Searching Healthcare Databases Adapted from a presentation by Jane Tatlow as part of the NLH Search 2.0 Representatives Group. Kieran Lamb Head of Library Service, Fade Library, Liverpool PCT Prepared with: Lisa Anderson Business Intelligence Service Project Manager, McArdle Library, Wirral University Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Graham Breckon Librarian , McArdle Library, Wirral University Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust From the original work developed by: Michelle Maden Clinical Information Specialist, Edge Hill University In collaboration with: Katie Barnes Director APNP Programmes, Liverpool John Moores University
Go to the NLH Homepage www.library.nhs.uk and log in with your NHS Athens username.
<ul><li>There are over 1000 online journals available to NHS staff which have been purchased by NHS England. Local health library services have added to this total. This includes many top titles such as JAMA and British Medical Journal. </li></ul><ul><li>Your NHS Athens username and password is the key to accessing these journals and articles. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct access to a searchable index is available via My Journals, http://journals.library.nhs.uk or from the link on the NLH homepage </li></ul>
Once you have logged on with your Athens username, select Healthcare Databases.
<ul><li>Articles and documents from the Nationally procured healthcare databases, Cinahl, EMBASE, HMIC, AMED, PsycINFO and BNI. </li></ul><ul><li>Medline from PubMed </li></ul><ul><li>Links to the full text of articles from online journal collections purchased by the NHS nationally and locally. </li></ul><ul><li>Links to journals held in print collections in local health libraries </li></ul>If you log in with an NHS Athens username your results will also include :
To do a Simple Search across all the databases, type your query topics into the search box and use Select All . Then click on SEARCH NOTE: You are Searching PubMed in this Simple Search
Results appear with the addition of Full Text links. Selecting the full text link will display a free online copy of the article to read, save or print. You may be prompted for your NHS Athens again.
<ul><li>Quick searching across the Healthcare Databases does not allow you to make full use of the databases’ searching tools. </li></ul><ul><li>To use the full functionality of the databases for a thorough review of evidence based literature you need to search each database in turn. </li></ul><ul><li>To construct an effective search strategy you also need to plan your search. Consider if the following would be applicable, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search terms: Are there other synonyms, alternative spellings or technical/layman terms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which databases will be most appropriate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you interested in a particular patient group, e.g. adults, diabetics, outpatients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medical interventions, e.g. specific drugs, therapies, surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You may also want to consider the original language of articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication type e.g. clinical trials, systematic reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or the period you wish to search, e.g. last five years. </li></ul></ul>
For more thorough searches it is recommended that you search the databases separately. To choose from the list of databases, use the link to Healthcare Databases Advanced Search
Single database search This time we have selected a single database EMBASE.
Finally select SEARCH . Choose appropriate search criteria i.e. Any field. Title and Abstract is the default setting. Multiple selections may be made by holding down the CTL key. Type one or more words into the search box.
Each new search is labelled with a number. You can use these numbers to combine different searches. Results are displayed in a Search history table that builds up as you enter new terms or phrases. Your search statement is repeated in the Search Term column.
The number of records found for each search is displayed as hits. Clicking on the hit number will display the records. We need to focus our search a bit more first.
To enter a new term, delete the previous word from the search box and type your new one, as here ‘yoga’. Select a search criteria.
We can now combine our two searches to find results for diabetes and yoga. Select the searches to be combined, check that the AND button is selected, then click on COMBINE SELECTED SEARCHES. NOTE: You could also type the relevant search numbers into the search box with a combine command, Type 1 AND 2 then use the Search Button.
<ul><li>Typing two words will retrieve results that contain both words. Entering cbt depression will retrieve the same results as entering cbt AND depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Use double quotes to enter phrases, for example, “cognitive behaviour therapy” “heart attack” </li></ul><ul><li>Use the combine function OR to search for results that include either term. Some examples are pediatric OR paediatric stroke OR cva </li></ul><ul><li>NOT is also available but should be used with caution. For example diabetes NOT adult would exclude clinical trials involving both adults and children, not just those involving adults. </li></ul><ul><li>There are more search tips in section 5 of your user guide. </li></ul>
The search form shows you the database you are searching, Note the extra features that are enabled with a single database search: more limits and Thesaurus features.
You can repeat the same search using some of the extra functionality. We can repeat the search in EMBASE for diabetes. To use the Thesaurus put a tick in the box next to Map to Thesaurus. To use the Thesaurus put a tick in the box next to Map to Thesaurus.
Thesaurus Headings are used to categorise each citation or reference within the database. Each entry is assigned index terms in the Thesaurus that can be used to search for articles. Selecting the Map to Thesaurus button will display suitable thesaurus terms for your search term. Select the most appropriate heading. If you are not sure use the link to [scope] for more information about the heading.
Selecting the blue term will display the thesaurus “tree” Selecting exploded will search all the more specific index terms beneath your selected term in the thesaurus tree. If you do not select exploded the search will only retrieve articles indexed with the more general term and you may miss relevant articles.
Some index terms will be assigned as Major descriptors for a particular article reference. Major descriptors are used to identify articles where the predominant subject is that of the index term. Major descriptor can be selected if you wish to focus your search.
Subheadings can also be used to focus your search. If you select subheadings and SEARCH, a list of subheadings relevant to that index term will be displayed. Once you have finished selecting from the Thesaurus. Select SEARCH.
You may need to repeat this process for your other term/s.
Continuing with the rest of our search. We can combine each thesaurus and keyword search using OR: 1 0R 4 2 OR 5 A single nested command can combine both the above with AND; (1 OR 4) AND (2 OR 5)
Using title and abstract and Thesaurus Mapping has increased the number of results retrieved . We can add limits to focus our results even further. Use the arrows to open each limit and view options, or Expand all limit and search options . To delete previously set limits, use Clear all limit and search options.
Here we have already selected a Date Limit 2003-2008, and have opened the language limit to select English language articles. Remember to include the number of the search you wish to apply limits to, here 6 Then select SEARCH
Here we have displayed the Age Limits. This is an extensive list. Multiple selections may be made within a limit by using the CTL key whilst selecting. Multiple selections within a limit will be combined with OR. If more than one type of limit is selected, they will be combined with AND.
Clinical Queries Limit The Clinical Queries Limit will restrict your results to clinically sound studies. Nine categories are provided, the emphasis may be: Sensitive : Most articles are relevant but may also retrieve some less relevant ones. Specific : Most articles are relevant but may omit a few. Optimized : a combination that optimizes the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity. These filters are based on the work of R Brian Haynes MD, PhD et al of the Health Information Research Unit HIRU. For more detail see the original web page. http:// hiru.mcmaster.ca /hedges/
To display your results select the blue link to records in the hit column.
Records are displayed by publication date. If there are less than 500 records, the sort order can be changed by selecting from the drop down menu, then selecting SORT.
Full text links NOTE: Full text links also include details about print copies held in local libraries. Where no online or print Full Text link is displayed, your local health library may be able to obtain a photocopy. Details of local health libraries will be available in the My Library pages of NLH website. Some records will include links to the full text content of an article. Selecting the blue supplier link will display the article. You may be prompted to enter your Athens username again – check for an Athens log in request if the article does not appear.
More detail - results To see more details about a record, select the record title. The details provided will depend on the database but might include an abstract, publication type or thesaurus index terms.
Clicking on a relevant subject heading will perform a search on that subject heading and return you to the search history
At the bottom of the results page, below the citations, is an output form allowing you to email, display or save selected results. Item 10 has been selected. You will need to select the display and output format, in this example, medium and pdf have been selected. Short: brief citation as in display. Medium: may include an abstract Full: may include Index or Subject Headings. Pdf: similar format to the published article
To save the selected results use Export Results with PDF, MS Word or Text output format . To display results use Export results with HTML output format. To email results select PDF, MS Word or Text output format.
Breadcrumb navigation To search again use the breadcrumb link Search and Limits to return to the search page.
Saving a search strategy It is possible to save searches . Saved searches include all details of the original search including terms, search criteria, databases and limits. Delete unwanted elements of your search. As here, the quick search across all databases. Select unwanted search lines and use Delete Selected Searches. Warning: You must be careful not to delete search lines you have later combined. Once deleted lines cannot be undone or retrieved. When you have the search as you want it, Select SAVE SEARCH HISTORY
Creating an alert Give your saved search a relevant name and SAVE
Managing alerts & saved searches When you return to searching healthcare databases use the HELLO area to manage your saved searches. You can also log out here at the end of a session
Select required searches using the radio buttons next to the search names. You can re-run a search or delete a search.