Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
8/2/2013
1
សសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសស
Western University
Where quality come first!
Department of English
Lecturer: Mr. SOEUNG SO...
8/2/2013
2
Chapter11: Social Class, Race,
and SchoolAchievement
After we finish this chapter we will know:
 Social Class ...
Focus Question
 What is the relationship between social class and success
in the educational system?
 How do environment...
Social Class and Success in school
American Society is generally understood to consist of
three broad class:
Upper Class
M...
8/2/2013
5
Cambodia Social Class
Elite group (upper Class)
Middle Class
Lower Class
Categories of Social Class
W. Lloyd Warner and his colleagues used four main
variables – occupation, education, income, an...
Research on Social Class and School
Success
Table 11.1 Percentages of Eighth Graders Performing at or
above Proficient lev...
8/2/2013
8
Cambodian students participate
school as percentage
< 6 6-14 15-19 20-24 25+
28.91% 80.19% 51.83% 14.37% 1.20%
8/2/2013
9
Cambodian students as percentage in
schooling
Years Literacy (ages14-15) as % Survival grades (1-9 ) as % Girls...
Social Class, College Participation, and
National Problem
 Social Class: is associated with many educational outcomes in
...
Race, Ethnicity, and School Success
 Race : Identifies groups of people with common ancestry
and physical characteristic....
Figure 11.1: Indicators of School Performance and Socioeconomic
Background, by Racial and Ethnic group
8/2/2013
12
The social problem of Minority
Status plus Urban Poverty
1. The African American population of the United States has
becom...
Comparing the Influence of Social
Class and Ethnicity
8/2/2013
14
 Working-Class white students as a group low achievemen...
Reasons for Low Achievement
among Low-Status Students
• Over the past forty years, much research has
been aimed at underst...
8/2/2013
16
I. Home Environment
The previous chapter has pointed out that:
“Children’s families are the most important agent in
their ...
Wide knowledge of the world outside the home
through access to books and cultural institutions (for
example, museums), par...
Cognitive( thinking ) and Verbal( speaking) Skills.
That both Middle- and Working-class children
develop them with “ordina...
In many working-class homes ill-prepare children to
function independently in the school .
Middle-class families tend to s...
II. Heredity - vs - Environment
“ Heredity”- refers to the characteristics are given from
parents’ genes.
“ Environment” –...
A: Working-classchildrenaverage lower scores on
intelligence tests may be relatedto environment or
heredity,or both.
Deba...
So, Teachers and Parents should provide the
best possible environment for each child to
make the most of their inherited a...
II. Obstacles in the Classroom
We have noted that the home and family environment
of many working-class student lacks the ...
List of the most classroomobstacles:
1. Inappropriate curriculum and instruction
2. Lack of previous success in school
3. ...
8/2/2013
26
Do Schools Equalize Opportunity?
The research discussed in the
preceding section indicates that
disproportiona...
8/2/2013
27
Coleman’s study: Equal educational opportunity has
received considerable attention since the1966 publication ...
8/2/2013
28
 Jencks’s conclusions:
• 1 School achievement depend s substantially on
student ‘s family characteristics.
• ...
8/2/2013
29
International parallels: The scholars at the
world bank after reviewing several decades of
international rese...
8/2/2013
30
 Role of education :has help many people
surpass their parent's status
 College as the dividing line: Educat...
8/2/2013
31
Traditional versus Revisionist Interpretation
Opposite view of U.S schools:
• The revisionist view of schools,...
8/2/2013
32
The Traditional View is the relationship among
social class educational achievement ,and economic
success ,but...
8/2/2013
33
• Why students resist: Much analysis in critical
pedagogy has been referred to as
resistance theory, which att...
8/2/2013
34
An intermediate Viewpoint
This chapter provide data indicating that
working class students as a group under
pe...
8/2/2013
35
Minorities and concentrated poverty:
Social and demographic trend have concentrated
many child in low-income u...
8/2/2013
36
Thank You for
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Foundation of education 11

1,005 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Foundation of education 11

  1. 1. 8/2/2013 1 សសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសស Western University Where quality come first! Department of English Lecturer: Mr. SOEUNG SOPHA Group 2: 1. Chhit Seyha 2. Seng Saksreyney 3. Norng Chanmoninich ACADEMIC YEAR: 2012 & 2013
  2. 2. 8/2/2013 2 Chapter11: Social Class, Race, and SchoolAchievement After we finish this chapter we will know:  Social Class and Success in School.  Race, Ethnicity, and School Success.  Reason for Low Achievement among Low-Status Students.  Do Schools equalize opportunity?
  3. 3. Focus Question  What is the relationship between social class and success in the educational system?  How do environment and heredity affect low achievement level?  What are the major reasons for low achievement among students with low socioeconomic status?  What roles do home family environment play in encouraging or discouraging high achievement? 8/2/2013 3
  4. 4. Social Class and Success in school American Society is generally understood to consist of three broad class: Upper Class Middle Class Working Class 8/2/2013 4
  5. 5. 8/2/2013 5 Cambodia Social Class Elite group (upper Class) Middle Class Lower Class
  6. 6. Categories of Social Class W. Lloyd Warner and his colleagues used four main variables – occupation, education, income, and housing value – classify five groups: 1. Upper Class : wealthy persons. 2. Upper middle Class : Professionals, managers, small business owners. 3. Lower middle Class: Technical workers, technicians, sales personnel, and clerical workers. 4. Upper lower Class : Skilled crafts workers. 5. Lower lower Class : Unskilled manual workers. 8/2/2013 6
  7. 7. Research on Social Class and School Success Table 11.1 Percentages of Eighth Graders Performing at or above Proficient levels Mathematics Reading Parental Education Not graduated high school 9 13 Graduated high school 17 20 Some education after high school 28 33 Graduated college 40 43 Type of community Central City 24 27 Urban fringe/ large town 32 36 Rural/small town 29 32 8/2/2013 7
  8. 8. 8/2/2013 8 Cambodian students participate school as percentage < 6 6-14 15-19 20-24 25+ 28.91% 80.19% 51.83% 14.37% 1.20%
  9. 9. 8/2/2013 9 Cambodian students as percentage in schooling Years Literacy (ages14-15) as % Survival grades (1-9 ) as % Girls & Boys (grade 10- 12) in % 1999 82 2001 33 48 2005 83.4 29.3 59.9 2015 Goal 100 Goal 100 Goal 100
  10. 10. Social Class, College Participation, and National Problem  Social Class: is associated with many educational outcomes in reading, math, and other subjects.  College Participation: Working-class students have low achievement scores than middle- class students to complete high school or to enroll in and complete college.  National Problem: About 25% of high-school graduates from the lowest two socioeconomic quartiles enter college and attain a postsecondary degree, compared with more than 80% of high-school graduates in the highest quartile. 8/2/2013 10
  11. 11. Race, Ethnicity, and School Success  Race : Identifies groups of people with common ancestry and physical characteristic.  Ethnicity : Identifies people who have a shared culture, member of an ethnic group usually have common ancestry and share language, religion, and other culture trait.  School success: Status of minority groups, Eighth-grade samples, Gain by minorities, Dropout rates, and College attendance. 8/2/2013 11
  12. 12. Figure 11.1: Indicators of School Performance and Socioeconomic Background, by Racial and Ethnic group 8/2/2013 12
  13. 13. The social problem of Minority Status plus Urban Poverty 1. The African American population of the United States has become more economically polarized. 2. Social institution such as family, the school, and the law enforcement system often appear to have collapse in the inner city. 3. The concentration of low-income minority populations in big- city poverty areas has increase their isolation from the larger city. 4. The problems experience by young black males have escalated enormously. 8/2/2013 13
  14. 14. Comparing the Influence of Social Class and Ethnicity 8/2/2013 14  Working-Class white students as a group low achievement and college attainment, whereas middle-class minority students, as a group, rank relatively high on these variables.  Minority of working-class and underclass, their children remain much less successful in the educational system than are the children of the middle-class.
  15. 15. Reasons for Low Achievement among Low-Status Students • Over the past forty years, much research has been aimed at understanding and finding out the reasons for low-achieving students from working- class and poor families. And groups them under •3 major factors: I. Home environment II. Heredity versus environment III. Obstacles in classroom 8/2/2013 15
  16. 16. 8/2/2013 16
  17. 17. I. Home Environment The previous chapter has pointed out that: “Children’s families are the most important agent in their early socialization and education.” Many working-class students grow up in homes that  fail to prepare them well for school. 3 key sets of characteristics important to their school achievement: 1) Knowledge and understanding 3) Values and attitudes 2) Cognitive and Verbal skills 8/2/2013 17
  18. 18. Wide knowledge of the world outside the home through access to books and cultural institutions (for example, museums), parental teaching, and exploration of diverse environment. That are helpful for children when they are enter school. 1) Knowledgeand understanding But Working-class children are less likely to acquired it than Middle-class children So, Lacking of these things may limit understanding needed at school..! 8/2/2013 18
  19. 19. Cognitive( thinking ) and Verbal( speaking) Skills. That both Middle- and Working-class children develop them with “ordinary” or “restricted” language . 2) Cognitiveand Verbal Skills But Middle-class children are superior in the use of “formal” or “elaborated” language. So, “Restricted” or “Ordinary” language does not help prepare poor children for school..! 8/2/2013 19
  20. 20. In many working-class homes ill-prepare children to function independently in the school . Middle-class families tend to stress independent learning and self-directed thinking by: 3) Valuesand Attitudes Stimulation by home environment Early cognitive development Early brain development So, “ Focus on Control” does not encourage higher- order thinking or independent problem-solving skills needed at school...! 8/2/2013 20
  21. 21. II. Heredity - vs - Environment “ Heredity”- refers to the characteristics are given from parents’ genes. “ Environment” – refers to surroundings or conditions you live in. Q: Which one cause the lower scores on intelligence tests of children ? 1) Heredity? 3) Both?2) Environment? 8/2/2013 21
  22. 22. A: Working-classchildrenaverage lower scores on intelligence tests may be relatedto environment or heredity,or both. Debate over why scores are low includes at least three views: 1) Hereditarian: differences in intellectual capacity are inborn,affected little by environment. 2) Environmentalist:family, school,and culture environmentare major factors in determining IQ test performance. 3) Synthesis:both environment and heredity contributeto IQ and schoolperformance. 8/2/2013 22
  23. 23. So, Teachers and Parents should provide the best possible environment for each child to make the most of their inherited abilities. 8/2/2013 23
  24. 24. II. Obstacles in the Classroom We have noted that the home and family environment of many working-class student lacks the kind of educational stimulation needed to prepare students for success in the classroom. ! However, certain school and classroom dynamics also cause these low achievements. 8/2/2013 24
  25. 25. List of the most classroomobstacles: 1. Inappropriate curriculum and instruction 2. Lack of previous success in school 3. Ineffective fixation on low-level learning 4. Difficult teaching conditions in working-class schools 5. Teacher perceptions of student inadequacies 6. Ineffective homogeneous grouping 7. Delivery-of-service problems 8. Overly large classes 9. Lack of teacher preparation and experience 10. Negative peer pressure 11. Differences between teacher and student backgrounds 12. Incompatibility between classroom expectations and students’ behavioral patterns/ learning styles 13. Accumulating effects of information-poor homes and neighborhoods 8/2/2013 25
  26. 26. 8/2/2013 26 Do Schools Equalize Opportunity? The research discussed in the preceding section indicates that disproportionate number of student from low-income background enter school poorly prepared to succeed in traditional classrooms and in later years rank relatively low in school achievement and in other indicators of success.
  27. 27. 8/2/2013 27 Coleman’s study: Equal educational opportunity has received considerable attention since the1966 publication of a massive national study conducted by James Coleman and his colleagues . Influence of school spending versus social class: As expected ,they report that achievement related strongly to student’s socioeconomic background and that school with high proportions of working-class ,and underclass student generally received less funding than did middle-class school. * Student’s personal socioeconomic background. *The social class status of other students in the school.
  28. 28. 8/2/2013 28  Jencks’s conclusions: • 1 School achievement depend s substantially on student ‘s family characteristics. • 2 Family background accounts for nearly half the variation in occupational status and up to 35 %of the variation in earning. • 3 The school accomplish relatively little in terms of reducing the achievement gap between student with higher and lower socioeconomic.
  29. 29. 8/2/2013 29 International parallels: The scholars at the world bank after reviewing several decades of international research, report that family background has an “early and apparently lasting influence "on achievement.  Significant socioeconomic: Student with low socioecomic status tend to perform poorly in school and later have restricted employment opportunities, a substantial proportion of working class child and some from families living in poverty do eventually attain middle class status.
  30. 30. 8/2/2013 30  Role of education :has help many people surpass their parent's status  College as the dividing line: Education increasingly determines socioeconomic status and mobility ,college attendance and graduation constitute a kind of diving line between those likely to attain high socioeconomic status and those not.  Continuing disadvantages of underclass: The success of many working-class student opportunity educational social and economic are
  31. 31. 8/2/2013 31 Traditional versus Revisionist Interpretation Opposite view of U.S schools: • The revisionist view of schools, in contrast holds that the school fail to provide most disadvantage student with a meaning chance to succeed in society. • Critical theory or critical pedagogy used as synonyms for the revisionist view. The following sections explore the ramifications of these two arguments.
  32. 32. 8/2/2013 32 The Traditional View is the relationship among social class educational achievement ,and economic success ,but they emphasize existing opportunities and data including many working-class youth do experience social mobility through school and other institutions. The Revisionist View and Critical Pedagogy Education as maintaining elite dominate: revisionist content that elite group control the school and thus channel disadvantaged student : 1 Second rate: Secondary school and programs 2 Third-rate: community colleges 3 Fourth-rate: jobs
  33. 33. 8/2/2013 33 • Why students resist: Much analysis in critical pedagogy has been referred to as resistance theory, which attempts to explain why some students with low socioeconomic status refuse to conform to school expectations or to comply with teacher ‘’s demands. • What teacher should do: Using a variety of related terms such as critical discourse ,engagement, and critical literacy.
  34. 34. 8/2/2013 34 An intermediate Viewpoint This chapter provide data indicating that working class students as a group under perform middle-class students. School’s failures versus success :not all working class students and minority student fail in the school and not all middle class student succeed. Lowest class position are most frozen: On status mobility in the United Sates indicates that people at the bottom level mostly tend to freeze into parents status.
  35. 35. 8/2/2013 35 Minorities and concentrated poverty: Social and demographic trend have concentrated many child in low-income urban and rural communities in school extremely low on achievement measures.
  36. 36. 8/2/2013 36 Thank You for

×