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EASA Part 66 Module 15.4 : Compressors

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Axial flow compressor
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EASA Part 66 Module 15.4 : Compressors

  1. 1. 15.4 COMPRESSORS http://part66.blogspot.com/
  2. 2. CENTRIFUGAL TYPE SINGLE STAGE COMPRESSOR TWO STAGE COMPRESSOR SINGLE STAGE DOUBLE ENTRY
  3. 3. CENTRIFUGAL ASSY
  4. 4. CENTRIFUGAL FEATURES • ADVANTAGE – Cheap and simple – Not prone to FOD and icing – Stable, no stall and surge – Large rise in air pressure over distance • DISADVANTAGE – Limited compression ration 4:1 – Large frontal area – Capacity is limit by impaler tip speed – Easyly loss pressure due to severe change airflow direction
  5. 5. AXIAL TYPE SINGLE SPOOL TWIN SPOOL TRIPLE SPOOL
  6. 6. OPERATING PRINCIPLE • Continuous compression through each stage . • Stage is defined as rotor and stator • Its form divergence duct (continouse pressure rise) in each stage
  7. 7. CASCADE EFFECT • Ability of the air to travel from low pressure area to the high prassure area
  8. 8. AXIAL ASSY
  9. 9. AXIAL FEATURES • ADVANTAGE – High compression ratio – Low fuel consumption – Small frontal area and high volume of air – Suit to high thrust • DISADVANTAGE – Complicated and expensive – Poor acceleration – Very severe to FOD – Prone to stall and surge
  10. 10. COMPONENT • Rotor Blade : – Airfoil section and twist to provide correct angle of attack (maintain uniform airflow) – Stager angle ( angle of incident of blade) • Stator Vanes : – Airfoil section and secure with casing – Providing divergen blade spacing to effect sec stage compression – Control direction airflow • Fan type – To produce thrust for turbofan engine and to pass air that not required for combustion – Engine more quiter and durable using fan – High aspect ratio : thin and long blade (have clapper support) – Low aspect ratio : wide chord and smaller blade
  11. 11. ROTOR BLADE Blade Attachment Blade design
  12. 12. STATOR VEIN Variable stator Fixed stator
  13. 13. FAN • FAN BALANCING – Balance to prevent vibration and stress due to high rotational speed – Two type of balance: • Single Plane or Static balance • Two plane or dynamic balance
  14. 14. MIX COMPRESSOR
  15. 15. STALL AND SURGE • Stall : – Angle of attack of blade become to high or low due to airflow entry condition. – Indicate by increase in EGT, vibration and coughing noise – Transition stall If slight vibration and poor acceleration occur shortly – Hung stall cause all stage compressor stall and airflow will become reverse flow (surge) • Surge : – Complete breakdown of airflow (all compressor stage stall) – Due FOD, distored airfoil, bleed valve mailfunction cause the rear compressor stage chock or exessive pressure ratio – Indicate by abnormal engine noise, high EGT, vibration, flame emiting in exhaust – In extream condition, engine completely destroy
  16. 16. AIRFLOW VARIATION
  17. 17. AIRFLOW CONTROL • Anti-surge device – To prevent or reduce risk stall/surge and maintain smooth airflow. – By controlling the movement of airflow or dumping the unstable airflow from compressor. – Type : • Variable intake guide vanes • Variable stator vanes • Compressor bleed valve
  18. 18. ANTI-SURGE Variable Inlet guide vanes control Bleed Valves Variable stator and actuator mechanism
  19. 19. COMPRESSOR RATIO • Calculated by dividing total pressure after last stage of compresssion by total inlet pressure. • Varies with RPM, intake temperature and blade damage • Overall pressure ratio for axial compressor is 30:1

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