Progressive Education 20th Century


Published on

Historical overview of Progressive education

Published in: Design, Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Progressive Education 20th Century

  1. 1. Progressive Education 1920-2000
  2. 2. Domination of Administrative Progressives <ul><li>Structure of Schooling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schooling broken into specialized parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kindergarten </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Junior high </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graduate or professional school </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Domination of Administrative Progressives <ul><li>Hierarchy of authority established </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative power is extended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power over budgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curricular control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher evaluation- hiring and firing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NEA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emma Flagg Young </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Margaret Haley in Chicago </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Domination of Administrative Progressives <ul><li>Social differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking by social/economic class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.Q. and other standardized testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Psychology dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Schools operate as bureaucracies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support Staff </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>B. F. Skinner
  5. 5. Social Meliorists <ul><li>Schools are a major force for social change and social justice. Schools were the vehicles to create a new social vision. </li></ul><ul><li>George Counts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Absurd Effort to Make the World Over” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harold O. Rugg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Reconstructionism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boyd Bode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive Education Association </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Pockets of Progressivism <ul><li>New York 1920-1940 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Activity program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An experimental program involving 69 elementary schools and over 70,000 students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child centered </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible scheduling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity or project based curriculum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom for teachers to determine instruction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dalton Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized learning programs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Pockets of Progressivism <ul><li>Denver 1920-1940 </li></ul><ul><li>The eight year study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core curriculum (areas of living) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal living </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate personal/social relationships </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social/Civic relationships </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic relationships </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated, project-based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers controlled the curriculum </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The 1950s-1960s <ul><li>Post World War II saw a growing criticism of American Education </li></ul><ul><li>Sputnik (1957) gave evidence that Russia was doing a superior job of educating it’s youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War implications </li></ul>
  9. 9. The 1950s-1960s <ul><li>Arthur Bestor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Educational Wastelands” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rudolf Flesch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why Johnny Can’t Read </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Admiral Hyman Rickover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and Freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robert Hutchins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The conflict in education in a democratic society </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The 1950s-1960s <ul><li>Admiral Hyman Rickover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and Freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dewey's insistence on making the child's interest the determining factor in planning curricula has led to substitution of know-how subjects for solid learning and to the widespread tendency of schools to instruct pupils in the minutiae of daily life--how to set a table correctly, how to budget one's income, how to use cameras, telephones, and consumer credit--the list is endless. Add to this that Dewey insisted the schoolroom must mirror the community and you find classrooms cluttered with cardboard boxes, children learning arithmetic by keeping store, and education stuck in the concrete and unable to carry the child from there to abstract concepts and ideas. Our young people are therefore deprived of the tremendous intellectual heritage of Western civilization which no child can possibly discover by himself; he must be led to it.&quot; </li></ul>
  11. 11. Influence of the Federal Government <ul><li>1954- Brown vs. the Board of Education- Topeka, Kansas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of the “separate but equal” clause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1958- National Defense Education Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal funds to improve science, math, foreign language instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1965- Elementary and Secondary Education Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson’s “War on Poverty” (Title 1) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Advocates of “Child-Centered” Progressive Education <ul><li>John Holt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How Children Fail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children are subject peoples. School for them is a kind of jail. </li></ul><ul><li>Do they not, to some extent, escape and frustrate the relentless, insatiable pressure of their elders by withdrawing the most intelligent and creative parts of their minds from the scene? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this not at least a partial explanation of the extraordinary stupidity that otherwise bright children so often show in school? The stubborn and dogged &quot;I don't get it&quot; with which they meet the instructions and explanations of their teachers--may it not be a statement of resistance as well as one of panic and flight? ... </li></ul>
  13. 13. Advocates of “Child-Centered” Progressive Education <ul><li>John Holt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How Children Fail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We encourage children to act stupidly, not only by scaring and confusing them, but by boring them, by filling up their days with dull, repetitive tasks that make little or no claim on their attention or demands on their intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Our hearts leap for joy at the sight of a roomful of children all slogging away at some imposed task, and we are all the more pleased and satisfied if someone tells us that the children don't really like what they are doing. We tell ourselves that this drudgery, this endless busywork, is good preparation for life, and we fear that without it children would be hard to &quot;control.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>But why must this busywork be so dull? Why not give tasks that are interesting and demanding? Because, in schools where every task must be completed and every answer must be right, if we give children more demanding tasks they will be fearful and will instantly insist that we show them how to do the job. When you have acres of paper to fill up with pencil marks, you have no time to waste on the luxury of thinking. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Advocates of “Child-Centered” Progressive Education <ul><li>Johathan Kozol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death at an Early Age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I noticed this one day while I was out in the auditorium doing reading with some children: Classes were taking place on both sides of us. The Glee Club and the sewing classes were taking place at the same time in the middle. Along with the rest, there was a 5th grade remedial math group, comprising six pupils, and there were several other children whom I did not know about simply walking back and forth. </li></ul><ul><li>Before me were six 4th graders, most of them from the disorderly 4th grade and several of them children who had had substitute teachers during much of the previous two years. It was not their fault; they had done nothing to deserve substitute teachers. And it was not their fault now if they could not hear my words clearly since it also was true that I could barely hear theirs. Yet the way that they dealt with this dilemma, at least on the level at which I could observe it, was to blame, not the school but themselves. Not one of those children would say to me: &quot;Mr. Kozol, it's too noisy.&quot; Not one of them would say: &quot;Mr. Kozol, what's going on here? This is a crazy place to learn.&quot; </li></ul>
  15. 15. Advocates of “Child-Centered” Progressive Education <ul><li>James Herndon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way it spose to be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to survive your native land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouping by ability, formerly anathema in the district, has caught on. We group them high, low, and average in math and science; English teachers are waiting their turn. Below that we've tried &quot;remedial&quot; classes, and above that, &quot;enrichment.&quot; (The remedial kids complain that they ain't learning nothing but that baby stuff, and the enriched that they do the same thing as the other kids, just twice as much of it.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We &quot;experiment&quot; a lot. We teach Spanish experimentally to everyone, then drop it experimentally. We experiment with slow learners, with nonachievers, with core programs, team teaching, with &quot;innovative&quot; programs. These programs, being only &quot;experiments,&quot; remain on the fringe of things; the general curriculum, not being an experiment at all, isn't affected by them. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Advocates of “Child-Centered” Progressive Education <ul><li>Herbert Kohl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36 Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I put an assignment on the board before the children arrived in the morning and gave the class the choice of reading, writing, or doing what was on the board. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At no time did any child have to write, and whenever possible I let the children write for as long as their momentum carried them. Time increasingly became the servant of substance in the classroom. At the beginning of the semester I had tried to use blocks of time in a predetermined, preplanned way--first reading, then social studies, arithmetic, and so forth. Then I broke the blocks by allowing free periods. This became confining and so I allowed the length of periods to vary according to the children's and my interest and concentration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally we reached a point where the class could pursue things without the burden of a required amount of work that had to be passed through every day. This meant that there were many things that the class didn't &quot;cover&quot;; that there were days without arithmetic and weeks without spelling or my dear &quot;vocabulary.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many exciting and important things were missed as well as many dull things. But the children learned to explore and invent, to become obsessed by things that interested them and follow them through libraries and books back into life; they learned to believe in their own curiosity and value the intellectual and literary, perhaps even in a small way the human, quest without being overly burdened with a premature concern for results . </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Open Classroom Movement 1970’s <ul><li>The British Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.S. Neill & Summerhill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The British Infant Schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Featherstone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where Children learn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative schools </li></ul><ul><li>“ Free schools” </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Open Classroom Movement <ul><li>Vito Perrone- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dean of the Center for Teaching & Learning, University of North Dakota </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Open Classroom” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active – project based learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ multi-media” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child-centered curriculum </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Open Classroom Movement <ul><li>Vito Perrone- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dean of the Center for Teaching & Learning, University of North Dakota </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Bottom Up” reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshop model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass distribution of materials </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Today Does Progressive Education Exist? <ul><li>Pockets on the margins </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project based education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle School model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James Beane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Current research from Cognitive and Developmental Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>School “Choice” models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charter schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative schools </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Thoughts about Organizing Your Paper <ul><li>Have a “point of view,” a clearly stated thesis, that you state early in the paper </li></ul><ul><li>I am looking for a logical organization with backing evidence and illustrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Use APA style. That means if you quote a source, cite it in the text and have the source in your reference section </li></ul>
  22. 22. Thoughts about Organizing Your Paper <ul><li>Possible organizational strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronologically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Briefly describe social, political, economic context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the educational response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gilded Age/Industrial Rev – Dewey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1900-WWI – Administrative Progressives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depression – Social Meliorists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1950’s – Back to Basics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1960-1970 – Open Classroom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1980-2002 – Hybrids & Alternatives </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Thoughts about Organizing Your Paper <ul><li>Possible organizational strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thematically (Zilversmit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive Education (Dewey’s version) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ morphed” into </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ad. Progs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocationalism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open Classroom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Thoughts about Organizing Your Paper <ul><li>Possible organizational strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict (Kliebard) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progressives vs. Anti-Progressives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humanists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Back to Basics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Control advocates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>