5W1H of English Mastery


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Combing through language experts' memoirs, autobiographies, interviews and quotes from third-party websites, their views on English Mastery converge on this simple fact: Use it with feedback often or lose it.

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5W1H of English Mastery

  1. 1. Master the Code Seminar In partnership with
  2. 2. Master the Code SeminarThe 5W1H of English Mastery
  3. 3. Overview1) Who and what are the experts saying? (I)2) When is language acquired and practiced? (I)3) Where are the key areas of English Mastery? (II)4) How do we apply? (II)5) Why English Mastery? (II)
  4. 4. Who and what are the experts saying?
  5. 5. 3 unique perspectives 1 common voice A renowned writer. A thought leader. A nation builder. They all say the same thing.
  6. 6. JK RowlingAuthor of Harry Potter Series.Love for language started when she was young.Loved listening in to her grandfathers tales.Wrote fairy tales for her baby sister.Read vivaciously.
  7. 7. Malcolm Gladwell Thought leader Book, Outliers. Successful people in business, science, sports. Bill Gates, J R Oppenheimer (Manhattan Proj.) Brought up in a nurturing environment where parents are heavily invovlved in their childrens lives.
  8. 8. Lee Kuan Yew “My Lifelong Challenge: Singapores Bilingual Journey.” Talks about the development of Singapores language education system. Start early to develop language affinity. All 3 children entered Nanyang Primary School for Chinese.
  9. 9. In other words...Use it with feedback often or lose it.How much, how well and how long you use it matters.
  10. 10. When is language acquired and practiced?
  11. 11. Natural AffinityThey learn perfectly the language of the country where they are born and even in less time than it takes men who are already grown.Geraud de Cordemoy, A Philosophical Discourse Concerning Speech.
  12. 12. NeuroscienceMost of the brains cells are formed before birth, but most of the connections among cells are made during infancy and early childhood.Early experience and interaction with the environment are most critical in a childs brain development.A 3-year-old toddlers brain is twice as active as an adults brain.Talking to young children establishes foundations for learning language during early critical periods when learning is easiest for a child.
  13. 13. Natures Gift All that tremendous potential can be tapped for learning anything. Billions of cells connect and form neural networks for motor-sensory skills. Window period of about 6 years of age. Speech is one of them.
  14. 14. Video of child singing nursery rhymes
  15. 15. Unique Trait?Innate ability to recognise and learn speech unique?We look to the animal kingdom.
  16. 16. Birds Ability to recognise its parents signature songs from amongst other birds. Surprise! Stages mimic that of a human - Learn since young. Pefect it with their parents. Crystallise it after time.
  17. 17. Areas for LanguageMotor-sensory areas for language learning.Sight – University of Parma, ItalyMirror NeuronsSound – Frenchman Paul Broca and German Carl Wernicke have discovered two regions of the brain for speech processing.Brocas Lobe - GrammarWernickes Area - Memory and Vocabulary
  18. 18. Mirror NeuronsUse of sight to learn vocalisation.Involves mirror neurons. Located around in the prefrontal cortex.
  19. 19. Brocas and Wernickes Area
  20. 20. Timeline for Language Acquisition6 months Cooing1 year One-word utterances (eat, go)12–18 months Single word use (car, tree)18–24 months Two-word phrases ordered according to syntactic rules (dont want)2 years New words every day; multi-word phrases, idiosyncratic expressions. (I dont want)3 years Full sentences; few errors (I dont want this.)4 years Close to adult speech competence
  21. 21. Amazing achievement What may seem simple to us is actually a great achievement in language acquisition.H i , th e w ea th er i s n i ce t o d ay, i s n t i t ? Shows vocabulary knowledge. Shows understanding of grammar rules. Produces 27 sounds guided by rules.
  22. 22. Adult SpeechWhy do some adults still struggle with language competence?Remember the bottomline:Use it with feedback often or lose it.How much, how well and how long you use it matters. Whats for you?
  23. 23. Missing Feedback Loop
  24. 24. Feedback creates success We dont always get it wright write rite right the first time
  25. 25. Missing Feedback LoopSingaporeans speaking English.
  26. 26. Poor Sound ProductionLack of sensitivity to how sounds form.Results in low speed and accuracy in pronunciation.Errors:1) Fried rice – Fly rice2) Have – Haf3) Fruit – Flu4) Juice – Joos
  27. 27. Poor Vocabulary & GrammarGaps in Knowledge of Vocabulary and Grammar without feedback loop.Errors:We have the fruit juice – We have fruit juiceWhat you want? – What do you want?You order enough I give you like that – Free drink upsize for orders above ...
  28. 28. Use it with feedback oftenTraining AND teaching are needed.1) Training – Phonemes, Phonetics, Prosody2) Teaching – Vocabulary and Grammar Result? Accuracy and Speed in speech
  29. 29. Phonemic AwarenessA kind of phonological awareness which listeners are able to discriminate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning.In English, there are 44 Phonemes.20 Vowel Phonemes & 24 Consonant Phonemes.Arranged in the following order:1) In order of alphabetical code2) In order of highest to lowest frequency of apperance.
  30. 30. Auditory TrainingTraining to increase speed and accuracy of pronunciation.1) Auditory Basic – bad (as it is)2) Auditory Blend - /b/ /a/ /d/ bad3) Auditory Segment - bad /b/ /a/ /d/4) Auditory Analysis - /ba/5) Auditory Replace – bid bed bad bud bod /i/ /e/ /a/ /u/ /o/
  31. 31. Phonemic AwarenessFor accuracy – feedback with a trainer.For speed – additional feedback of a metronome.Challenge yourself to speak fast and accurate.70 bpm90 bpm108bpm?
  32. 32. In summaryUse it with feedback often or lose it.How much, how well and how long you use it matters.
  33. 33. In partnership with andThank you for your participation.
  34. 34. Master the Code SeminarThe 5W1H of English Mastery
  35. 35. OverviewWho and what are the experts saying? (I)When is language acquired and practiced? (I)Where are the key areas of English Mastery? (II)How do we apply? (II)Why English Mastery? (II)
  36. 36. Where are the key areas of English Mastery?
  37. 37. Secrets of English MasteryThe 3 key areas of English mastery Of Sounds – Phonemes (5), Phonetics (4) and Prosody (4). Of Structure – Grammar (4) Of Meaning – Vocabulary (4)In total, 21 tips will be shared.
  38. 38. Phonemic AwarenessA kind of phonological awareness which listeners are able to discriminate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning.(Source: Wikipedia)1) Auditory Basic2) Auditory Blend3) Auditory Segment4) Auditory Analysis5) Auditory Replace
  39. 39. PhoneticsThe system of speech sounds of a language (Source: Merriam-Webster)4 important principles:1) Silent Letter e - kite, cake, coke, nuke2) R-controlled sounds – sir, fur, teacher, liar, doctor3) Blends – block, clog, globe, slope4) Digraphs – clock, lamb, phone
  40. 40. ProsodyProsody - the rhythmic and intonational aspect of language (Source: Merriam-Webster)4 key principles in PSLE:1) Pace – speed2) Stress – emphasis3) Length – delayed reading of the word4) Elevation – pitch
  41. 41. Reading with ProsodyListen to the differences in reading – with and without prosody.Audio #1 by Student AAudio #2 by Student B
  42. 42. Differences in readingThe key to the difference in good and bad reading - PSLE applied or not.Result of good reading is expressiveness!Requirements in new 1278 Secondary English Syllabus.
  43. 43. StructuresGrammar - the characteristic system of inflections and syntax of a language (Source: Merriam- Webster).In short, it is a study of how words change and their patterns within a sentence.4 main tips will be discussed.
  44. 44. StructuresDifferent structures create different meanings.#1: Creating phrases.The train is moving.The big brown train is moving off.The big brown train is moving off tonight.The big brown train is moving off tonight at 7pm.
  45. 45. Structures#2 Changing the positions of the words.a1) I love you.a2) You are loved.b1) The man lost his wallet.b2) The wallet was lost.c1) Manhester United lost the game.c2) The game was lost.
  46. 46. Structures#3 Changing the aspects and tenses of actions.He walks to school.He walked to school. 5He is walking to school.He was walking to school.He has walked to school.He had walked to school.He has been walking to school.He had been walking to school.
  47. 47. Structures#4 Changing the a words function or its PS.He was once a successful businessman.He succeeded in many businesses.He ran all of them successfully.Until all the successes got into his head.And that was the start of his downfall.
  48. 48. MeaningMeaning is changed when vocabulary changes.Different words create different meanings even in the same structure.3 tips will be discussed.
  49. 49. Meaning#1 Use positive words.Poor use words: You look sad today. (assumes sadness)You dont look happy today. (assumes happiness)You look like you need some cheering up (suggests solution)You want to take a walk? (offers help)
  50. 50. The power of wordsWatch the movie, Validation.
  51. 51. Meaning#2 Use modifiers to change meaning.Try to do it. (make a small effort)Do it quickly. (make haste)Do it now. (immediate action needed)Just do it. (action is louder than words)
  52. 52. Meaning#3 Different words for different intensity.The noise is loud.The noise is jarrring.The noise is deafening.The noise is unbearable.The noise is killing me.
  53. 53. Meaning#4 Figures of Speech for brevity and clarity.7 ways of being a Uniquely Singapore -1) Singapore is a little red dot.2) We are a fine city.3) An island where colour doesnt matter.4) To my girlfriend, “Lets apply for a flat!”5) Instant trees.6) The crane is the national bird of Singapore.7) The $600 million durian.
  54. 54. How to apply them
  55. 55. Effective Communication SkillsFour areas of langauge use -Writing, reading, speaking and listening.We will focus on speech and listening as it is used most often.
  56. 56. ApplyCombine Sounds, Structures and Meaning with skilful use of questions and answers.2 main skill sets:#1 Questioning Techniques#2 Answering Techniques
  57. 57. Questioning TechniqueOpen questions - questions that require thought on the part of the listener and they yield more information and encourage continued discussion.“Mr Tan, who do you serve in your work?” (subtle)“Mr Tan, who do you work for?” (abrupt)“Mr Tan, who is your employer?” (abrupt)
  58. 58. Questioning TechniqueOpen questions - questions that require thought on the part of the listener and they yield more information and encourage continued discussion.“Alice, from what we have discussed so far, what excites you the most?” (ongoing discussion)“Alice, from our discussion, what are your questions?” (finality of discussion)“Alice, following our discussion, what are the points you find interesting? (finality of discussion)
  59. 59. Questioning TechniqueClosed question - aimed at obtaining the right answer – most often a single yes.“A reputation for professionalism is important, isnt it?” (KISS – keep it short and sharp)“Being professional is important for our reputation, isnt it?” (lengthy)“Our reputation is important sign of our professionalism, isnt it?” (lengthy)
  60. 60. Questioning TechniqueClosed question - aimed at obtaining the right answer – most often a single yes.“Investing in a quality product makes a lot of sense, dont you agree?” (KISS – keep it short and sharp)“Buying a high quality product will give you better returns in the long run, dont you agree?” (vague)
  61. 61. Questioning TechniqueAlternate of choice– a question with two answers. Either answer is a minor agreement leading toward the major decision. Best used as a leading question to the main question.“I am available to visit you today at 3pm or would tomorrow at 9 am be better?” (increases probability of success)“Can we meet at 3 pm today or 9 am tomorrow?” (high chance of rejection)
  62. 62. Questioning TechniqueInvolvement Question – a question that leads the listener closer to the final outcome.“How often would you like us to touch base with you regarding the service you are receiving?”“Do you want us to call you?” (No!)“We have a system of regular checks and updates that you are entitled to as part of the package so how often do you want us to contact you?” (Huh?)
  63. 63. Answering Techniques#1 Using questions as a reply.A: We need to check for workers satisfaction.B: When do you think would be the best time to survey our employees? (proactive)B: .... (passive)B: Yeah. I agree. (passive)
  64. 64. Answering Techniques#1 Using questions as a reply.A: I want my refund now! (an agitated customer)B: Would you prefer that we send you a refund check now, or credit your account for next month? (provides immediate solution)B: Sir, calm down. (passive)B: I understand your concern, sir. (No, you dont.)
  65. 65. In other words...Use it with feedback often or lose it.
  66. 66. Finally...
  67. 67. Why SGEM7 reasons to support Speak Good English Movement:1) First language in Singapore.2) A must-pass subject in national examinations.3) Common language across cultures and races.4) International language for trade and commerce.5) One-fourth of the world speaks it.6) 80% of the Internet is in English.7) Most spoken foreign language in the world.
  68. 68. In partnership withThank you for your participation.