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7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Just North of Acapulco Mexico on 18 April 2014
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7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Just North of Acapulco Mexico on 18 April 2014

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Mexico has a long historical record of earthquakes. Large magnitude earthquakes in mexico are inevitable. It is absolutely imperative that we do not simply wait for another reminder of the …

Mexico has a long historical record of earthquakes. Large magnitude earthquakes in mexico are inevitable. It is absolutely imperative that we do not simply wait for another reminder of the importance of becoming earthquake disaster resilient. Technologies that facilitate preparation of disaster scenarios have been available for many years and are essential for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, planning, and response. This presentation produced by Dr. Walter Hays describes specific measures that a city or a megacity like Mexico City can do to make its buildings less vulnerable to earthquakes

Published in Environment , Technology
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  • 1. 7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Just North of Acapulco Mexico on 18 April 2014
  • 2. MEXICO
  • 3. LOCATION MAP (Note Acapulco)
  • 4. The quake struck around 9:28 a.m. local time (10:28 a.m. ET), 39 kilometers east of Petatlan, Mexico, in the southwestern state of Guerrero, north of the resort city Acapulco
  • 5. INITIAL REPORTS Buildings in Mexico City shook for 30 minutes No Deaths; No Injuries
  • 6. BACKGROUND
  • 7. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN MEXICO FLOODS STORMS EARTHQUAKES DUST STORMS ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER NRESILIENT GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES
  • 8. Mexico has a long historical record of earthquakes
  • 9. CAUSE OF SEISMICITY • The ongoing interaction of the Cocos and North American plates is the causative factor for the seismicity of Mexico.
  • 10. INTERACTING PLATES
  • 11. THE COCOS PLATE IS SUB- DUCTING BENEATH THE NA PLATE
  • 12. ELEMENTS OF RISK AND DISASTER
  • 13. HAZARDS ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISK EXPOSURE VULNERABILITY LOCATION RISK
  • 14. EARTHQUAKE HAZARD MODEL SEISMICITY TECTONIC SETTING & FAULTS
  • 15. FAULTS: COCOS PLATE SUBDUCTION ZONE
  • 16. EXPOSURE MODEL LOCATION OF STRUCTURE IMPORTANCE AND VALUE OF STRUCTURE AND CONTENTS
  • 17. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS (the potential disaster agents) SURFACE FAULT RUPTURE, GROUND SHAKING, GROUND FAILURE (LIQUEFACTION, LANDSLIDES), AFTERSHOCKS
  • 18. TECTONIC DEFORMATION EARTHQUAKE TSUNAMI GROUND SHAKING FAULT RUPTURE FOUNDATION FAILURE SITE AMPLIFICATION LIQUEFACTION LANDSLIDES AFTERSHOCKS SEICHE DAMAGE/LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS
  • 19. GROUND SHAKING
  • 20. GTOUND SHAKING HAZARD
  • 21. VULNERABILITY MODEL QUALITY OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ADEQUACY OF LATERAL-FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM
  • 22. INTENSITY V VI VII VIII IX 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 MEANDAMAGERATIO, %OFREPLACEMENTVALUE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING
  • 23. INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING EARTHQUAKES SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON- STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CAUSES OF DAMAGE “DISASTER LABORATORIES”
  • 24. A DISASTER CAN HAPPEN WHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE INTERACT WITH MEXICO’S COMMUNITIES (INCLUDING THE CAPITAL)
  • 25. A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external help when three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, floods,…) intersect at a point in space and time.
  • 26. Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
  • 27. THE REASONS ARE . . . • When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards.
  • 28. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community is UN- PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence— high-probability of adverse consequences event.
  • 29. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
  • 30. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
  • 31. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction when it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
  • 32. EXAMPLES OF MEXOCO’S PAST EARTHQUAKE DISASTERS THE 7:19 AM, M8.1 EARTHQUAKE OF SEPTEMBER 19, 1985
  • 33. 1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE • SEPTEMBER 19, 1985 • M8.1 • A SUBDUCTION ZONE QUAKE • ALTHOUGH LARGER THAN USUAL, THE EARTHQUAKE WAS NOT A ―SURPRISE‖ • A MODERN BUILDING CODE ADOPTED AND IMPLEMENTED BEFORE THE EARTHQUAKE WAS INADEQUATE
  • 34. 1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE • EPICENTER LOCATED 240 KM FROM MEXICO CITY • 412 BUILDINGS COLLAPSED IN OLD LAKE BED ZONE OF MEXICO CITY • 2 SECOND PERIOD SOIL-STRUCTURE RESONANCE IN OLD LAKE BED ZONE WAS A MAJOR FACTOR IN COLLAPSES
  • 35. 1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE: SOIL AMPLIFICATION
  • 36. COLLAPSE OF CRITICAL STRUCTURES--HOSPITALS
  • 37. COLLAPSE: ESSENTIAL STRUCTURES--SCHOOLS
  • 38. STEEL FRAME BUILDINGS
  • 39. POUNDING
  • 40. NUEVA LEON APARTMENT BUILDINGS
  • 41. SEARCH AND RESCUE
  • 42. SEARCH AND RESCUE
  • 43. TELECOMMUNICATIONS (SCT)
  • 44. RAILROAD TRACKS
  • 45. IMPACTS • Although the epicenter was located far from Mexico city, the soft soil of the old lake bed the city is sited on amplified the ground shaking in Mexico City, damaging 3,124 buildings, collapsing 412 of them and killing between 10,000 – 40,000 people.
  • 46. IMPACTS • The economic loss was between $3-4 billion.
  • 47. LARGE MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKES IN MEXICO ARE INEVITABLE • ---SO, DON’T WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING EARTHQUAKE DIS- ASTER RESILIENT.
  • 48. THE ALTERNATIVE TO AN EARTHQUAKE DISASTER IS EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 49. TURKEY’S COMMUNITIES DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS • EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS •INVENTORY •VULNERABILITY •LOCATION EARTHQUAKE RISK RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE •PREPAREDNESS •PROTECTION •FORECASTS/SCENARIOS •EMERGENCY RESPONSE •RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION POLICY OPTIONS
  • 50. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES PREPAREDNESS FOR ALL OF THE LIKELY AND UNLIKELY HAZARDS AND RISKS IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 51. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE AGAINST COLLAPSE AND LOSS OF FUNCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 52. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES TECHNOLOGIES THAT FACILITATE PREPARATION OF DISASTER SCENARIOS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 53. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 54. STRATEGIC COLLABORATION (I.E., WORKING TOGETHER ON A COMMON GOAL) FOR BECOMING EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENT
  • 55. QUESTION • WHAT DOES A CITY OR A MEGACITY DO TO MAKE ITS BUILDINGS LESS VULNERABLE TO EARTHQUAKES?