T H E H O R I Z O N R E P O R T 2011 EDITION The New Media CoNsorTiuM
The 2011 Horizon Report is made possible via a grant from HPbusinesses, governments and society. HP’s Office for Global Social Innovationapplies HP’s global reach, broad portfolio of products and services, and theexpertise of its employees to support initiatives in education, healthcare andcommunities around the world.As the world’s largest technology company, HPbrings together a portfolio that spans printing, personal computing, software,services and IT infrastructure to solve customer problems. More informationabout HP is available at http://www.hp.com.
T H E H O R I Z O N R E P O R T 2011 EDITION The New Media CoNsorTiuM
Ta b L e o f C o N T e N T sexecutive summary ....................................................................................................................................... 2 Key Trends Critical Challenges Technologies to Watch The Horizon ProjectTime-to-adoption: one Year or Less Electronic Books........................................................................................................................................ 8 Overview Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry Electronic Books in Practice For Further Reading Mobiles .................................................................................................................................................... 12 Overview Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry Mobiles in Practice For Further ReadingTime-to-adoption: Two to Three Years Augmented Reality .................................................................................................................................. 16 Overview Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry Augmented Reality in Practice For Further Reading Game-Based Learning ............................................................................................................................ 20 Overview Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry Game-Based Learning in Practice For Further ReadingTime-to-adoption: four to five Years Gesture-Based Computing ...................................................................................................................... 24 Overview Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry Gesture-Based Computing in Practice For Further Reading Learning Analytics ................................................................................................................................... 28 Overview Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry Learning Analytics in Practice For Further ReadingMethodology ................................................................................................................................................. 312011 Horizon Project advisory board ......................................................................................................... 33 T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 1
e Xe Cu TiV e s uM M a rYThe internationally recognized series of Horizon section of this report.Reports is part of the New Media Consortium’s The report’s format is consistent from year to yearHorizon Project, a comprehensive research venture and edition to edition, and opens with a discussion ofestablished in 2002 that identifies and describes the trends and challenges identified by the Advisoryemerging technologies likely to have a large impact Board as most important for the next five years. Theover the coming five years on a variety of sectors format of the main section of this edition closely reflectsaround the globe. This volume, the 2011 Horizon the focus of the Horizon Project itself, centering onReport, examines emerging technologies for their the applications of emerging technologies in higherpotential impact on and use in teaching, learning, education settings. Each section is introducedand creative inquiry. It is the eighth in the annual with an overview that describes what the topic is,series of reports focused on emerging technology in followed by a discussion of the particular relevancethe higher education environment. of the topic to teaching, learning, and creative inquiry.To create the report, the Horizon Project’s Advisory Several concrete examples of how the technology isBoard, an international body of experts in education, being used are given. Finally, each section closestechnology, business, and other fields, engaged in with an annotated list of suggested readings anda discussion based on a set of research questions additional examples that expand on the discussionintended to surface significant trends and challenges in the report, including a link to the tagged resourcesand to identify a broad array of potential technologies collected during the research process by projectfor the report. This dialog was enriched by a wide staff, the Advisory Board, and others in the globalrange of resources, current research, and practice Horizon Project community.that drew on the expertise of the NMC communityand the communities of the members of the board. Key TrendsThese interactions among the Advisory Board are The technologies featured in every edition of thethe focus of the Horizon Report research, and this Horizon Report are embedded within a contemporaryreport details the areas in which these experts were context that reflects the realities of the time, both inin strong agreement. the sphere of education and in the world at large.Each edition of the Horizon Report introduces six To ensure this context was well understood as theemerging technologies or practices that are likely to current report was produced, the Advisory Boardenter mainstream use within three adoption horizons engaged in an extensive review of current articles,over the next five years. Key trends and challenges interviews, papers, and new research to identifythat will affect current practice over the same time and rank trends that are currently affecting theframe add context to these discussions. Over the practices of teaching, learning, and creative inquiry.course of just a few weeks, the Advisory Board came Once detailed, the list of trends was then rankedto a consensus about the six topics that appear according to how significant each was likely to be forhere in the 2011 Horizon Report. The examples and learning-focused institutions over the next five years.readings under each topic area are meant to provide The highest ranked of those trends had significantpractical models as well as access to more detailed agreement among the Advisory Board members,information. Wherever possible, an effort was made who considered them to be key drivers of educationalto highlight the innovative work going on among technology adoptions for the period 2011 throughlearning-focused institutions. The precise research 2015. They are listed here in the order in which themethodology employed is detailed in the closing Advisory Board ranked them.
The abundance of resources and relationships will perform their work from multiple locations by made easily accessible via the Internet is 2013. increasingly challenging us to revisit our roles The technologies we use are increasingly as educators in sense-making, coaching, and cloud-based, and our notions of IT support credentialing. This multi-year trend was again are decentralized. This trend, too, was noted in ranked very highly, indicating its continued 2010 and continues to influence decisions about influence. With personal access to the Internet emerging technology adoption at educational from mobile devices on the rise, the growing set institutions. As we turn to mobile applications for of resources available as open content, and a immediate access to many resources and tasks variety of reference and textbooks available that once were performed on desktop computers, electronically, students’ easy and pervasive it makes sense to move data and services into access to information outside of formal campus the cloud. The challenges of privacy and control resources continues to encourage educators to continue to affect adoption and deployment, but take a careful look at the ways we can best serve work continues on resolving the issues raised by learners. increasingly networked information. People expect to be able to work, learn, and study whenever and wherever they want. Critical Challenges This highly-ranked trend, also noted last year, Any discussion of technology adoption must also continues to permeate all aspects of daily life. consider important constraints and challenges, Mobiles contribute to this trend, where increased and the Advisory Board drew deeply from a careful availability of the Internet feeds the expectation analysis of current events, papers, articles, and of access. Feelings of frustration are common similar sources, as well as from personal experience when it is not available. Companies are starting in detailing a long list of challenges institutions face to respond to consumer demand for access in adopting any new technology. Several important anywhere; in 2010, programs like Google’s Fiber challenges are detailed below, but it was clear that for Communities sought to expand access to behind them all was a pervasive sense that individual underserved communities, and several airlines organizational constraints are likely the most began offering wireless network access in the air important factor in any decision to adopt — or not to during flights. adopt — any given technology. While acknowledging The world of work is increasingly collaborative, that local barriers to technology adoptions are giving rise to reflection about the way student many and significant, the Advisory Board focused projects are structured. This trend continues its discussions on challenges that are common to from 2010 and is being driven by the increasingly institutions and the educational community as a global and cooperative nature of business whole. interactions facilitated by Internet technologies. The highest ranked challenges they identified are The days of isolated desk jobs are disappearing, listed here, in the order of their rated importance. giving way to models in which teams work actively together to address issues too far-reaching or Digital media literacy continues its rise in im- complex for a single worker to resolve alone. portance as a key skill in every discipline and Market intelligence firm IDC notes that some profession. This challenge, first noted in 2008, one billion people fit the definition of mobile reflects universal agreement among those on workers already, and projects that fully one-third the Horizon Project Advisory Board. Although of the global workforce — 1.2 billon workers — there is broad consensus that digital media liter- T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 3
e X e C u T i V e s u M M a r Y acy is vitally important for today’s students, what ticing, but it can be overwhelming to attempt to skills constitute digital literacy are still not well- keep up with even a few of the many new tools defined nor universally taught. Teacher prepara- that are released. User-created content is ex- tion programs are beginning to include courses ploding, giving rise to information, ideas, and related to digital media literacy, and universities opinions on all sorts of interesting topics, but fol- are beginning to fold these literacy skills into lowing even some of the hundreds of available coursework for students, but progress continues authorities means sifting through a mountain of to be slow. The challenge is exacerbated by the information on a weekly or daily basis. There is fact that digital technologies morph and change a greater need than ever for effective tools and quickly at a rate that generally outpaces curricu- filters for finding, interpreting, organizing, and re- lum development. trieving the data that is important to us. Appropriate metrics of evaluation lag behind These trends and challenges are a reflection of the the emergence of new scholarly forms of au- impact of technology that is occurring in almost thoring, publishing, and researching. Noted first every aspect of our lives. They are indicative of the in 2010, this challenge continues. Electronic changing nature of the way we communicate, access books, blogs, multimedia pieces, networked information, connect with peers and colleagues, presentations, and other kinds of scholarly work learn, and even socialize. Taken together, they can be difficult to evaluate and classify accord- provided the Advisory Board a frame through ing to traditional metrics, but faculty members which to consider the potential impacts of nearly 50 are increasingly experimenting with these al- emerging technologies and related practices that ternate forms of expression. At the same time, were analyzed and discussed for possible inclusion reconciling new forms of scholarly activity with in this edition of the Horizon Report. Six of those old standards continues to be difficult, creating were chosen via successive rounds of ranking; they tension and raising questions as to where fac- are summarized below and detailed in the main body ulty energy is best directed. of the report. Economic pressures and new models of edu- Technologies to watch cation are presenting unprecedented competi- The six technologies featured in the 2011 Horizon tion to traditional models of the university. The Report are placed along three adoption horizons twin challenges of providing high-quality ser- that indicate likely time frames for their entrance into vices and controlling costs continue to impel in- mainstream use for teaching, learning, or creative stitutions to seek creative solutions. As a result, inquiry. The near-term horizon assumes the likelihood innovative institutions are developing new mod- of entry into the mainstream for institutions within the els to serve students, such as streaming survey next twelve months; the mid-term horizon, within two courses over the network so students can at- to three years; and the far-term, within four to five tend from their dorm or other locations to free years. It should be noted at the outset that the Horizon up lecture space. As these pressures continue, Report is not a predictive tool. It is meant, rather, to other models will emerge as well. highlight emerging technologies with considerable Keeping pace with the rapid proliferation of in- potential for our focus areas of teaching, learning, and formation, software tools, and devices is chal- creative inquiry. Each of the six is already the focus lenging for students and teachers alike. New of attention at a number of innovative organizations developments in technology are exciting and around the world, and the work we showcase here their potential for improving quality of life is en- reveals the promise of a wider impact.
on the near-term horizon — that is, within the next secured the place of these innovations as the top12 months — are electronic books and mobiles. technologies for the mid-term horizon.Electronic books are moving closer to mainstream Augmented reality refers to the layering ofadoption for educational institutions, having information over a view or representation ofappeared on the mid-term horizon last year. Mobiles the normal world, offering users the ability toreappear as well, remaining on the near-term horizon access place-based information in ways that areas they become increasingly popular throughout the compellingly intuitive. Augmented reality bringsworld as a primary means of accessing Internet a significant potential to supplement informationresources. Resistance to the use of mobiles in the delivered via computers, mobile devices, video,classroom continues to impede their adoption in and even the printed book. Much simpler tomany schools, but a growing number of institutions create and use now than in the past, augmentedare finding ways to take advantage of a technology reality feels at once fresh and new, yet an easythat nearly all students, faculty, and staff carry. extension of existing expectations and practices. Electronic books continue to generate strong Game-based learning has grown in recent interest in the consumer sector and are years as research continues to demonstrate increasingly available on campuses as well. its effectiveness for learning for students of all Modern electronic readers support note-taking ages. Games for education span the range from and research activities, and are beginning single-player or small-group card and board to augment these basic functions with new games all the way to massively multiplayer online capabilities — from immersive experiences games and alternate reality games. Those at the to support for social interaction — that are first end of the spectrum are easy to integrate changing our perception of what it means to with coursework, and in many institutions they read. are already an option; but the greatest potential Mobiles enable ubiquitous access to of games for learning lies in their ability to foster information, social networks, tools for learning collaboration, problem-solving, and procedural and productivity, and much more. Mobile devices thinking. For a variety of reasons, the realization continue to evolve, but it is the increased access of this potential is still two to three years away. to affordable and reliable networks that is driving Looking to the far-term horizon, four to five years this technology now. Mobiles are capable from now for widespread adoption, are gesture- computing devices in their own right — and they based computing and learning analytics. Both are increasingly a user’s first choice for Internet remain largely speculative and not yet in widespread access. usage on campuses, but both are also garneringThe second adoption horizon considers significant interest and increasing exposure.technologies expected to gain widespread usage Gesture-based computing moves the controlwithin two to three years, and this year’s candidates of computers from a mouse and keyboard to theare augmented reality and game-based learning. motions of the body via new input devices. De-Both intersect with practices in mainstream popular picted in science fiction movies for years, ges-culture, both have been considered significant tools ture-based computing is now more grounded infor education for many years, and both have made reality thanks to the recent arrival of interfaceappearances on a number of campuses already. technologies such as Kinect, SixthSense, andAdvances in hardware and software, as well as in Tamper, which make interactions with computa-a broader acceptance of new methods in teaching, tional devices far more intuitive and embodied. T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 5
e X e C u T i V e s u M M a r Y Learning analytics loosely joins a variety of with the dual goals of understanding how technology data-gathering tools and analytic techniques is being absorbed using a smaller lens, and also to study student engagement, performance, noting the contrasts between technology use in and progress in practice, with the goal of using one area compared to another. To date, companion what is learned to revise curricula, teaching, and editions have been prepared that center on education assessment in real time. Building on the kinds in Australia, New Zealand, and the fourteen countries of information generated by Google Analytics of Iberoamerica; the series will expand to include and other similar tools, learning analytics aims Europe, Singapore, and Africa over the next two years. to mobilize the power of data-mining tools The flagship Horizon Report, published each in the service of learning, and embracing January, focuses on higher education globally, and is the complexity, diversity, and abundance of translated into multiple languages every year. Over information that dynamic learning environments all editions, the readership of the reports is estimated can generate. at well over 600,000 worldwide, with readers in moreEach of these technologies is described in detail than 70 countries.in the main body of the report, where a discussion The Horizon Project Navigator. This edition ofof what the technology is and why it is relevant to the Horizon Report kicks off the ninth year of theteaching, learning, and creative inquiry may also be series and a turning point in the NMC’s Emergingfound. Given the practical focus of the report, a listing Technologies Initiative, which is dedicated to chartingof examples of the technology in use, especially in the landscape of emerging technologies for teaching,higher education, is a key component of each of the learning, and creative inquiry. In each of the precedingsix main topics. Our research indicates that all six years, the Horizon Project process has focusedof these technologies, taken together, will have a on the creation of a print-based publication (or itssignificant impact on learning-focused organizations pdf analog), one produced through a collaborativewithin the next five years. process that leveraged the productive potential of a wiki for posting and responding to ideas, RSS feedsThe Horizon Project for gathering information dynamically, and taggingThis report is part of a longitudinal research study for collecting and sharing references. The decisionof emerging technologies that began in March to print the NMC report was based on the fact that2002. Since that time, under the banner of the a physical report remains a powerful tool on manyHorizon Project, the New Media Consortium and campuses.its research partners have held an ongoing seriesof conversations and dialogs with hundreds of However, in its continuing interest in modeling thetechnology professionals, campus technologists, advantages of new technologies, over the course offaculty leaders from colleges and universities, 2010, and with the generous support of the HP, themuseum professionals, teachers and other school NMC designed and produced the Horizon Projectprofessionals, and representatives of leading Navigator (http://navigator.nmc.org), an onlinecorporations from more than thirty countries. These database that harnesses the power of technologyconversations have been the impetus for a series and social media to create an information andof nearly 20 annual reports focused on emerging resource hub that is made stronger through thetechnologies relevant to formal and informal learning participation of its users.in colleges, universities, schools, and museums. The Horizon Project Navigator leverages theIn 2008, the NMC embarked on a new series of affordances of social media and computation toregional companion editions of the Horizon Report, offer users access to the same materials — and
more — used by the Horizon Project Advisory and analysis of research, articles, papers, blogs,Board. It is a dynamic, customizable, and powerful and interviews; discussed existing applications,tool for individuals who want the ability to chart the and brainstormed new ones; and ultimately rankedlandscape of emerging technologies for teaching, the items on the list of candidate technologies forlearning, and creative inquiry through their own set their potential relevance to teaching, learning, andof needs and interests. The platform provides a fully creative inquiry. This work took place entirely onlinedynamic online version of the Horizon Report created and may be reviewed on the project wiki at http://for the emerging technology professional. horizon.wiki.nmc.org.Dynamic reports can be adapted and modified to suit The effort to produce the report and the findingsthe needs of individual users, and Navigator itself detailed within it began in mid-September 2010 andprovides a space within which anyone can participate concluded in early January 2011, a period of justin the gathering, sifting, and sharing of ideas under four months. Most of the work on the projectrelated to the trends and challenges of emerging took place in and is preserved on the wiki. All of thetechnologies in the context of formal and informal interim materials and rankings used to create thelearning. The Horizon Project Navigator includes all report can be found there, as well as the discussionsthe research materials, project information, and other of the Advisory Board around each topic. The sixephemera that has been created from the intensive technologies and applications that emerged at theand collaborative process used in creating each top of the final rankings — two per adoption horizonannual Horizon Report. The 2011 Horizon Report — are detailed in the chapters that follow.was the first of the series that was able to draw on Each of those chapters includes detailedthe resources of the Horizon Project Navigator in its descriptions, links to active demonstration projects,creation, and marks a new epoch in the history of and a wide array of additional resources related tothe project. the six profiled technologies. Those profiles are theThe Horizon Project wiki. The Horizon Project heart of the 2011 Horizon Report, and will fuel theuses qualitative research methods to identify the work of the Horizon Project throughout 2011-12. Fortechnologies selected for inclusion in each report. those wanting to know more about the processesThe process begins with a comprehensive survey of used to generate the Horizon Reports, many of whichthe literature, technology news reports, and the work are ongoing and extend the work in the reports, weof other organizations. The 43 members of this year’s refer you to the report’s final section on the researchAdvisory Board engaged in a comprehensive review methodology. T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 7
eLeCTroNiC booKsTime-to-adoption Horizon: one Year or LessNow that they are firmly established in the consumer sector, electronic books are beginning to demonstratecapabilities that challenge the very definition of reading. Audiovisual, interactive, and social elements enhancethe informational content of books and magazines. Social tools extend the reader’s experience into the largerworld, connecting readers with one another and enabling deeper, collaborative explorations of the text. Thecontent of electronic books and the social activities they enable, rather than the device used to access them,are the keys to their popularity; nearly everyone carries some device that can function as an electronic reader,and more people are engaging with electronic books than ever before.overviewElectronic books have continued to rise in popularity for the iPad is a rich media cookbook complete withsince their appearance on the mid-term horizon in reviews, tips, recommendations, and the ability tothe 2010 Horizon Report and that popularity has add recipes.won them a place on the near term horizon for 2011. As the electronic book moves further from a digitalThe variety of content available — and the range of reproduction of a printed piece, some writers arereaders that cater to individual preferences — has seeing it become something far richer, allowinggrown over that time to the point that electronic journeys through worlds real and imagined,books are a viable and easy alternative to printed undertaken not alone but in company with otherones. In addition to dedicated electronic readers, readers. The gestural interfaces of new electronicmultifunction devices like the Apple iPad and the devices enhance the intellectual experience ofSamsung Galaxy represent a new class of tools reading with tactile interactions. Electronic booksthat merges the utility of electronic book readers have the potential to transform the way we interactwith web browsing, a wide variety of applications, with reading material of all kinds, from popular titlesand an expanding set of entertainment options. The to scholarly works. For three compelling visions ofready availability of both reading devices and digital the future promised by the electronic book, see thecontent makes it very easy to integrate electronic five-minute video The Future of the Book producedbooks into everyday portable computing. by design firm IDEO (http://vimeo.com/15142335).The most interesting aspect of electronic books, Standards for the creation of electronic publicationshowever, is not the devices they are accessed with; it is are still in development, and those that exist oftennot even the texts themselves. What makes electronic focus on the text and do not include guidelines forbooks a potentially transformative technology is the kinds of interactivity that is possible in electronicthe new kinds of reading experiences that they books. As more of its media morphs into digitalmake possible. Publishers are beginning to explore forms, the publishing industry is undergoing a shiftrichly visual interfaces that include multimedia and very similar to the one that took place in the musiccollaborative elements. The social magazine format industry in the last decade. New business modelsused by Flipboard, for example, turns the browsing and methods of distribution are appearing as olderof RSS-enabled web content into a serendipitous ones begin to falter. While there is no clear winnerexperience, a dynamic journey that changes every among the many available and emerging formats,time it is opened. Magazines like Time, Wired, and the acceptance and widespread use of electronicothers include interactive graphs, links that extend books has enabled the industry to see a potentialthe reader’s experience, video, and more. Epicurious path through the times ahead.
relevance for Teaching, Learning, and bulk purchases by the institution. For-profitresearch, or Creative inquiry universities such as the University of Phoenix haveDespite their obvious advantages of size and weight, begun requiring faculty to assign electronic texts,electronic books are not as established among and in 2010, the California State University systemscholarly readers as they are among the general piloted a similar program. While this reduces studentpublic. Several obstacles have stood in the way of choice, it also provides a way for the university togeneral adoption among academic institutions: secure cheaper buying options for students. Coursescarcity of academic titles, lack of necessary management systems (CMS) are another point offeatures in electronic readers to support scholarly entry to electronic texts; Blackboard has partneredwork, a restrictive publishing model, and digital with McGraw-Hill and two booksellers to enablerights management (DRM) issues. Most of these faculty to assign, and students to buy, electronicconstraints are now vanishing. Still to be solved are texts within the Blackboard system. CourseSmart,accessibility issues, as a number of institutions found a consortium of five publishers, has also developedwith 2010 Kindle textbook programs. Many academic CMS integration for assigning and purchasingtitles are now available alongside the broad selection electronic texts.of consumer titles; reader technology has developed Scholarly journals are beginning to appear into the point that graphs, illustrations, videos, and electronic form as well. The European-basedinteractive elements can easily be included, and Directory of Open Access Journals lists some 5,500many enable bookmarking, annotation, commentary, titles — nearly half of which are searchable online atdictionary lookup, and other useful functions. the article level — and a typical university researchPublishers have at last begun to uncouple print and library will have access to many more. Scholarlyelectronic sales of textbooks, making it easier to journals are not yet common in the mobile space,choose one or the other as desired. In some parts of although electronic versions of many consumerthe world, DRM restrictions still impede the adoption periodicals are already available as custom apps.of electronic textbooks; titles that are released in one Pricing models for mobile periodicals vary widely;country may be unobtainable in another, or available paper subscribers can sometimes receive mobileonly on certain platforms. Until electronic textbooks versions free, but others must pay separately perare divorced from reader-dependent formats, issue — sometimes at a higher rate than for a paperbroad adoption will continue to be problematic for subscription.universities. Nonetheless, the promise offered by Pricing and DRM issues aside, electronic books havethe technology is such that electronic books are the potential to truly transform educational practice.being explored in virtually every discipline. Clear Currently, most electronic books and journals areadvantages for students (e.g., price and portability) essentially copies of printed versions that can beare other factors that make this technology worth read on a computer or mobile device. Excitingpursuing. new examples hint at the possibilities offered byFor those with smart phones, iPads, and similar more advanced forms of electronic books — self-devices, subscription-based services are available directed, interactive experiences; easy exploration;that allow students to receive textbooks and collaborative work; multi-modal, immersive activities;ancillary materials on the devices they already own. and other deeply engaging approaches to learning.Some models offer free membership with a pay- Mobile applications add easy social interactionper-book feature; others charge on a per-course around electronic books that could be marshaled inbasis. Business models are emerging that may support of group study and focused teacher-studentlower costs for students, including textbook rentals interaction at any point in the text. Electronic texts T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 9
o N e Y e a r o r L e s scan be linked to a myriad of supporting materials that Constellationcan extend and enrich them. https://content.ashford.edu/horizon Created and maintained by Ashford University,A sampling of applications of electronic books across Constellation is an electronic textbook seriesdisciplines includes the following: developed expressly for Ashford courses by biology. Raven Biology, an electronic text from faculty and special editorial boards. Students publisher Inkling, brings the study of this science may use textbooks on their computers or mobile to life with detailed illustrations and animations, devices, print them, or store them locally, as in-line keyword definitions, and interactive they wish. quizzes embedded in each chapter. Cooliris releases a wikipedia Magazine business. Students in Business Computing experience for iPad http://www.padgadget.com/2010/07/27/cooliris- at RMIT University participated in an electronic releases-a-wikipedia-magazine-experience-for- book pilot using custom course material ipad developed from the traditional textbook. The Cooliris Wikipedia application draws Students using the electronic books were able in content from the online encyclopedia, to delve more deeply into the material, access transforming it into a visually rich, magazine-like related information beyond what the instructor display that invites browsing and exploration. provided, and use the device’s highlighting and Page2Pub annotation tools to take notes in the digital text. http://opl.rit.edu/projects/page2pub/ education. At Ball State University, a grant- Rochester Institute of Technology’s Open funded project provided Kindles to students in Publishing Lab has developed a system for Studies in Educational Technology. While using collecting different types of digital content that the readers for their own study, the future teach- can then be published to the open epub format ers also experienced firsthand how electronic for use on a variety of different electronic books can be used in teaching and learning. readers. The Pedlar Lady of Gushing Crosselectronic books in Practice http://www.moving-tales.comThe following links provide examples of how This interactive, immersive retelling of a classicelectronic books are being used in higher education story with animation, audio, and rich graphics issettings. designed for the iPad. stanford university Medical school issues iPadsamazon to Launch “Kindle singles” to students, Potentially replacing Textbookshttp://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix. http://med.stanford.edu/ism/2010/september/zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1481538 ipads-0913.html In the fall of 2010, Amazon announced the The Stanford University School of Medicine launch of “Kindle Singles,” short texts of provides students with iPads containing course between 10,000 and 50,000 words. The service materials and interactive study aids. Students is designed to provide a market for pieces longer find that the iPad reduces the number of than a magazine article but shorter than a novel, textbooks they must carry between classes and such as academic articles, thought pieces, and appreciate having content in a variety of forms, research papers. including video and interactive graphics.
for further reading Making disposable dynamic displays withThe following articles and resources are electronic ink on real Paperrecommended for those who wish to learn more http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2010/11/making-about electronic books. disposable-dynamic-displays-with-electronic- ink-on-real-paper/2009 Librarian ebook survey (Tim Carmody, Wired Gadget Lab, 23 Novemberhttp://www.apo.org.au/research/2009-librarian- 2010.) Electrowetting allows electronic ink to beebook-survey embedded in real paper, merging analog and (Michael Newman, HighWire-Stanford Univer- digital media to create inexpensive displays. sity, 26 March 2010.) This comprehensive report This article describes a prototype project that is analyzes how electronic books are being used exploring the possibilities. in libraries in 13 countries. what Publishers Can and should Learn fromDelicious: electronic books “The elements”http://delicious.com/tag/hz11+ebooks http://radar.oreilly.com/2010/08/what-publishers- Follow this link to find additional resources can-and-should.html tagged for this topic and this edition of the (Mac Slocum, O’Reilly Radar, 12 August 2010.) Horizon Report, including the ones listed here. This article interviews Theodore Gray, author To add to this list, simply tag resources with of The Elements, and discusses how the digital “hz11” and “ebooks” when you save them to version pushes the envelope of electronic book Delicious. publishing.Handheld e-book readers and scholarship: Yes, People still read, but Now it’s socialreport and reader survey http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/http://www.humanitiesebook.org/heb- business/20unbox.htmlwhitepaper-3.html (Steven Johnson, The New York Times, 18 (Nina Gielen, American Council of Learned June 2010.) Writer Steven Johnson argues that Societies (ACLS) Humanities E-Book, 18 electronic books will transform reading into a August 2010.) This report describes an more social experience. experiment and reader survey conducted by the ACLS Humanities E-Book in 2009-10 to assess the effectiveness of electronic scholarly monographs.a Magazine Meant for Mobilehttp://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/11/business/media/11nomad.html (Tanzina Vega, The New York Times, 10 August 2010.) This article discusses a new online publication for mobile devices. Nomad Editions, written by freelance journalists, will appear on a subscriber’s mobile device as a monthly mini- magazine tailored to his or her interests. T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 11
MobiLesTime-to-adoption Horizon: one Year or LessAccording to a recent report from mobile manufacturer Ericsson, studies show that by 2015, 80% of peopleaccessing the Internet will be doing so from mobile devices. Perhaps more important for education, Internet-capable mobile devices will outnumber computers within the next year. In Japan, over 75% of Internet usersalready use a mobile as their first choice for access. This shift in the means of connecting to the Internet isbeing enabled by the convergence of three trends: the growing number of Internet-capable mobile devices,increasingly flexible web content, and continued development of the networks that support connectivity.overviewMobiles continue to merit close attention as an tablet provides just enough extra space to enableemerging technology for teaching and learning. The comfortable use over longer periods of time.devices available today are multi-functional and For most people in the developed world, a mobilerobust, but the story of mobiles is no longer solely is always close at hand and available with speedyabout the devices we carry. Mobiles — be they Internet access whenever it is needed. Mobiles arephones, iPads, or similar “always-connected” devices easy to use for web browsing; much of the available— are doorways to the content and social tapestries content seamlessly adjusts for optimal display onof the network, and they open with just a touch. The whichever device is used to access it. Mobile and2010 Horizon Report placed mobile computing on wireless data networks continue to evolve, supportingthe near term horizon, with an emphasis on the wide faster connections and higher bandwidth throughput;range of activities that are now possible using mobile the forthcoming 4G network promises the highestdevices. This year, mobiles are here because so many speeds yet, and 4G devices are already beginning topeople use them as their first choice for accessing appear on the market.networked resources. The impact of mobiles is beingfelt in every part of the globe and by more people As more people choose to reach for a mobile ratherthan ever before. Active mobile accounts continue to than sitting at a desk to access the Internet, ourgrow dramatically, and the supporting infrastructure views and behaviors about that access are shifting.continues to expand both in urban and remote areas. Specialized applications are available that, for many, replace a standard web browser for mobile access.The number of mobile devices produced and It is not unusual to use several different applicationspurchased each year continues to grow, and the to access online financial information, read andnew devices like the iPad and its counterparts are contribute to social networking sites, check email,expanding our notions of portability. With increased browse and upload media, and so on. Tasks thatscreen real estate, battery life, and input options, once were gathered into a single piece of softwarethese new mobile devices have rapidly become — the web browser — are now distributed amonga viable alternative to heavier, more expensive many specialized (and optimized) applications.laptop computers. It is not uncommon to find thatsomeone carries both a smart phone and a tablet; Easy mobile access also means that the full range ofwhen a quick glance at email, social networks, or networked information and applications accompany usother tools is needed, the smart phone fills the bill. wherever we go. The Internet is no longer somethingFor more involved web browsing, reading, watching that is piped into homes and offices via a cablevideos, or to use any of the tens of thousands of anchored to the wall; it is a pervasive, ever-presentInternet productivity and lifestyle applications, the entity, accessible from anywhere there is a cell signal.
relevance for Teaching, Learning, Anywhere, turns mobiles into personal responseresearch, or Creative inquiry systems, enabling teachers to quiz students,Mobiles embody the convergence of several assess their understanding before, during, andtechnologies that lend themselves to educational after a lesson, and reveal patterns of thinking in theuse, including electronic book readers, annotation classroom. Any mobile will work for these purposes;tools, applications for creation and composition, all that is required is the ability to send text (SMS)and social networking tools. GPS and compasses messages. At Abilene Christian University, attendeesallow sophisticated location and positioning, at a recent performance of Othello were asked notaccelerometers and motion sensors enable the to turn their phones off during the performance, butdevice to be used in completely new ways, digital instead to use them to receive messages throughoutcapture and editing bring rich tools for video, audio, the performance. Cast members behind the scenesand imaging — more and more, mobiles encompass sent messages to clarify Shakespearean language,it all, and innovation in mobile device development share scene summaries, and interact with thecontinues at an unprecedented pace. audience through a live blog.The potential of mobile computing is already The increasing availability of network accessbeing demonstrated in hundreds of projects means that the growing capabilities of mobiles areat higher education institutions. At Ball State available to more students in more locations eachUniversity, computer science students can study year. Educational institutions around the world aremobile applications programming, creating usable investing in the infrastructure that supports mobileapplications in a single semester; recent examples access, sponsoring programs that provide devicesinclude games, a reference tool for birdwatchers, to students who do not already have them, andand an English-Spanish tutoring program. At Oberlin commissioning custom mobile applications toCollege, faculty may borrow iPads to evaluate their serve their communities. Mobiles are recognizedpotential use in courses. Countless applications are as advantageous tools for learning and study, andavailable for self-study, reference, drill and practice, mobile offerings are quickly becoming a selling pointfieldwork, and research in hundreds of disciplines. for prospective students considering educationalCultural heritage organizations and museums are options.also turning to mobiles to educate and connect with The unprecedented evolution of these devicesaudiences. The Museum of Science in Boston, for continues to generate great interest. They areexample, collaborating with researchers from Tufts increasingly capable tools for learning that schoolsUniversity, has created Firefly Watch, a mobile often do not have to buy or maintain: virtually 100%application for visitors and native Bostonians that of university students worldwide come equippedallows them to serve as local “citizen scientists” to with mobiles. The sheer power of these devices isaid real scientists in a large regional study of firefly what makes them interesting, and that power derivespopulations. from their ubiquity, their portability, the wide range ofMobiles allow very simple tools to be easily integrated things that can be done with them, and their ability tointo classroom activities with no need for involvement access the Internet nearly anywhere.of IT or support staff. Twitter, a short-message micro- A sampling of applications of mobiles acrossblogging service that is very easy to use on phones, disciplines includes the following:is a good example, finding ever more common useas an in-class discussion tool. Students participate Chemistry. Reference applications assistby sending messages to ask and answer questions students studying chemical formulae, allowingor expand on thoughts. Another simple tool, Poll them to review and take notes on what they learn, T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 13
o N e Y e a r o r L e s s visualize 3D structures, see the reactions taking Cupids 400 place — and then test their understanding. http://www.cupids400.com/english/education/ History. Mobile applications using location- iphone.php based data and augmented reality help students This application, designed for the iPhone and discover historical information about places they iPod Touch, is used to explore the 1610 English visit on field trips. Canadian settlement at what is now Cupids, Canada. The application includes an interactive Journalism. A team of sixteen faculty and stu- map, details about the settlement of the area, dents across three academic departments at and historical information in a variety of media. Abilene Christian University collaborated to Visitors to Cupids using the application can use produce the first university student newspaper the map to explore real-world locations of the designed expressly for the iPad. original settlement.Mobiles in Practice Liu brooklyn Campus extends iPad ProgramThe following links provide examples of how mobiles http://campustechnology.com/articles/2010/are being used in higher education settings. 10 / 0 4 / l i u - b ro o k l y n - c a m p u s - ex te n d s - i p a d - program.aspx100 Most educational iPhone apps Following a successful pilot in which freshmenhttp://www.accreditedonlinecolleges.com/ were issued iPads, Long Island University’sblog/2009/100-most-educational-iphone-apps Brooklyn Campus has improved the campus This is a comprehensive list of mobile wireless network and committed to subsidizing applications that can be used for study in a wide iPad purchases for its 11,000 students. variety of disciplines.aCu business students integrate iPads into Mobile devices as emerging educational Toolsinnovative study abroad experience http://emergingmediainitiative.com/project/http://www.acu.edu/news/2010/100611_ mobile-educationiPadinOxford.html Computer science faculty members at Ball State Abilene Christian University business students University are developing mobile applications studying in Oxford are using iPads to deploy for political science, computer science, and research plans, present product concepts, chemistry. Once the applications are deployed, and conduct market research. As part of the the faculty plan to conduct longitudinal testing to program, the students will evaluate the use of evaluate the effectiveness of mobiles as a study the devices for education and research. tool.bucks County Community College for further readinghttp://buckslib.wordpress.com/2010/05/24/bucks- The following articles and resources areunveils-first-mobile-app recommended for those who wish to learn more Bucks County Community College has about mobiles. developed a mobile application for the campus community. Early features focus on library use, abilene Christian university’s 2009-2010 Mobile allowing users to browse the library collections, Learning report map a route to BCCC campus locations, and http://www.acu.edu/promise/innovative/ communicate with library staff. The application mlreport2009-10.html will be expanded to include course offerings and (Abilene Christian University, 2010.) Two years other campus resources. after launching an innovative pilot program to is-
sue mobiles to every student, Abilene Christian Pew internet research report: Mobile access 2010 University has published a comprehensive report http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Mobile- detailing the program and its impact on campus. Access-2010.aspx In this article drawn from his 2005 Clair MapleadMob Mobile Metrics Highlights 2010 Memorial Address at the Seminars on Academichttp://metrics.admob.com/2010/06/may-2010- Computing, MIT President Emeritus Charlesmobile-metrics-report Vest discusses open content and outlines the (AdMob Metrics, 30 June 2010.) This report promise and opportunity that drove the creation analyzes data captured by AdMob, a mobile of MIT OpenCourseWare. research unit owned by Google, to discern trends about mobile uptake and use. smartphones Give You wings: Pedagogical affordance of Mobile web 2.0Delicious: Mobiles http://www.apo.org.au/research/smartphones-http://delicious.com/tag/hz11+mobiles give-you-wings-pedagogical-affordance-mobile- Follow this link to find additional resources web-20 tagged for this topic and this edition of the (Thomas Cochrane, Roger Bateman, Horizon Report, including the ones listed here. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, To add to this list, simply tag resources with 7 June 2010.) This paper examines how mobile “hz11” and “mobiles” when you save them to Web 2.0 tools can be used in higher education. Delicious. The state of Mobile apps 2010designing mLearning: Tapping into the Mobile http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_revolution for organizational Performance mobile/the-state-of-mobile-appshttp://www.designingmlearning.com/ (The Nielsen Company, Nielsen Wire, 1 June (Clark Quinn, Pfiiffer, February 2011) This new 2010.) This report identifies global usage patterns book offers a comprehensive guide for designing for mobile applications by mobile device type. learning for the mobile platform. world’s Largest open university Goes MobileGlobal Mobile statistics 2010 http://www.pr-inside.com/world-s-largest-open-http://mobithinking.com/mobile-marketing-tools/ university-goes-r1553595.htmlatest-mobile-stats (Press release, PR-inside.com, 29 October (MobiThinking, October 2010.) This compilation 2009.) The Indira Gandhi National Open of independent research on mobile uptake and University, in partnership with Ericsson, offers usage includes global statistics related to mobile courses on mobile phones to more than 2.5 use. Of special interest is a section of reports million students. about the ‘mobile-only generation,’ or those consumers who only use a mobile device to access the Internet. T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 15
au G M e N T e d r e a L i T YTime-to-adoption Horizon: Two to Three YearsAugmented reality, a capability that has been around for decades, is shifting from what was once seen as agimmick to a bonafide game-changer. The layering of information over 3D space produces a new experienceof the world, sometimes referred to as “blended reality, and is fueling the broader migration of computing ”from the desktop to the mobile device, bringing with it new expectations regarding access to information andnew opportunities for learning. While the most prevalent uses of augmented reality so far have been in theconsumer sector (for marketing, social engagement, amusement, or location-based information), new usesseem to emerge almost daily, as tools for creating new applications become ever easier to use.overviewAugmented reality (AR) refers to the addition of a The first mode relies on a visual metaphor andcomputer-assisted contextual layer of information the second relies on spatial positioning. In the firstover the real world, creating a reality that is method, the position of “markers,” which are visualenhanced or augmented. AR was on the mid-term cues, are “seen” by a camera on a computer orhorizon for 2010, and throughout the year, enjoyed mobile device. The marker is interpreted by softwarewidespread attention in conferences and industry that brings up information in response to physicalshowcases internationally. The Augmented Reality reference points. These points (markers) are used toEvent in June 2010, for example, featured keynotes interpret the device’s precise location and the natureby Bruce Sterling and Will Wright, which suggests of objects in their field of view. As marker-basedthe technology’s growing cultural significance. systems continue to develop, many are beginning toAugmented reality was the Advisory Board’s highest- recognize common real-world objects as markers,rated topic for 2011, which is a testament to its or even special gestures, increasing their flexibilityincreasing importance within higher education. dramatically.Various forms of augmented reality, starting with early Position-based applications are called “gravimetric,”head-mounted displays, have been around for more and make use of a mobile device’s GPS and compassthan 30 years. Over that time, increased bandwidth information, and then use the device’s location andand smart phone adoption, as well as a proliferation of position to discern what objects are nearby. SomeAR browser applications, have helped AR evolve from applications also use image recognition, in whicha family of cool gadgets on the periphery of graphics input to the camera is compared against a libraryand visualization technologies to an increasingly of images to find a match; more recent applicationscentral player in the technology landscape. Further, can detect and interpret gestures and postures asthe powerful significance of the concept of “blending” commands to perform certain functions.information and the real world in an increasinglyexperiential environment has pushed AR to the forefront relevance for Teaching, Learning,in the realms of business, technology, entertainment, research, or Creative inquirybranding, and education. Companies are developing One of the most promising aspects of augmentedaugmented reality brochures, packaging, and kiosks, reality is that it can be used for visual and highlywhile game developers are using augmented reality to interactive forms of learning, allowing the overlaycreate new kinds of entertainment. of data onto the real world as easily as it simulatesAugmented reality is often described with reference to dynamic processes. A second key characteristic ofits two predominant modes of gathering information. augmented reality is its ability to respond to user
input. This interactivity confers significant potential moving around the actual space of the museum.for learning and assessment. Augmented reality is Embedding AR within video and merging these twoan active, not a passive technology; students can media forms is a novel use of this technology.use it to construct new understanding based on One of the most prevalent uses of augmented realityinteractions with virtual objects that bring underlying is to annotate existing spaces with an overlay ofdata to life. Dynamic processes, extensive datasets, information. The Museum of London, for example,and objects too large or too small to be manipulated released a free iPhone app called StreetMuseumcan be brought into a student’s personal space at a that uses GPS positioning and geo-tagging to allowscale and in a form easy to understand and work with. users as they travel around the city of London toIn a broader context of education, augmented reality view information and 3D historical images overlaidis appealing because it aligns with situated learning. on contemporary buildings and sites. Similarly, aStudents find connections between their lives and project call iTacitus (Intelligent Tourism and Culturaltheir education through the addition of a contextual Information Through Ubiquitous Services) allowslayer. The ability to transfer learning from one users to visit historical locations, such as thecontext to another is a significant skill, one that AR Coliseum, pan with their mobile device, and witnesscan facilitate in its overt use of context and layering. an event from the past.Finally, AR that relies on mobile devices leverages Augmented books are also gaining traction.an increasingly ubiquitous tool, not for socialinteractions but for learning, blurring the boundaries Developers at the Gwangju Institute of Sciencebetween formal and informal learning, which can in and Technology have created a format that allowsturn contribute to the evolution of a learning ecology 3D characters to emerge from the pages of books,that transcends educational institutions. Indeed, the but the technology requires the use of goggles.potential for just-in-time learning and exploration, Tony DiTerlizzi’s book The Search for WondLAwithout special goggles or other equipment, is a incorporates “WondLA Vision,” which gives readersdeeply compelling aspect of this technology. an AR experience by having them hold the book and several special images up to a webcam. While muchA tremendous market is emerging for network-aware of the early exploration of this area has centeredapplications that convey information about specific on children’s books, the use of AR for textbooks inplaces or objects. These applications have great higher education holds great promise.promise for learning. This market is being exploredin especially compelling ways by museums. The Creating projects using augmented reality is becomingJ. Paul Getty Museum, for example, has made far more prevalent in media design programs acrossavailable an AR complement for the Augsburg the U.S. For example, Georgia Institute of TechnologyDisplay Cabinet, a 17th century collector’s cabinet is home to the Augmented Reality Lab, where Iulianof wonders, often described as the precursor to the Radu and Blair MacIntyre recently developedcontemporary museum. Both Web-based and on “Augmented Reality Scratch,” an augmented realityview in the museum, the presentation offers users programming environment for children. Ball Statethe opportunity to explore the cabinet without actually University’s Department of Emerging Technologiestouching the delicate objects within. London’s Natural and Media Design, in partnership with augmentedHistory Museum is also using AR with a recent reality developer Total Immersion, offers students anproject called Who Do You Think You Really Are? that opportunity to develop a range of augmented realitygives museum visitors handheld screens featuring an applications. And at New York University’s Interactiveinteractive video that allows users to learn about the Telecommunications Program, as part of a classevolution of dinosaurs, which are seen in the video assignment, students Craig Kapp and Nisma Zaman T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 17
T w o T o T H r e e Y e a r screated an interactive AR memory matching game MiT Teacher education Programdesigned for children in rehabilitation at the Rusk http://education.mit.edu/drupal/arInstitute of Rehabilitation Medicine. This is a description of augmented reality simulations created by the MIT TeacherContinued experimentation in the development of AR Education Program, in conjunction with Thesimulations, games, texts, and situated information Education Arcade, to enhance student learning.bode well for the expansion of AR in higher educationlearning in the coming year. Powerhouse Museum augmented reality applicationA sampling of applications of augmented reality http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/layar/across disciplines includes the following: The Powerhouse Museum has developed Chemistry. Using handheld devices, students an augmented reality application that allows explore a physical space to uncover clues and visitors to use their mobile phones to see receive data related to a simulated environmental Sydney, Australia, as it appeared one hundred disaster detailed in a game-based scenario years ago. using AR simulations. radford outdoor augmented reality (roar) Project Geography. Students study an augmented http://gameslab.radford.edu/ROAR.html globe in a textbook, and gain both a better ROAR is an augmented reality game developed representation of the cartographic information by researchers in the Games, Animation, and greater options for interaction and Modeling and Simulation (GAMeS) Lab at comprehension. Radford University. The project uses AR to History. Visiting actual locations tagged help teach K-12 students more about Native with information, students view images and American history and teamwork through a game information from the past in situ, enhancing their called Buffalo Hunt. The project was done in comprehension. collaboration with HP Labs and MIT. skidmore Campus Mapaugmented reality in Practice http://academics.skidmore.edu/blogs/The following links provide examples of how onlocation/2010/10/21/augmenting-reality/augmented reality is being used in higher education The Skidmore GIS Center used augmentedsettings. reality to create the Skidmore Campus Map.augmented reality, blogs and Geo-Tagging to Text spaces in augmented realityConnect students with their environment abroad http://blogs.ubc.ca/etec540courseproj/course-http://blogs.dickinson.edu/edtech/2010/11/23/ assignment-major-project/a u g m e n te d - re a l i t y - b l o g s - ge o - t a g g i n g - to - Text Spaces in Augmented Reality is a projectconnect-students-with-their-environment-abroad/ at the University of British Columbia using AR Study Abroad students from Dickinson in conjunction with text. The project gives many College visiting Japan were assigned the examples and a list of references related to the task of documenting their surroundings using subject. augmented reality. They built a simple AR layer that was complemented with geo-tagged for further reading photographs and blog entries. The project’s The following articles and resources are goal was to help better familiarize students with recommended for those who wish to learn more the new surroundings. about augmented reality.
augmented reality - its future in education How The New York Times, others arehttp://www.publictechnology.net/sector/ experimenting with augmented realityaugmented-reality-its-future-education http://www.poynter.org/how-tos/digital- (Mark Smith, publictechnology.net, 15 November strategies/e-media-tidbits/99162/how-the-new- 2010.) This post offers a look at how augmented york-times-others-are-experimenting-with- reality can have an impact on education. augmented-reality/ (Dorian Benkoil, poynter.org, 30 October 2009.)blended reality: superstructing reality, This post discusses how The New York Timessuperstructing selves and other publishers are exploring the use andhttp://www.iftf.org/node/2598 application of augmented reality. The author also (Kathi Vian, Institute for the Future, 4 March suggests how AR can be used in conjunction 2009.) This in-depth report looks at the impact of with other technologies such as the semantic augmented reality as it is increasingly integrated web and smart objects. into technology and society, focusing specifically on the transformation of sensory perception and its implications culturally.Collaborative augmented reality in schoolshttp://ltee.org/uploads/cscl2009/paper236.pdf (Lyn Pemberton, Marcus Winter, University of Brighton, 2009.) This brief research paper discusses the use of augmented reality for collaboration and learning, and describes a specific collaborative project deploying three AR prototypes.Delicious: augmented realityhttp://delicious.com/tag/hz11+augmentedreality Follow this link to find additional resources tagged for this topic and this edition of the Horizon Report, including the ones listed here. To add to this list, simply tag resources with “hz11” and “augmentedreality” when you save them to Delicious.How augmented reality apps Can Catch onhttp://radar.oreilly.com/2010/10/two-ways-augmented-reality-app.html (Mac Slocum, O’Reilly Radar, 13 October 2010.) This article discusses standards for development of AR applications. T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 19
GaMe-based LearNiNGTime-to-adoption Horizon: Two to Three YearsGame-based learning has gained considerable traction since 2003, when James Gee began to describethe impact of game play on cognitive development. Since then, research — and interest in — the potential ofgaming on learning has exploded, as has the diversity of games themselves, with the emergence of seriousgames as a genre, the proliferation of gaming platforms, and the evolution of games on mobile devices.Developers and researchers are working in every area of game-based learning, including games that aregoal-oriented; social game environments; non-digital games that are easy to construct and play; gamesdeveloped expressly for education; and commercial games that lend themselves to refining team and groupskills. Role-playing, collaborative problem solving, and other forms of simulated experiences constitute topicsfor further research, but are recognized for having broad applicability across a wide range of disciplines.overviewProponents of game-based learning in higher games that make them especially engaging andeducation point to its role in supporting collaboration, appealing to players of various ages and of bothproblem-solving, and communication, the 21st genders: the feeling of working toward a goal; thecentury competencies needed by American students possibility of attaining spectacular successes; theoutlined by Secretary of Education Arne Duncan ability to problem-solve, collaborate with others,in late 2010 in the National Education Technology and socialize; an interesting story line; and otherPlan. Advocates also underscore the productive characteristics. These qualities are replicable,role of play, which allows for experimentation, the though they can be difficult to design well, and theyexploration of identities, and even failure. Gaming can transfer to games featuring educational content.also contributes to the development of a particular More recently, the Serious Games movementdisposition well-suited to an information-based responded to the desire to unite significant contentculture and rapid change. with play. The games within this genre layer socialGaming is an expansive category, ranging from simple issues or problems with game play, helping playerspaper-and-pencil games such as word searches all gain a new perspective through active engagement.the way up to complex, massively multiplayer online While some criticize these games as being too(MMO) and role-playing games. Educational games serious, and therefore lacking the fun aspectscan be broadly grouped into three categories: games that can increase engagement, research showsthat are not digital; games that are digital, but that that players readily connect with learning materialare not collaborative; and collaborative digital games. when doing so will help them achieve personallyThe first category includes many games already meaningful goals.common in classrooms as supplemental learning A few years further out, but increasingly interesting,tools. Digital games include games designed for is the creation of massively multiplayer online (MMO)computers, for console systems like the Nintendo games designed for learning. Like their entertainment-Wii, and online games accessed either through a or training-focused counterparts (World of Warcraft,special game client (like IBM’s Power Up) or through Everquest, Lord of the Rings Online, America’sa web interface (like Whyville). Army, and others), games of this type bring manyResearch into games for educational purposes players together to work on activities that requirereveals some interesting trends. Early studies of collaborative problem-solving. Games like these areconsumer games helped to identify the aspects of complex, and include solo as well as group content
and goals that are collaborative as well as some experiment with leadership. In MMO games, thethat are competitive. They are often goal-oriented in “conceptual blending” required in navigating the realways that tie to a storyline or theme, but the highest world and virtual spaces simultaneously in game playlevels of interaction and play require outside learning similarly contributes a valuable skill. Finally, gainingand discovery. What makes MMO games especially an understanding of the “procedural logic” or metacompelling and effective is the variety of sub-games level of game design is also useful, helping studentsor paths of engagement that are available to players garner a deeper understanding of the systems that— there are social aspects, large and small goals to drive contemporary culture. In these ways, gamingwork towards, often an interesting back story that sets as an activity contributes to learning broadly.the context, and more. Players dedicate enormous In the second direction, gaming related specifically toamounts of time on task pursuing the goals of these course content helps student gain a fresh perspectivegames. The problem that needs to be solved, and on material and can potentially engage them inwhich is being tackled on many fronts today, is that of that content in more complex and nuanced ways.embedding educational content in such a way that it Alternate reality games (ARGs), in which playersbecomes a natural part of playing the game. find clues and solve puzzles in experiences that blurOne area in which there is currently a great deal of the boundary between the game and real life, offerdevelopment is social games, especially those that a clear example in which course content and gamecan be taken along and played anywhere at all using play can overlap. Recent examples of large-scalea mobile device. With social games, players are ARGs include the educational games World Withoutnever far from a game environment, whether it be a Oil, a collaborative and social imagining of the firstmobile in a pocket, a desktop or laptop computer, or a 32 weeks of a global oil crisis, and Superstruct, innetworked gaming console. With this kind of ubiquity, which players imagined themselves 10 years in thegames are becoming a pervasive part of everyday future, in a world facing daunting environmental,life, and our notions of what constitutes a game are political, and health challenges. The Tower of Babel,changing as fast as the games themselves. an ARG designed by the European ARGuing Project, was used in schools as well as by learners of all agesrelevance for Teaching, Learning, for learning languages other than their own.research, or Creative inquiry Online games for single users are also popular,Considering the relevance of gaming within higher although they may be used more in informal thaneducation can take one of two admittedly overlapping formal learning contexts. Examples of single-playerpaths. In the first, gaming is deemed significant as online games useful in an educational contexta conceptual practice with outcomes that enable include those developed by Persuasive Games,students to gain skills needed specifically in an which explores advocacy issues in a format intendedinformation-based culture. The second path finds to engage players in serious questions related torelevance in specific gaming content, which can health, policy, and contemporary topics. Similarly, theoverlap with course content, helping students learn Italian design collective Molleindustrial uses gamingmaterial in an innovative way. to address pressing social needs. The Free CultureIn the first direction, advocates support the act of Game, for example, is described as “a playablegaming. They see value, for example, in creating theory” and deals with copyright and free culture,a disposition or stance that enhances skills in while Oligarchy considers international oil drilling.decision-making, innovation, and problem-solving. The premise behind these games is that whileThe ability to identify with experts as one adopts students may read about social issues in a givendiffering identities in games can allow students to college course, actively playing through the topics T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 21