Erkin YURDAKUL (GULF WAR - FRICTION AND FOG OF WAR)
The Gulf War
• International conflict triggered by Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in
August 1990. Though justified by Iraqi leader Saddam
Hussein on grounds that Kuwait was historically part of Iraq,
the invasion was presumed to be motivated by Iraq's desire to
acquire Kuwait's rich oil fields and expand its power in the
region. The United States, fearing Iraq's broader strategic
intentions and acting under UN auspices, eventually formed a
broad coalition, which included a number of Arab countries,
and began massing troops in northern Saudi Arabia.
• When Iraq ignored a UN Security Council deadline for it
to withdraw from Kuwait, the coalition began a largescale air offensive
• Saddam responded by launching ballistic missiles against
neighboring coalition states as well as Israel. A ground
offensive by the coalition states as well as Israel.
• A ground offensive by the coalition quickly achieved victory.
Estimates of Iraqi military deaths range up to 100,000;
coalition forces lost about 300 troops. The war also caused
extensive damage to the region's environment. The Iraqi
regime subsequently faced widespread popular uprisings,
which it brutally suppressed. A UN trade embargo remained in
effect after the end of the conflict, pending Iraq's compliance
with the terms of the armistice. The foremost term was that
Iraq destroy its nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons
programs. The embargo continued into the 21st century and
ceased only after the Iraq War started in 2003.
• Saddam Hussein moved the tanks and infantries directly
to the oil reserve and Saudi Arabia border.
• America didn’t do any intervention in the Persian Gulf
• Iraq tried to control the middle east oil resources in own
hand and if they capture the Saudi Arabia’s oil reserves
Saddam will be the Head of the Middle East.
• This situation would damage the benefit of the powerful
western countries,and therefore they came together and
made decision about the interfere.
• Demolished vehicles line Highway 80, also known as the "Highway
of Death", the route fleeing Iraqi forces took as they retreated from
Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm. The tank visible in the center
of the picture is either a Type 59 or a Type 69 as evidenced by the
dome-shaped ventilator on the top of the turret and the headlamps on
the right fender.
• America knew the movement in the desert is very
• Iraqi soldiers was the expert of the desert fights. America
can win the Iraqi forces in the but they could lose the lots
of soldier and spend money.
The course of battle
• Initially, the ultimate anglo-saxon air forces had hit
communication lines and logistic routes. Therefore Iraqi
army had been deprived of command chain and logistic
support. Tomahawk missiles which launch from
battleships had hit the highways, airports, headquarters,
and high range fire support systems (artillery, missiles,
etc). In this manner, Iraq army had been deprived of
reinforcement and fire support.
FOG OF GULF WAR
• Iraq were tired on the Persian Gulf War (Iran-Iraq War, 8
• Iraq army was the 5th powerful army in the world. But
the Allied armies especially America had qualified,
techological, strategical troops and weapons by Iraq
forces. America still has it.
• Saddam Hussein trusted to Scud missiles but it was
• ineffective against the America.
• Saddam Hussein providing the soldiers uniform weapon
Iraqi armies during the Gulf War:
The will to fight low.
Tired and have fear from Despotic Leader Saddam Hussein.
The Iraqi army has recently entered the war.
They were trained by the army and classic infantry battle.
Using one type of weapons and missiles
Through the Eyes of America, Iraq communication and
Logistic worse than America
• From the America’s Perspective:
• Iraqi army had more information about the terrain.
• Iraq army had support of Iraq civilians. This both situation
provide advantage to Iraq army about non-conventional war.