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Overview of Iraq


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Overview of Iraq's history from around 1980-present.

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Overview of Iraq

  1. 1. 1 9 7 9 - P R E S E N T IRAQ
  2. 2. IRAN 1979 • Shiite Revolution succeeds in taking power in Iran. • Threatened the stability of the whole region. • Disrupted the status quo of Pro-Western regimes in the Middle East. • New Iran openly defiant of any and all foreign interference in the Middle East.
  3. 3. IRAQ-IRAN DISPUTES • Iraq and Iran have some border disputes • Assassinations of prominent Iraqis occurred and Iran was blamed by Iraq. • Part of the Sunni – Shiite rivalry.
  4. 4. IRAQ – IRAN WAR • Iraq fear of Iran influence and power + border disputes + assassinations + Saddam wanting to be the grand pumba of the Middle East = Iraqi invasion of Iran • Nasty war that resulted in a million or so deaths • 1980-1988 • Looked a lot like World War One • Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against Iran and Kurds who were rebelling in the North. • Devastated both economies • War ends in a draw • War was drawn along Sunni/Shiite lines and Arab/Persian lines.
  5. 5. BFF’S • Kuwait and Iraq were allies during the Iran-Iraq War. Kuwait loaned about 14 billion dollars to Iraq during the war. • After the war Iraq couldn’t and/or didn’t want to pay off it’s debt. • Iraq asked Kuwait to forgive it’s debt because Iraq fought the war to prevent Persians from advancing onto Arab land. • Kuwait did not forgive the debt.
  6. 6. IRAQ DECIDES TO INVADE • Reasons Iraq invaded Kuwait • Kuwait has 101 billion barrels in oil reserves– just like Iraq . • If Iraq takes over Kuwait then: • War debt is gone • Iraq becomes the second largest oil producer in the world.
  7. 7. OH NO YOU DIDN’T • Iraq invasion, conquest, and annexation of Kuwait was a complete success. • Thousands of Kuwaiti refugees forced into neighboring countries. • Iraq’s invasion NOT seen as legitimate in the world’s eyes. • UN starts taking actions to condemn invasion and eventually drive Iraq out of Kuwait. • USA will spearhead this.
  8. 8. SUMMARIZE • 1. Summarize what you’ve seen out of Saddam Hussein in Iran and Kuwait from 1980-1991.
  9. 9. OPERATION DESERT STORM • USA led coalition that pistol whips Iraq and drives them out of Kuwait • Not a war – it was a joke • War is responsible for the USA getting its military swagger back. First big win since it’s disgrace in Vietnam. • USA pursues retreating Iraqi military into Iraq, but does not invade Iraq completely.
  10. 10. FATEFUL DECISION • President Bush had to decide if the USA will drive to Bagdad and remove Saddam Hussein from power or leave him be. • Saddam is like a lion with no teeth or claws now and he’s facing a possible coup at home. • USA mission was to liberate Kuwait – not remove Saddam – so Bush Sr. called off the dogs. • We left a military presence in the Middle East to keep an eye on Saddam, protect Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern allies from Iraq. We do this by enforcing a no fly zone in parts of Iraq . • We also use this to protect Saddam’s own people from him – especially the Kurds.
  11. 11. THE RIGHT CHOICE? • YES • US only had international support to liberate Kuwait. To go beyond that would’ve damaged our reputation abroad. • Occupying and invading Iraq in 2003 was costly, damaged our reputation abroad, created sectarian violence in Iraq, and took away the biggest rival to Iran’s power in the region.
  12. 12. THE WRONG CHOICE? • NO • Leaving troops in the Middle East to guard Saddam helped lead to the creation of Al Qaeda because having foreign US troops in Saudi Arabia, the holiest region in Islam, is NOT allowed. • Saddam was a sponsor of terrorism – who knows what damage he caused from 1991-2003. • Saddam cracked down on opposition in Iraq. Thousands were killed and tortured so he could stay in power. • We ended up having to go back in there anyway – we should’ve just finished him off when he had him on the ropes.
  13. 13. AGREE OR DISAGREE • 2. Do you agree or disagree with George Bush Sr. for deciding not to invade Iraq in 1991? Explain your answer.
  14. 14. P A R T T WO IRAQ
  15. 15. IRAQ WAR 2.O • Iraq has little to no sovereignty after Desert Storm. • Military and economic restrictions put on Iraq because of Kuwait invasion. • Saddam refusing to let UN weapon inspectors in to inspect his WMD capabilities. • He is getting very aggressive again. • Our middle eastern allies are getting nervous that he is going to either use weapons of mass destruction and/or that he is going to sell those weapons to terrorists.
  16. 16. SUMMARIZE • 3. Why would neighbors of Iraq be concerned that Saddam will invade them or use WMD’s on them?
  17. 17. IRAQ WAR 2.0 • USA intelligence implies that Saddam is indeed building WMD’s . • Bush Jr. could really care less about forming a coalition. • It’s post 9/11 now – we are going to pounce on anything that looks like a terrorist or supports a terrorist – international support be damned! • US invades in 2003 – piece of cake. • Extension of our war on terror. • Remove Saddam – find no wmd’s - oops. • Starts a long US occupation that will lasts until 2012.
  18. 18. IMPACT • Occupying and invading Iraq in the 2003 was costly, damaged US reputation abroad, created sectarian violence in Iraq, and took away the biggest obstacle to Iran’s power in the region. • Policy makers in Washington DC were/are hoping that Iraq would become a model of democracy and capitalism in the Middle East. Making Iraq an even stronger counter to Iran. Time will tell if this will happen. • Iraq very diverse and from the US stand point democracy is the only solution to peace there without an authoritarian regime.
  19. 19. IRAQ – THE CROSSROADS • Iraq is the crossroads of the Middle East, so what does this mean? • The Sunni and Shiite religious groups meet here. • The Persian and Arab ethnic groups meet here. You also have Kurds, a Turkish ethnic group (who want nothing with being part of Turkey or Iraq). • The end result of these factors is simple – there are more forces pulling Iraq apart than pulling them together. Saddam kept them together through force.
  20. 20. IRAQ’S PROBLEM?
  21. 21. MODERN CONCERNS • USA reputation as a nation builder at risk. • Can democracy work in the Middle East? • Iran’s influence in the Middle East is at stake. • Sectarian violence.
  22. 22. SUMMARY • 4. Summarize Iraq 2.0 in paragraph form. • 5. Do you think Democracy is the answer to Iraq's diversity or do you think the country is better off in the hands of a dictator?
  23. 23. TIMELINE • Make a timeline of Iraq’s history from 1980-present.