items that will reflect effective instruction.<br />(Popham)-15 To 80 percent of questions on norm-referenced standardized achievement tests were SES-linked.<br />-Standards-based reform has actually had a few positive effects on student achievement (Gamoran,,2007)<br />Closer adherence to standards improves teacher focus, and that correlates with improved teacher quality at low-income schools (Desimone, Smith, Hayes, & Frisvold, 2005)<br />
  10. 10. Importance of Standards<br />Expose social inequities in school performance.<br />Obtain better opportunitiesfor disadvantaged students.<br />Places highly qualified teacher in classroom.<br />Promote curricula and teaching methods.<br />Puts everyone on the uniform level.<br />
  11. 11. Action Steps<br />Turn standards into meaningful units<br />1. Identify core concepts, skills, and essential questions.<br />2. “Chunk” similar objectives together within units to make it more meaningful.<br />3. Show the patterns within the content and skills being taught.<br />4. Create open ended higher level essential questions linking it to the topic.<br />6. Write the objectives to be assessed at the end of the lesson or unit.<br />
  12. 12. *Pre-assess to determine students’ background knowledge<br /><ul><li>-Create pre-tests (combination of fill-in-the blanks, short-answer, and multiple-choice questions)</li></ul>-Questions should represent the key concepts and skills from the upcoming units.<br />-Questions should be sub divided based on each lesson objective. Include at least 6 questions. <br />-Add “teaser” questions (interests students) from the upcoming unit.<br />Administer pretest --- At least one week before—to adjust the lesson<br />
  13. 13. Adjust your lesson plans<br />-Knowledge of <br />Amount of time spent on each concept<br />Student misconception<br />Sequencing objectives<br />Grouping Strategies<br />Conceptual chunks- map, graphic organizers, concept map<br />
  14. 14. Remember<br />Standards alone are not <br />enough, but they are an<br />important component in <br />helping to turn around <br />low-performing schools<br />
  15. 15. Hope Building<br />
  16. 16. Essential Question<br />How is hope a crucial factor<br />In improving students <br />Performance<br />
  17. 17. Burgess Elementary School<br />
  18. 18. Oak Elementary School<br />Students labeled as “intelligent” showed significant improvement in test performance over those who were not singled out for the teacher’ attention.<br />Favorable or positive expectations impact on intellectual competence and unfavorable expectations could lead to a corresponding decrease in performance.<br />
  19. 19. Current Theory and Research<br />Students with learned helplessness believe that they have no control over their situations and whatever they do is futile. (Peterson, Maier, & Seligman,1995)<br />Students with hope and learned optimism try harder, persist longer, and ultimately get better grades. (Jiaxu & Weiyi, 2000)<br />49% of teachers considered higher-order thinking “inappropriate” for poor or low-achieveing students. (Zohar, Degani, & Vaaknin, 2001)<br />
  20. 20. Action Steps<br />Inventory students and staff: Create and administer a simple 25 question survey for students and staff to find out the level of hope or hopelessness.<br /><ul><li>Implement 24/7 hope: Hopefulness can be taught (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). </li></li></ul><li>Strategies to build hope<br />
  21. 21. Arts, Athletics, and Advance Placement<br />High-performing high-poverty schools adds complex, challenging curriculum-including the arts, athletics and advanced placement classes and also adds capacity to each student.<br />
  22. 22. Essential Question<br />How are arts, athletics and advancement placement curriculum<br />essential for high poverty schools<br />
  23. 23. Old-school way of thinking<br />Kids with less background knowledge need a slower-paced or dumbed-down curriculum.<br />When students don’t immediately meet the new higher expectations, the teachers say, “See, I knew it. They just can’t do it.”<br />
  24. 24. Chicago Arts Partnership in education ( CAPE)<br />Developed innovative arts integrated curriculum<br />Result- Inspiring turn around in student achievement at 14 high poverty schools in deeply troubled Chicago public school district.<br />
  25. 25. One of the elementary school, <br />84 % - below poverty line<br />30% do not speak English<br />Results after integrating Cape<br />Before <br />38 % were reading at grade level<br />49 % performing at grade level in math.<br />After<br />60 % students read at grade level<br />68 % at or above grade level in math ( Leroux & Grossman,1999).<br />
  26. 26. Mount Vernon, New York<br />Capture them in the Arts, and the academics will follow <br />(-Lincoln’s principal, George Albano)<br />Interdisciplinary curriculum to blend literacy and jazz, Physics and Physical education.<br />Principal and administrators familiar with students accomplishments and struggles<br />Instructional leaders comfortable discussing content with teacher.<br />Fully immersed in arts<br />
  27. 27. Watson Williams (magnet school for the performing arts ), Utica, New York<br />22% student mobility rate<br />C<br />O<br />L<br />L<br />A<br />B<br />O<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />I<br />O<br />N<br />96% eligible for free or reduced-price lunch.<br />Secrets of accomplishment<br />The performing arts teachers meet with the regular education teachers to integrate key concepts and vocabulary from each subject into performing arts curriculum and performances.<br />After collaborating with classroom teachers on what will be taught in relevance to units of study, students receive curriculum based dance for 30 minutes per week. These lessons reinforce what is being taught in ELA, Social Studies, Science, Math as well as PE, Health, and Careers.<br />Watson Williams was one of the first to use integrated thematic instruction to emphasize the Performing Arts through Dance and Drama.<br />
  28. 28. The Kennedy Center for Performing Arts works with the Alliance for Arts Education, a network of state arts education committees, to focus on incorporating the arts into school curricula.<br />In Greenville, SC, the arts have transformed math classrooms. <br />Sixth graders learn about negative and positive numbers by dancing along a number line, not filling out worksheets.<br />
  29. 29. Theory and Research<br />Theory and Research<br />Over view: Poor children are half as likely to be taken to museums, theaters, or the library and are less likely to go on other culturally enriching outings (Bradley & Corwyn, 2002). <br />The arts and a challenging curriculum enhance essential learning skills and cognition, whereas sports, recess, and physical activity increase neurogenesis and reduce kids’ chances for depression..<br />
  30. 30. UCLA professor of education James Catterall (Catterall, Chapleau, & Iwanaga, 1999) analyzed data on more than 25,000 students from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey<br />He found that students with high levels of arts participation outperform “arts-poor” students on virtually every measure and that high arts participation makes a more significant difference to low-income students than to high-income students. <br />James Catterall documented the difference between low-SES students who took music lessons in grades 8–12 and comparable students who took no music lessons <br />He found that the former not only significantly increased their math scores but also improved their reading, history, and geography scores by 40 percent. <br />Training in the arts influences cognition because participants become motivated to practice their particular art with intentional, focused determination. This motivation typically leads to sustained attention, which leads to greater efficiency of the brain network involved in attention. That improved attention in turn leads to cognitive improvement in many areas, including math and science (Spelke, 2008), according to the results of a three-year collaboration between the Dana Consortium on Arts and Cognition and more than a dozen neuroscientists from five universities (Gazzaniga, 2008).<br />
  31. 31. Training in arts<br />Motivation<br />Sustained attention<br />Fluid Intelligence<br />Cognitive improvement<br />
  32. 32. Art develops<br /><ul><li>Attentional Skills(Posner, (Rothbart, Sheese, & Kieras, 2008);
  33. 33. Processing Skills Ex: Manipulation of data (Jonides, 2008
  34. 34. Strengthen Memory Skills (Chan et al., 1998
  35. 35. Transferable Skills- Reading. (Wandell, Dougherty, Ben-Shachar, & Deutsch, 2008). </li></li></ul><li>MUSIC IN THE CURRICULUM<br />Scanning the brain before and after15 weeks of piano lessons, will result in the physical changes (Stewart et al., 2003).<br />Integration of music in the curriculum can contribute to better academic performance and enhanced neurobiological development.<br />
  36. 36. Importance of Exercise<br />Exercise enhances learning, mood, and memory (Fabel et al., 2003; van Praag, Kempermann,<br /> & Gage, 1999). <br />One study found that joggers consistently performed better than non-joggers on learning and memory tests that required the use of the prefrontal cortex (Harada et al., 2004). <br />In addition, exercise leads to increased levels of calcium, which is transported to the brain and enhances dopamine synthesis, making the brain sharper for both cognitive problem solving and working memory (Sutoo & Akiyama, 2003).<br />
  37. 37. Athletics <br /> Athletics enhances:<br /><ul><li>cognition (Sibley & Etnier,</li></ul>2003), <br /><ul><li>academic outcomes</li></ul>(Pellegr Bohn, 2005), <br /><ul><li>graduation rates, and
  38. 38. reduce behavioral</li></ul> problems (Newman, 2005)..<br /> Athletics improves: <br /><ul><li>Students’ health,
  39. 39. cardiovascular capacity,
  40. 40. muscle strength,
  41. 41. body coordination,
  42. 42. speed,
  43. 43. reaction times, and
  44. 44. stress responses.</li></li></ul><li>Advanced placement<br />Purpose: An advanced placement curriculum builds hope within students for a better future, challenges rather than bores, exposes academic gaps to be remedied, and develops pride, self-concept, and self-esteem. <br />to college-level work,<br />Advanced Placement course exposes a student <br />critical thinking, <br />increased content knowledge. <br />study skills,<br />In fact, AP courses are predictors of college success.<br />As a contributing factor of college success, participation in AP courses outranked grade point average, class rank, and SAT scores (pp. 18, 25).<br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46. AVID( Advancement Via Individual determination)<br />National school based program for low income students.<br />Requires students to enroll in college prep classes.<br />Receive tutoring from college students.<br />Attend guest speakers from colleges and businesses<br />Participate in field trips to colleges and universities.<br />
  47. 47. Result:<br />AVID students enroll in college at a rate of two and one half times greater than the others.<br />Longer students stay in AVID, the more successful they are.<br />
  48. 48. Step up Activity: To ensure that every single student in the school participates in physical activity a minimum of 30 minutes a day, five days a week. <br />Action Steps<br />Tutor every kid who needs it at no cost.<br />Implement a strong Arts program: At the elementary level, make arts mandatory for at least 30 minutes a day, three to five days a week. <br /><ul><li>Offer a variety of choices of gross motor activities to engage in.</li></ul>Implement an advanced placement curriculum: Students who are challenged with rigorous coursework will step up to the challenge <br />Provide opportunities at the secondary level for music arts (learning musical instruments, singing), visual arts (drawing, painting, graphics, mapping), and kinetic arts (dance, theater).<br />Implement a wider advanced placement curriculum at the school to enhance students’ study, memory, and reading skills. <br />Partner ship with a local community or university. Under- graduate students often offer tutoring for extra credit or community service. The greater the complexity and difficulty of the curriculum, the greater the need for learning-to-learn skills.<br />
  49. 49. Retooling of the Operating system<br />
  50. 50. Essential Question<br />What can be done- everyday to strengthen each part of the operating system?<br />
  51. 51. Essential sub skills in a students’ operating system-CHAMPS<br />Demonstrate an attitude of success and are confident that they can change. This skill can be built through modeling and discussing biographies of relatable successful people and instilling optimism in students.<br />Champion Mind Set<br />Hopeful effort<br />Have emotional long-term drive to achieve and the ability to delay gratification. This can be built listening and encouraging student hopes.<br />
  52. 52. S<br />Attention Skills<br />Possess the ability to stay focused for detailed learning & resist impulsive decisions. <br />This can be built through <br />Project based learning<br />Drama<br />Inquiry<br />Music<br />Theatre arts<br />
  53. 53. Memory-Students with good short-term and working memory have high visual and verbal capacity. This can be built through in-depth projects, music and drama.<br />Memory<br />Processing Skills <br />Processing skills-able to manipulate and manage visual, auditory, and tactile sensory input. This can be built through music, cooking, writing, visual arts, critical thinking and sports.<br />Sequencing Skills<br />Sequencing Skills- Organized and able to apply strategies and prioritize tasks and items. This can be built through music, cooking, projects, sports, and math.<br />
  54. 54. Ira Harbison SchoolNational city California<br />60% of students are Hispanic<br />45% are ELL’s<br />100% are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch<br />17% student mobility rate<br />
  55. 55. Massive upgrades in students operating system –their sequencing, processing, and attentional skills.<br />1st through 3rd grades- three hours of daily literacy instruction.<br />4th -6th grades- two hours of daily literacy instruction.<br />additional support and instruction for ELLs<br />Secret of Accomplishment<br />
  56. 56. Sampit Elementary SchoolGeorgetown, South Carolina<br />Strong school wide focus on reading, requiring students to participate in the 100 Book challenge sponsored by the Harcourt Trophy and American Reading Company.<br />Result<br />2005- 5th grade assessment data<br />93% of students received Basic or higher in English Language Arts, 88% in Math.<br />
  57. 57. Current Theory and research<br />Retooling students operating systems means giving them ”upgrades” in memory, attention, processing speed, and sequencing skills(Shaywitz et al, 1998), as well as in perceptual motor skills, auditory processing, and problem-solving skills(Gaab, Gabrieli, Deutsch, Tallal, & Temple, 2007)<br />Only 20% of eligible students are receiving supplemental educational services, partly because of a lack of quality programs(Burch, Steinberg,& Donovan, 2007).<br />Low-SES children are less likely than their well-off peers are to participate in activities that build attentional skills, such as games, sports, arts and computer-based skill building. Yet attention is the building block for all higher level cognition(Posner,2008).<br />Effort and emotional IQ are teachable traits that enable even low-IQ students to succeed(Mehrabian,2002).<br />
  58. 58. Action Steps(CHAMPS factors used as a guide)<br />Use a comprehensive 360-degree assessment-data is used to determine students strengthens and weaknesses.<br /><ul><li>Develop and implement a targeted plan- Implement programs three to five days a week, allotting 30-90 minutes per day. Students need consistent, coherent, sustained support in skill building. </li></li></ul><li>Enrich students operating systems- <br />Use hopeful expressions<br />Use affirmation<br />teach content in small chunks<br />Have students build something small and detailed<br />Use think-out-loud strategies to walk students through critical thinking processes<br />Engage students in project-based learning<br />
  59. 59. Monitor results and modify skill-building activities as needed.<br />Identify their weaknesses in basic skill areas <br />be sure to give constructive criticism. <br />upgrade their academic operating systems.<br />
  60. 60. ENGAGING <br />INSTRUCTION<br />
  61. 61. Essential Questions<br />How students engagement improves the learning process in SES schools<br />
  62. 62. Three key principles:<br />personalization,<br />adult world connection,<br />common intellectual mission<br />San Diego’s High Tech High (HTH) <br />Technology is used as the hook to increase engagement. <br />Innovative features<br />performance-based assessment,<br />daily shared planning time for staff,<br />state-of-the-art technical facilities for project-based learning,<br />internships for all students,<br />
  63. 63. Satisfied 13 of 25 AYP criteria.<br />97% students eligible for free and reduced lunch<br />
  64. 64. Secret of Accomplishment<br />1st month Teachers researched a Strategy<br />2nd month Leader teacher demonstrated the strategy<br />Teachers become Leaders on the campus<br />Teachers examine student work & self assessment to improve strategy<br />Teachers met to discuss questions and insights<br />Teacher implemented strategy, administrators collected data.<br />
  65. 65. Result<br />A culture of trust and collaboration among teachers and a family environment throughout the school (Atkins & Rossi, 2007),leading to fewer discipline problems and increased student achievement.<br />
  66. 66. Theory and Research<br /> Engaging instruction is a strategy that gets students to participate emotionally, cognitively, or behaviorally. <br />Engagement happens when an instructional leader stimulate, <br /> motivate, and activate. <br /> Engagement can result from <br />fun games, <br />intellectual challenges, <br />social interactions, and <br />enthusiasm. <br />This process has been well explored by everyone. (e.g., Jensen, 2003; Marzano, 2007; Reeve, 2006)<br />
  67. 67. Almost one half of all secondary students are bored every day. <br />One of every six high school students is bored in every single class (Yazzie-Mintz, 2007)<br />Annual survey conducted by <br />University of Indiana, which asks an extraordinary sample size of 81,000 kids about school experiences.<br />The NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development over the course of three years in more than 2,500 1st, 3rd, and 5th grade classrooms and based on live observations of more than 1,000 children.<br />Pianta, Belsky, Houts, and Morrison (2007) discovered that 5th graders spend 93 percent of their time sitting and working alone.<br />
  68. 68. High school students enjoy most is what they get to do least: engage in discussions and debates, the arts, group projects, and drama<br />
  69. 69. According to Jones, Valdez, Nowakowski, and Rasmussen (1994), the principal indicators of student engagement are:<br />Students volunteer for class assignments, to complete chores, or simply answer questions.<br />Students do things the first time they are asked and do not have to be nagged. <br />Students participate in after-school activities, such as clubs, sports, or social events.<br />In cooperative groups, students listen actively, ask questions, and make contributions.<br />Students actively participate in their own learning, get involved in making decisions in the course of their study, conduct rigorous research, think of ideas for projects, and use technology to make discoveries based on their choices. <br />
  70. 70. Action Steps<br /><ul><li> Find, recruit, and train the best staff you can find.
  71. 71. Gather information from students.
  72. 72. Communicate the evidence and make a plan.
  73. 73. Add a strategy each week and monitor progress.</li></ul>6.Use energizers, games, drama, simulations, and other demonstration strategies.<br />7.Keep the content alive with call-backs, hand raisers, stretching, and unfinished sentences and review questions.<br />8.Be passionate about you teach so that students are drawn into the emotional drama of the content.<br /> 1.Switch up social groups.<br /> 2. Incorporate movement through 3.learning stations, class switching, and assemblies.<br />4. Ask more compelling questions.<br />5. Appreciate and acknowledge every response.<br />
  74. 74. Summary<br />Which classroom-Level factors lead to success (S.H.A.R.E.) ?<br />Standard-Based Curriculum and Instruction<br />Learning targets<br />Formative assessment<br />Hope Building<br />Instill hope in our students’ lives see, hear and feel hope every day.<br />Summative assessment<br />Arts, Athletics, and Advance Placement<br />We must raise students’ learning capacity.<br />Our students are C.H.A.M.P.S<br />Retooling of the Operating System<br />Processing skills (Fast Forward software, Chess, think out loud strategies)<br />*Champion’s Mind Set<br />affirmations<br />Sequencing Skills (Project-based learning, physical games, board games)<br />Goal setting<br />Hopeful effort<br />Daily celebrations of learning<br />-Strong relationships<br />Engaging Instructions<br />-Role models<br />-Student mentors<br />Attentional Skills ( High interest content; mind maps; kinetic activities; musical instruments.)<br />Students take charge of their learning, self regulated, collaborative real life learning activities.<br />