Causes of the War Iraq was facing economic problems Continued military expansion spendingbillions on weapons Debt of 80-100 billion High ambitions Kuwait was capable of adding 2 millionbarrels a day of oil to Iraqi exports andincreasing total oil reserved to 198 billion
Unjustified Invasion Iraq invaded on August 1, 1990 No political justification for invasion Iraq claimed Kuwait violated oil quotas anddid not drain oil properly Kuwait provided Iraq with billions in aidduring the War with Iran
Iraq’s Justification Said they were supporting an uprising byDemocratic Kuwaiti forces Nonexistent Claimed to be liberating territory stolenfrom it by Britain Iraq had no claim to Kuwait as asuccessor state
Hussein’s Expectations Hussein felt Saudi Arabia would be tooscared to fight He also felt US would not be willing to goto war Underestimated Saudi Arabia gave Kuwaiti gov’t full supportand gained support of Gulf CooperationCouncil States
US Response• George H.W Bush committed massive militaryforces and announces they will send air, naval,and land forces Known as Operation Desert Shield (August 7th1990)US deploys tens of thousands of troops todefend Saudi Arabia Goal: Contain Iraq and liberate Kuwait• Froze Iraqi assets• Obtained UN support for a Naval Blockade on Iraqand an embargo on Iraqi imports and exports
Why did the US attack? No possibility for peace resolution Hussein’s atrocities- raped, pillaged, etc. Tortures to Kuwait were a challenge tofreedom Damage to the economies of the world US did not attack to conquest Iraq Saddam Hussein was a threat to theregion and to the world order
Beginning of the War Began January 17th, 1991 War codenamed Operation Desert Storm US led air units launched attacks on Iraqitargets (control facilities, air bases, etc.) Apache helicopters knocked out Iraq’sradar system Launched cruise missiles and precisionguided weapons
Air Combat Iraq has 770 combat aircraft Coalition air forces much stronger Iraqi aircraft flees to Iran Iraq fired long range SCUD missiles intoIsrael and Saudi Arabia US Patriot defense missiles hit the Scuds Did not provoke Israel to enter the war
Ground Combat Cut logistic supply to Iraqis Quick and decisive attack US held massive advantage in intelligence Iraqi forces poorly trained Lacked weapons and man power US did not invade Iraq Avoid Iraqi civil war and keep some stabilityin region
February 24, 1991 Two simultaneous attacks Pan Arab and US marines attackpenetrating Iraqi Defenses along SouthKuwait border Second attack at far west edge of IraqiSaudi border- largest air assault operation inMilitary history, US and British forcesadvance into Iraq – Attacks crushed Iraqi army
February 26, 1991 Longest sustained armored advance inhistory Fight for international airport Iraqi forces had limited resistance Coalition forces had superior tanks andhelicopters with rocket launch systems Cease-fire called on February 28, 1991
Overview Fighting lasted 43 days Shift in East-West Relations Forced Iraq to retreat from Kuwait Dictator vs. Democracy Iraq vs. UN, US, etc. War killed 100,000 Iraqi Soldiers and only200 allied troops
Foreign Policy US in period of interventionist foreignpolicy Saudi Arabia saw US as vital ally inmaintaining stability in Middle East Established US as trustworthy ally- nationscan count on the US to maintain worldorder, and not only act out of self-interest Set up tensions that would lead US to warwith Iraq in 21st century
Works Cited Cruden, Alexander, ed. The Persian GulfWar. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2011. Print. Kalaitzidis, Akis, and Gregory W. Streich.U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary andReference Guide. Santa Barbara:Greenwood, 2011. Print.
Image Citation "United States soldier during Persian GulfWar. In 1990, Iraqi forces under the controlof military..." New Dictionary of the Historyof Ideas. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz.Vol. 6. Detroit: Charles Scribners Sons,2005. World History In Context. Web. 26May 2013.