• Shiite Revolution succeeds in taking power in Iran.
• Threatened the stability of the whole region.
• Disrupted the status quo of Pro-Western regimes in
the Middle East.
• New Iran openly defiant of any and all foreign
interference in the Middle East.
• Iraq and Iran have some border disputes
• Assassinations of prominent Iraqis occurred and Iran
was blamed by Iraq.
• Part of the Sunni – Shiite rivalry.
IRAQ – IRAN WAR
• Iraq fear of Iran influence and power + border disputes +
assassinations + Saddam wanting to be the grand
pumba of the Middle East = Iraqi invasion of Iran
• Nasty war that resulted in a million or so deaths
• Looked a lot like World War One
• Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against Iran
and Kurds who were rebelling in the North.
• Devastated both economies
• War ends in a draw
• War was drawn along Sunni/Shiite lines and Arab/Persian
• Kuwait and Iraq were allies during the Iran-Iraq War.
Kuwait loaned about 14 billion dollars to Iraq during
• After the war Iraq couldn’t and/or didn’t want to
pay off it’s debt.
• Iraq asked Kuwait to forgive it’s debt because Iraq
fought the war to prevent Persians from advancing
onto Arab land.
• Kuwait did not forgive the debt.
IRAQ DECIDES TO INVADE
• Reasons Iraq invaded Kuwait
• Kuwait has 101 billion barrels in oil reserves– just like
• If Iraq takes over Kuwait then:
• War debt is gone
• Iraq becomes the second largest oil producer in the
OH NO YOU DIDN’T
• Iraq invasion, conquest, and annexation of Kuwait
was a complete success.
• Thousands of Kuwaiti refugees forced into
• Iraq’s invasion NOT seen as legitimate in the world’s
• UN starts taking actions to condemn invasion and
eventually drive Iraq out of Kuwait.
• USA will spearhead this.
• 1. Summarize what you’ve seen out of Saddam
Hussein in Iran and Kuwait from 1980-1991.
OPERATION DESERT STORM
• USA led coalition that pistol whips Iraq and drives
them out of Kuwait
• Not a war – it was a joke
• War is responsible for the USA getting its military
swagger back. First big win since it’s disgrace in
• USA pursues retreating Iraqi military into Iraq, but
does not invade Iraq completely.
• President Bush had to decide if the USA will drive to
Bagdad and remove Saddam Hussein from power or
leave him be.
• Saddam is like a lion with no teeth or claws now and
he’s facing a possible coup at home.
• USA mission was to liberate Kuwait – not remove
Saddam – so Bush Sr. called off the dogs.
• We left a military presence in the Middle East to keep an
eye on Saddam, protect Saudi Arabia and other Middle
Eastern allies from Iraq. We do this by enforcing a no fly
zone in parts of Iraq .
• We also use this to protect Saddam’s own people from
him – especially the Kurds.
THE RIGHT CHOICE?
• US only had international support to liberate Kuwait.
To go beyond that would’ve damaged our
• Occupying and invading Iraq in 2003 was
costly, damaged our reputation abroad, created
sectarian violence in Iraq, and took away the
biggest rival to Iran’s power in the region.
THE WRONG CHOICE?
• Leaving troops in the Middle East to guard Saddam
helped lead to the creation of Al Qaeda because
having foreign US troops in Saudi Arabia, the holiest
region in Islam, is NOT allowed.
• Saddam was a sponsor of terrorism – who knows what
damage he caused from 1991-2003.
• Saddam cracked down on opposition in Iraq.
Thousands were killed and tortured so he could stay in
• We ended up having to go back in there anyway – we
should’ve just finished him off when he had him on the
AGREE OR DISAGREE
• 2. Do you agree or disagree with George Bush Sr.
for deciding not to invade Iraq in 1991? Explain
IRAQ WAR 2.O
• Iraq has little to no sovereignty after Desert Storm.
• Military and economic restrictions put on Iraq
because of Kuwait invasion.
• Saddam refusing to let UN weapon inspectors in to
inspect his WMD capabilities.
• He is getting very aggressive again.
• Our middle eastern allies are getting nervous that
he is going to either use weapons of mass
destruction and/or that he is going to sell those
weapons to terrorists.
• 3. Why would neighbors of Iraq be concerned that
Saddam will invade them or use WMD’s on them?
IRAQ WAR 2.0
• USA intelligence implies that Saddam is indeed
building WMD’s .
• Bush Jr. could really care less about forming a
• It’s post 9/11 now – we are going to pounce on
anything that looks like a terrorist or supports a
terrorist – international support be damned!
• US invades in 2003 – piece of cake.
• Extension of our war on terror.
• Remove Saddam – find no wmd’s - oops.
• Starts a long US occupation that will lasts until 2012.
• Occupying and invading Iraq in the 2003 was
costly, damaged US reputation abroad, created
sectarian violence in Iraq, and took away the biggest
obstacle to Iran’s power in the region.
• Policy makers in Washington DC were/are hoping that
Iraq would become a model of democracy and
capitalism in the Middle East. Making Iraq an even
stronger counter to Iran. Time will tell if this will happen.
• Iraq very diverse and from the US stand point
democracy is the only solution to peace there without
an authoritarian regime.
IRAQ – THE CROSSROADS
• Iraq is the crossroads of the Middle East, so what
does this mean?
• The Sunni and Shiite religious groups meet here.
• The Persian and Arab ethnic groups meet here.
You also have Kurds, a Turkish ethnic group (who
want nothing with being part of Turkey or Iraq).
• The end result of these factors is simple – there are
more forces pulling Iraq apart than pulling them
together. Saddam kept them together through