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Persian Gulf War


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Persian Gulf War

  1. 1. Persian GulfWarBy Adrienne Brauch
  2. 2. Causes of the War Iraq was facing economic problems Continued military expansion spendingbillions on weapons Debt of 80-100 billion High ambitions Kuwait was capable of adding 2 millionbarrels a day of oil to Iraqi exports andincreasing total oil reserved to 198 billion
  3. 3. Unjustified Invasion Iraq invaded on August 1, 1990 No political justification for invasion Iraq claimed Kuwait violated oil quotas anddid not drain oil properly Kuwait provided Iraq with billions in aidduring the War with Iran
  4. 4. Iraq’s Justification Said they were supporting an uprising byDemocratic Kuwaiti forces Nonexistent Claimed to be liberating territory stolenfrom it by Britain Iraq had no claim to Kuwait as asuccessor state
  5. 5. Hussein’s Expectations Hussein felt Saudi Arabia would be tooscared to fight He also felt US would not be willing to goto war Underestimated Saudi Arabia gave Kuwaiti gov’t full supportand gained support of Gulf CooperationCouncil States
  6. 6. US Response• George H.W Bush committed massive militaryforces and announces they will send air, naval,and land forces Known as Operation Desert Shield (August 7th1990)US deploys tens of thousands of troops todefend Saudi Arabia Goal: Contain Iraq and liberate Kuwait• Froze Iraqi assets• Obtained UN support for a Naval Blockade on Iraqand an embargo on Iraqi imports and exports
  7. 7. Why did the US attack? No possibility for peace resolution Hussein’s atrocities- raped, pillaged, etc. Tortures to Kuwait were a challenge tofreedom Damage to the economies of the world US did not attack to conquest Iraq Saddam Hussein was a threat to theregion and to the world order
  8. 8. Beginning of the War Began January 17th, 1991 War codenamed Operation Desert Storm US led air units launched attacks on Iraqitargets (control facilities, air bases, etc.) Apache helicopters knocked out Iraq’sradar system Launched cruise missiles and precisionguided weapons
  9. 9. Air Combat Iraq has 770 combat aircraft Coalition air forces much stronger Iraqi aircraft flees to Iran Iraq fired long range SCUD missiles intoIsrael and Saudi Arabia US Patriot defense missiles hit the Scuds Did not provoke Israel to enter the war
  10. 10. Ground Combat Cut logistic supply to Iraqis Quick and decisive attack US held massive advantage in intelligence Iraqi forces poorly trained Lacked weapons and man power US did not invade Iraq Avoid Iraqi civil war and keep some stabilityin region
  11. 11.  February 24, 1991 Two simultaneous attacks Pan Arab and US marines attackpenetrating Iraqi Defenses along SouthKuwait border Second attack at far west edge of IraqiSaudi border- largest air assault operation inMilitary history, US and British forcesadvance into Iraq – Attacks crushed Iraqi army
  12. 12.  February 26, 1991 Longest sustained armored advance inhistory Fight for international airport Iraqi forces had limited resistance Coalition forces had superior tanks andhelicopters with rocket launch systems Cease-fire called on February 28, 1991
  13. 13. Overview Fighting lasted 43 days Shift in East-West Relations Forced Iraq to retreat from Kuwait Dictator vs. Democracy Iraq vs. UN, US, etc. War killed 100,000 Iraqi Soldiers and only200 allied troops
  14. 14. Foreign Policy US in period of interventionist foreignpolicy Saudi Arabia saw US as vital ally inmaintaining stability in Middle East Established US as trustworthy ally- nationscan count on the US to maintain worldorder, and not only act out of self-interest Set up tensions that would lead US to warwith Iraq in 21st century
  15. 15. Works Cited Cruden, Alexander, ed. The Persian GulfWar. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2011. Print. Kalaitzidis, Akis, and Gregory W. Streich.U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary andReference Guide. Santa Barbara:Greenwood, 2011. Print.
  16. 16. Image Citation "United States soldier during Persian GulfWar. In 1990, Iraqi forces under the controlof military..." New Dictionary of the Historyof Ideas. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz.Vol. 6. Detroit: Charles Scribners Sons,2005. World History In Context. Web. 26May 2013.