7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Just North
of Acapulco Mexico on 18 April 2014
MEXICO
LOCATION MAP
(Note Acapulco)
The quake struck around
9:28 a.m. local time (10:28
a.m. ET), 39 kilometers east
of Petatlan, Mexico, in the
southwestern ...
INITIAL REPORTS
Buildings in Mexico City
shook for 30 minutes
No Deaths; No Injuries
BACKGROUND
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED
DISASTERS IN MEXICO
FLOODS
STORMS
EARTHQUAKES
DUST STORMS
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE
GLOBAL CLI...
Mexico has a long historical
record of earthquakes
CAUSE OF SEISMICITY
• The ongoing interaction of the
Cocos and North American
plates is the causative factor
for the seism...
INTERACTING PLATES
THE COCOS PLATE IS SUB-
DUCTING BENEATH THE NA PLATE
ELEMENTS OF RISK AND
DISASTER
HAZARDS
ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE
RISK
EXPOSURE
VULNERABILITY LOCATION
RISK
EARTHQUAKE
HAZARD MODEL
SEISMICITY TECTONIC
SETTING &
FAULTS
FAULTS: COCOS PLATE
SUBDUCTION ZONE
EXPOSURE
MODEL
LOCATION OF
STRUCTURE
IMPORTANCE AND
VALUE OF
STRUCTURE AND
CONTENTS
EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS
(the potential disaster
agents)
SURFACE FAULT RUPTURE,
GROUND SHAKING, GROUND
FAILURE (LIQUEFACTION,
LA...
TECTONIC
DEFORMATION
EARTHQUAKE
TSUNAMI
GROUND
SHAKING
FAULT RUPTURE
FOUNDATION
FAILURE
SITE
AMPLIFICATION
LIQUEFACTION
LA...
GROUND SHAKING
GTOUND SHAKING HAZARD
VULNERABILITY
MODEL
QUALITY OF
DESIGN AND
CONSTRUCTION
ADEQUACY OF
LATERAL-FORCE
RESISTING SYSTEM
INTENSITY
V VI VII VIII IX
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
MEANDAMAGERATIO,
%OFREPLACEMENTVALUE
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE
DIFFEREN...
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO
HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING
EARTHQUAKES
SOIL AMPLIFICATION
PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT
(SURFACE FAULTING...
A DISASTER CAN HAPPEN
WHEN THE
POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS
OF AN EARTHQUAKE INTERACT
WITH MEXICO’S COMMUNITIES
(INCLUDING TH...
A DISASTER is ---
--- the set of failures that overwhelm the
capability of a community to respond
without external help wh...
Disasters are caused by
single- or multiple-event
natural hazards that, (for
various reasons), cause
extreme levels of mor...
THE REASONS ARE . . .
• When it does happen, the
functions of the community’s
buildings and infrastructure will be
LOST be...
THE REASONS ARE . . .
• The community is UN-
PREPARED for what will likely
happen, not to mention the
low-probability of o...
THE REASONS ARE . . .
• The community has NO DISASTER
PLANNING SCENARIO or
WARNING SYSTEM in place as a
strategic framewor...
THE REASONS ARE . . .
• The community LACKS THE
CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a
timely and effective manner to
the full spectrum ...
THE REASONS ARE . . .
• The community is INEFFICIENT
during recovery and
reconstruction when it HAS
NOT LEARNED from eithe...
EXAMPLES OF MEXOCO’S
PAST EARTHQUAKE
DISASTERS
THE 7:19 AM, M8.1 EARTHQUAKE
OF
SEPTEMBER 19, 1985
1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE
• SEPTEMBER 19, 1985
• M8.1
• A SUBDUCTION ZONE
QUAKE
• ALTHOUGH LARGER
THAN USUAL, THE
EARTHQUAKE ...
1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE
• EPICENTER LOCATED
240 KM FROM MEXICO
CITY
• 412 BUILDINGS
COLLAPSED IN OLD
LAKE BED ZONE OF
MEXIC...
1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE:
SOIL AMPLIFICATION
COLLAPSE OF CRITICAL
STRUCTURES--HOSPITALS
COLLAPSE: ESSENTIAL
STRUCTURES--SCHOOLS
STEEL FRAME BUILDINGS
POUNDING
NUEVA LEON APARTMENT
BUILDINGS
SEARCH AND RESCUE
SEARCH AND RESCUE
TELECOMMUNICATIONS (SCT)
RAILROAD TRACKS
IMPACTS
• Although the epicenter was located far
from Mexico city, the soft soil of the old
lake bed the city is sited on ...
IMPACTS
• The economic loss was
between $3-4 billion.
LARGE MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKES IN
MEXICO ARE INEVITABLE
• ---SO, DON’T WAIT
FOR ANOTHER
REMINDER OF THE
IMPORTANCE OF
BECOMIN...
THE ALTERNATIVE TO AN
EARTHQUAKE DISASTER IS
EARTHQUAKE DISASTER
RESILIENCE
TURKEY’S
COMMUNITIES
DATA BASES
AND INFORMATION
HAZARDS:
GROUND SHAKING
GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING
TECTONIC DEFORMATI...
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT
DISASTER RESILIENCE
ALL EARTHQUAKES
PREPAREDNESS FOR
ALL OF THE LIKELY
AND UNLIKELY
HAZARDS AND
RISK...
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT
DISASTER RESILIENCE
ALL EARTHQUAKES
PROTECTION OF
BUILDINGS AND
INFRASTRUCTURE
AGAINST COLLAPSE
AND ...
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT
DISASTER RESILIENCE
ALL EARTHQUAKES
TECHNOLOGIES
THAT FACILITATE
PREPARATION OF
DISASTER
SCENARIOS A...
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT
DISASTER RESILIENCE
ALL EARTHQUAKES
TIMELY
EMERGENCY
RESPONSE IS
ESSENTIAL FOR
DISASTER
RESILIENCE
STRATEGIC COLLABORATION
(I.E., WORKING TOGETHER ON A
COMMON GOAL)
FOR BECOMING
EARTHQUAKE DISASTER
RESILIENT
QUESTION
• WHAT DOES A CITY OR A
MEGACITY DO TO MAKE ITS
BUILDINGS LESS VULNERABLE
TO EARTHQUAKES?
7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Just North of Acapulco Mexico on 18 April 2014
7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Just North of Acapulco Mexico on 18 April 2014
7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Just North of Acapulco Mexico on 18 April 2014
7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Just North of Acapulco Mexico on 18 April 2014
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7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Just North of Acapulco Mexico on 18 April 2014

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Mexico has a long historical record of earthquakes. Large magnitude earthquakes in mexico are inevitable. It is absolutely imperative that we do not simply wait for another reminder of the importance of becoming earthquake disaster resilient. Technologies that facilitate preparation of disaster scenarios have been available for many years and are essential for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, planning, and response. This presentation produced by Dr. Walter Hays describes specific measures that a city or a megacity like Mexico City can do to make its buildings less vulnerable to earthquakes

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7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Just North of Acapulco Mexico on 18 April 2014

  1. 1. 7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Just North of Acapulco Mexico on 18 April 2014
  2. 2. MEXICO
  3. 3. LOCATION MAP (Note Acapulco)
  4. 4. The quake struck around 9:28 a.m. local time (10:28 a.m. ET), 39 kilometers east of Petatlan, Mexico, in the southwestern state of Guerrero, north of the resort city Acapulco
  5. 5. INITIAL REPORTS Buildings in Mexico City shook for 30 minutes No Deaths; No Injuries
  6. 6. BACKGROUND
  7. 7. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN MEXICO FLOODS STORMS EARTHQUAKES DUST STORMS ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER NRESILIENT GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES
  8. 8. Mexico has a long historical record of earthquakes
  9. 9. CAUSE OF SEISMICITY • The ongoing interaction of the Cocos and North American plates is the causative factor for the seismicity of Mexico.
  10. 10. INTERACTING PLATES
  11. 11. THE COCOS PLATE IS SUB- DUCTING BENEATH THE NA PLATE
  12. 12. ELEMENTS OF RISK AND DISASTER
  13. 13. HAZARDS ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISK EXPOSURE VULNERABILITY LOCATION RISK
  14. 14. EARTHQUAKE HAZARD MODEL SEISMICITY TECTONIC SETTING & FAULTS
  15. 15. FAULTS: COCOS PLATE SUBDUCTION ZONE
  16. 16. EXPOSURE MODEL LOCATION OF STRUCTURE IMPORTANCE AND VALUE OF STRUCTURE AND CONTENTS
  17. 17. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS (the potential disaster agents) SURFACE FAULT RUPTURE, GROUND SHAKING, GROUND FAILURE (LIQUEFACTION, LANDSLIDES), AFTERSHOCKS
  18. 18. TECTONIC DEFORMATION EARTHQUAKE TSUNAMI GROUND SHAKING FAULT RUPTURE FOUNDATION FAILURE SITE AMPLIFICATION LIQUEFACTION LANDSLIDES AFTERSHOCKS SEICHE DAMAGE/LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS
  19. 19. GROUND SHAKING
  20. 20. GTOUND SHAKING HAZARD
  21. 21. VULNERABILITY MODEL QUALITY OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ADEQUACY OF LATERAL-FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM
  22. 22. INTENSITY V VI VII VIII IX 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 MEANDAMAGERATIO, %OFREPLACEMENTVALUE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING
  23. 23. INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING EARTHQUAKES SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON- STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CAUSES OF DAMAGE “DISASTER LABORATORIES”
  24. 24. A DISASTER CAN HAPPEN WHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE INTERACT WITH MEXICO’S COMMUNITIES (INCLUDING THE CAPITAL)
  25. 25. A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external help when three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, floods,…) intersect at a point in space and time.
  26. 26. Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
  27. 27. THE REASONS ARE . . . • When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards.
  28. 28. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community is UN- PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence— high-probability of adverse consequences event.
  29. 29. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
  30. 30. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
  31. 31. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction when it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
  32. 32. EXAMPLES OF MEXOCO’S PAST EARTHQUAKE DISASTERS THE 7:19 AM, M8.1 EARTHQUAKE OF SEPTEMBER 19, 1985
  33. 33. 1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE • SEPTEMBER 19, 1985 • M8.1 • A SUBDUCTION ZONE QUAKE • ALTHOUGH LARGER THAN USUAL, THE EARTHQUAKE WAS NOT A ―SURPRISE‖ • A MODERN BUILDING CODE ADOPTED AND IMPLEMENTED BEFORE THE EARTHQUAKE WAS INADEQUATE
  34. 34. 1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE • EPICENTER LOCATED 240 KM FROM MEXICO CITY • 412 BUILDINGS COLLAPSED IN OLD LAKE BED ZONE OF MEXICO CITY • 2 SECOND PERIOD SOIL-STRUCTURE RESONANCE IN OLD LAKE BED ZONE WAS A MAJOR FACTOR IN COLLAPSES
  35. 35. 1985 MEXICO EARTHQUAKE: SOIL AMPLIFICATION
  36. 36. COLLAPSE OF CRITICAL STRUCTURES--HOSPITALS
  37. 37. COLLAPSE: ESSENTIAL STRUCTURES--SCHOOLS
  38. 38. STEEL FRAME BUILDINGS
  39. 39. POUNDING
  40. 40. NUEVA LEON APARTMENT BUILDINGS
  41. 41. SEARCH AND RESCUE
  42. 42. SEARCH AND RESCUE
  43. 43. TELECOMMUNICATIONS (SCT)
  44. 44. RAILROAD TRACKS
  45. 45. IMPACTS • Although the epicenter was located far from Mexico city, the soft soil of the old lake bed the city is sited on amplified the ground shaking in Mexico City, damaging 3,124 buildings, collapsing 412 of them and killing between 10,000 – 40,000 people.
  46. 46. IMPACTS • The economic loss was between $3-4 billion.
  47. 47. LARGE MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKES IN MEXICO ARE INEVITABLE • ---SO, DON’T WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING EARTHQUAKE DIS- ASTER RESILIENT.
  48. 48. THE ALTERNATIVE TO AN EARTHQUAKE DISASTER IS EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
  49. 49. TURKEY’S COMMUNITIES DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS • EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS •INVENTORY •VULNERABILITY •LOCATION EARTHQUAKE RISK RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE •PREPAREDNESS •PROTECTION •FORECASTS/SCENARIOS •EMERGENCY RESPONSE •RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION POLICY OPTIONS
  50. 50. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES PREPAREDNESS FOR ALL OF THE LIKELY AND UNLIKELY HAZARDS AND RISKS IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
  51. 51. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE AGAINST COLLAPSE AND LOSS OF FUNCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
  52. 52. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES TECHNOLOGIES THAT FACILITATE PREPARATION OF DISASTER SCENARIOS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
  53. 53. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
  54. 54. STRATEGIC COLLABORATION (I.E., WORKING TOGETHER ON A COMMON GOAL) FOR BECOMING EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENT
  55. 55. QUESTION • WHAT DOES A CITY OR A MEGACITY DO TO MAKE ITS BUILDINGS LESS VULNERABLE TO EARTHQUAKES?

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