Classroom climate not only has been shown to affect student outcomes and attainment but is a prominent policy issue. Student behaviour and the creation of a safe and productive learning environment can be a challenging dimension of teachers’ work. How successful teachers feel they are with regard to their students’ education can be linked to productivity and can influence people’s actions in the workplace. When teachers envisage effective teaching as a skill that can be acquired, this feeling of self-efficacy can help them better analyse and solve problems. Conversely, those teachers confronting a low feeling of self-efficacy can experience self-doubt and become preoccupied with evaluative concerns if efforts proved unsuccessful. Of course each one of these factors is influenced by many others – some of which were included in TALIS. We will examine them in turn.
TALIS also offers important insights into teaching practices. Many factors can influence teaching practices in the classroom and many of the themes explored in TALIS are important contributors. In this section, I focus specifically on the beliefs and practices reported by teachers. Teachers who hold stronger beliefs about teaching methods, report more collaborative behaviour with colleagues and report more positive teacher-student relations feel more effective To improve teaching practice, teachers need first to become aware of how their own practice can be improved, and this requires principals, colleagues and support systems that help them in their diagnosis. And it is not just about building awareness of what they do, but also about the mindset underlying it. Teachers then need to gain a good understanding of specific best practice, which can generally only be achieved through the demonstration of such practices in authentic settings. Last but not least, individual teachers need to be motivated to make the necessary improvements. this also requires a deeper change that goes beyond material incentives and can only come about when teachers have high expectations, a shared sense of purpose, and above all, a collective belief in their common ability to make a difference to the education of the children they serve.
TALIS also shows that we need more effective mechanisms to assess and reward good teaching in ways that motivates teachers. While the majority of teachers receive feedback from their school principals, from other teachers or from an external body at least once a year, there are still nearly one in 4 (22%) teachers who report that they never receive feedback from their school principal, nearly a third (29%) who report that they never receive feedback from other teachers, and a half (51%) who report that they never receive feedback from an external individual or body. TALIS also shows that, on average across countries, just under one-third of teachers across TALIS countries worked in schools that had not seen an external evaluation in the last five years and one-fifth worked in schools that had not even conducted a self-evaluation. TALIS shows that in schools that are not evaluated, teachers are less likely to benefit from appraisal or feedback.
Education systems seek to provide teachers with opportunities for on-going professional development to fully prepare them for their work and to retain a high-quality teacher workforce. TALIS examined the take-up of professional development, the degree of unsatisfied demand for development and the factors that support or hinder meeting development needs.
Teachers’ demand for more professional development appears concentrated in certain areas. In particular, one teacher in three reports a high level of need for teaching students with special learning needs. This indicates a serious issue in terms of teachers’ capacity to deal with heterogeneous learning groups.
Supporting new teachers in the early phases cidree
Supporting new teachers in the early phases of professionalisation – Evidence from TALIS 2008 Dirk Van Damme Head of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation - OECD
TALIS brief <ul><li>International survey of teachers and principals </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Fill key international (and national) data gaps on t eachers, teaching and the impact that teachers can have on student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Representative samples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>200 schools; 20 teachers per school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Randomly selected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target response rate of 75% of sampled teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires of teachers and principals of 45’ </li></ul>
Overview of TALIS 2008 <ul><li>Data-collection school year 2007-08 </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and principals of lower secondary education (ISCED 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus: Policies and practices to support effective teaching and learning : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appraisal of teachers and feedback to teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching practices, attitudes and beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional development of teachers </li></ul></ul>
In-service teacher professional development and training
NEW TEACHERS AND THEIR WORKING ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>2. </li></ul>
Definition of new teachers in TALIS 2008 <ul><li>NT defined as within their first two years of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>number of new teachers in sample: 99 n 429 (n mean =224) – 8% of total sample </li></ul><ul><li>69% of new and experienced teachers are female </li></ul>
Schools where new teachers work <ul><li>TALIS 2008 data do not support the belief that new teachers work in more challenging schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But in Belgium (Fl), Lithuania and Norway new teachers are more likely to teach classes with greater variation in students’ language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New teachers also work in schools with similar material and personnel resources </li></ul><ul><li>But, in all but four countries, new teachers reported poorer levels of classroom climate, not because of a different student profile, but because of skills deficit </li></ul>
Workload and job satisfaction <ul><li>New and experienced teachers have similar work and teaching load </li></ul><ul><li>New teachers are for 41% employed on permanent contracts compared to 88% for experienced teachers </li></ul><ul><li>New and experienced teachers have similar levels of job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly 90% are satisfied with their job </li></ul></ul>
Time spent on teaching <ul><li>Less than 75% of new teachers’ classroom time is spend on teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>18% of classroom time of new teachers is spend on keeping order in the classroom (13% of classroom time of experienced teachers) </li></ul><ul><li>In most countries, teachers are likely to spend similar amounts of time teaching in the first year of their careers as they are in the last year of their careers. </li></ul>
Percentage of class time spent on effective teaching and learning
Percentage of class time spent on keeping order in the classroom
Appraisal and feedback <ul><li>19% of new teachers never received some form of appraisal and feedback (13% of experienced teachers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But in some countries very high numbers of new teachers have not ever received appraisal and feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New teachers are more positive about the appraisal and feedback they receive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nine in ten new teachers considered the appraisal and feedback received to be a fair assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 14% of new teachers disagreed that the appraisal and feedback received was helpful in the development of their work, compared to 22% of experienced teachers </li></ul></ul>
Appraisal and feedback <ul><li>New teachers that work in schools with induction or mentoring programmes were not substantially more likely to receive more appraisal and feedback than other new teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Induction and mentoring programs do not facilitate regular feedback for nearly half new teachers </li></ul>
Professional development <ul><li>New teachers in most countries expressed a higher need for professional development then experienced teachers </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of new teachers expressed a high level of need for professional development to address students discipline and behaviour problems </li></ul><ul><li>On average 23% of new teachers expressed a high level need for PD to improve classroom management skills compared to 13% of experienced teachers </li></ul>
Percentage of teachers reporting a high level of professional development need
Professional development <ul><li>Professional development needs is negatively correlated with self-efficacy and this relationship is stronger for new teachers compared to experienced teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Over three-quarters if new teachers participated in some form of PD over the past 18 months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On average 19 days of PD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 70% of new teachers considered PD to have a high impact on their development as teacher </li></ul>
TEACHING BELIEFS, PRACTICES AND SELF-EFFICACY <ul><li>4. </li></ul>