Chapter 5, section 1<br />Energy Flow in Ecosystems<br />
Life Depends on the Sun<br />Energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when a plant uses sunlight to make sugar molecules.<b...
Photosynthesis<br />
Life Depends on the Sun<br />Producers (Autotrophs) – Organisms that make their own food.<br />Plants, algae, some bacteri...
Deep-Ocean Ecosystems<br />Total darkness<br />Bacteria use Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) to make their own food.<br />H2S comes ...
What Eats What<br />Organisms can be classified by what they eat.<br />Types of Consumers:<br />Herbivores<br />Carnivores...
Table 1, Page 127<br />
Sun<br />Oxygen (O2)<br />Producer<br />Carbon dioxide (CO2)<br />Secondary consumer<br />(fox)<br />Primary<br />consumer...
Scavengers<br />Decomposers<br />Termite and carpenter ant work<br />Carpenter ant galleries<br />Bark beetle engraving<br...
Cellular Respiration<br />Organisms break down food to yield energy.<br />Cellular Respiration<br />Occurs inside cells of...
Cellular Respiration<br />
Energy Transfer<br />Each time one organism eats another organism, a transfer of energy occurs. <br />Food chains, food we...
Food Chains, Food Webs, Trophic Levels<br />Food Chain – A sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to th...
First Trophic <br />Level<br />Second Trophic<br />Level<br />Third Trophic <br />Level<br />Fourth Trophic <br />Level<br...
Humans<br />Blue whale<br />Sperm whale<br />Crabeater seal<br />Elephant seal <br />Killer whale<br />Leopard <br />seal<...
Energy Loss in an Ecosystem<br />Each time energy is transferred from one organism to another, some of the energy is lost ...
Trophic Levels<br />
Energy Loss in an Ecosystem<br />The Loss of Energy…<br />Means there are fewer organisms at each level.<br />Limits the n...
Summary Questions<br />Describe how energy is transferred from one organism to another.  Give examples.<br />Describe the ...
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Ecology - Chapter 5 Section 1

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Ecology - Chapter 5 Section 1

  1. 1. Chapter 5, section 1<br />Energy Flow in Ecosystems<br />
  2. 2. Life Depends on the Sun<br />Energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when a plant uses sunlight to make sugar molecules.<br />Photosynthesis<br />Plants, algae, some bacteria capture solar energy.<br />Solar energy powers a series of reactions that require carbon dioxide and water.<br />Sugar molecules (carbohydrates) are produced.<br />Carbohydrates provide the energy that organisms need to carry out daily activities.<br />As organisms consume food and use energy, the energy travels from one organism to another.<br />
  3. 3. Photosynthesis<br />
  4. 4. Life Depends on the Sun<br />Producers (Autotrophs) – Organisms that make their own food.<br />Plants, algae, some bacteria<br />Consumers (Heterotrophs) – Organisms that get energy by eating other organisms.<br />Humans, coyotes, cats, cows, <br />
  5. 5. Deep-Ocean Ecosystems<br />Total darkness<br />Bacteria use Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) to make their own food.<br />H2S comes from the hot water that escapes the cracks in the ocean floor.<br />The bacteria are then eaten by consumers.<br />
  6. 6. What Eats What<br />Organisms can be classified by what they eat.<br />Types of Consumers:<br />Herbivores<br />Carnivores<br />Omnivores<br />Decomposers<br />
  7. 7. Table 1, Page 127<br />
  8. 8. Sun<br />Oxygen (O2)<br />Producer<br />Carbon dioxide (CO2)<br />Secondary consumer<br />(fox)<br />Primary<br />consumer<br />(rabbit)<br />Precipitation<br />Producers<br />Falling leaves and twigs<br />Soil decomposers<br />Soluble mineral nutrients<br />Water<br />Fig. 3-10, p. 57<br />
  9. 9. Scavengers<br />Decomposers<br />Termite and carpenter ant work<br />Carpenter ant galleries<br />Bark beetle engraving<br />Long-horned beetle holes<br />Dry rot fungus<br />Wood reduced to powder<br />Mushroom<br />Powder broken down by decomposers into plant nutrients in soil<br />Time progression<br />
  10. 10. Cellular Respiration<br />Organisms break down food to yield energy.<br />Cellular Respiration<br />Occurs inside cells of organisms<br />Cells absorb oxygen and use it to release energy from food<br />Cellular Respiration is the reverse of photosynthesis<br />Sugar and oxygen combine to yield carbon dioxide, water, and energy.<br />
  11. 11. Cellular Respiration<br />
  12. 12. Energy Transfer<br />Each time one organism eats another organism, a transfer of energy occurs. <br />Food chains, food webs, and trophic levels tell us how energy is transferred and how much energy is transferred.<br />Studying the paths of energy between organisms can tell us which organisms in an ecosystem depend on other organisms to survive.<br />
  13. 13. Food Chains, Food Webs, Trophic Levels<br />Food Chain – A sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to the next as each organism eats another organism.<br />Food Web – Includes many organisms and multiple food chains linked together.<br />Trophic Levels – Each step through which energy is transferred in a food chain or web.<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. First Trophic <br />Level<br />Second Trophic<br />Level<br />Third Trophic <br />Level<br />Fourth Trophic <br />Level<br />Tertiary consumers<br />(top carnivores)<br />Secondary consumers<br />(carnivores)<br />Producers<br />(plants)<br />Primary consumers<br />(herbivores)<br />Heat<br />Heat<br />Heat<br />Solar energy<br />Heat<br />Heat<br />Heat<br />Heat<br />Detritivores <br />(decomposers and detritus feeders)<br />Heat<br />
  16. 16. Humans<br />Blue whale<br />Sperm whale<br />Crabeater seal<br />Elephant seal <br />Killer whale<br />Leopard <br />seal<br />Adelie <br />penguins<br />Emperor <br />penguin<br />Squid<br />Petrel<br />Fish<br />Carnivorous plankton<br />Krill<br />Herbivorous <br />plankton<br />Phytoplankton<br />
  17. 17. Energy Loss in an Ecosystem<br />Each time energy is transferred from one organism to another, some of the energy is lost as heat and less energy is available to organisms at the next trophic level.<br />About 90% of the energy at each trophic level is used for life functions.<br />The remaining 10% of the energy becomes part of the organism’s body and is stored in its molecules.<br />The stored 10% is all that is available to the next trophic level when one organism consumes another organism.<br />
  18. 18. Trophic Levels<br />
  19. 19. Energy Loss in an Ecosystem<br />The Loss of Energy…<br />Means there are fewer organisms at each level.<br />Limits the number of trophic levels in an ecosystem<br />
  20. 20. Summary Questions<br />Describe how energy is transferred from one organism to another. Give examples.<br />Describe the role that producers play in an ecosystem. What would happen if the producers became extinct?<br />Define and give examples of herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore.<br />Compare energy transfer in a food chain to energy transfer in a food web.<br />Could more people be supported by 20 acres of land if they only ate plants instead of both plants and animals. Explain your answer.<br />

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