Desmond Tutu


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Desmond Tutu

  1. 1. Desmond TutuDesmond Tutu Rabble-Rouser for Peace
  2. 2. South Africa – a historySouth Africa – a history  Major tribes (following migration): Xhosa & Zulu  1487 Bartholomew Dias = first European (Portuguese) to reach cape (of Storms, later of Good Hope)  Opens up trade to riches of India  1652 Dutch East India Co. estd.  Dutch bring in slaves as labour  Cape Frontier Wars (vs. Xhosa & Zulu)  1795 Britain take control of Cape  1807 Slave Trade Act – slavery abolished in all colonies by 1833 act.  1830’s 12,000 Boers leave Cape colony, migrating into northern area
  3. 3. South Africa – a historySouth Africa – a history  1867 diamonds disc. & gold in 1884  Leads to war between Boers & British 1st Boer War 1880-81 2nd Boer War 1899-1902  (Boers seek alliance with Germany & German colonials in SW Africa)  May 1910 Union of South Africa (as a Dominion of GB) created.  1913 Natives Land Act (restricts ownership of land by “blacks”)  1931 Independence  1934 Union of SA Party & National Party  1939 Split over entry into war  1948 National Party (Afrikaner) elected to power
  4. 4. South Africa – a historySouth Africa – a history  1948 Segregation: 3 races (Apartheid)  White minority control government, economy, business, even sport!  1961 SA becomes republic following white-only referendum  Leads to sanctions, govt. suppression, violent resistance. ANC formed.  1990 band lifted on ANC & release of Nelson Mandela from 27 years in prison  Apartheid legislation repealed  1994 ANC win 1st multi-racial election (maintain power with 65-70% majority). New military defence force created.  Leads to redistribution of wealth & housing policy - but largely failure to tackle other social & economic issues  AIDS pandemic (5m. infected. Rate 20%. 1.2 m. orphans)
  5. 5. South Africa – a historySouth Africa – a history  Population: 44.8 million (Black 79%, White 9%, Coloured 9%, Indian/ Asian 2.5%)  9 provinces (52 districts; 11 languages) Cape Town (legislative capital) Pretoria (administrative capital) Bloemfontein (judicial capital)  Law & Education (estd. by Dutch & British)  One of most biodiverse countries  Diverse wildlife, parks & reserves  Middle-income, abundant natural resources (1 of top 25 countries, GDP)  Agriculture=10% of exports & employment  One of highest rates/income inequality (whites x6 more than black)  Large immigrant population  1 million whites emigrated since 1994  Christianity 80%, Muslim & Hindu 1.5% ea.
  6. 6. Child of Modern South AfricaChild of Modern South Africa  Born Desmond Mpilo Tutu (October 7, 1931)  Makoeteng (in NW Province): “broken remnants”  “My father was a Xhosa & my mother a Motswana” Zachariah Tutu & Matse Mathlare  Father was principal of Methodist Primary School  Family lived in schoolmaster’s house  Given name Mpilo (“life”) by grandmother “Life was full, it was fun, neither affluent nor destitute”  Contracted polio in infancy (25% mortality rate)  Father drank heavily & beat mother (his role model)  Taught:“Don’t raise your voice-improve your argument!”  Blacks join war to fight in N & E Africa (inc. his brother)  Family travel much in ‘40’s to find work  Learns to box (a south paw)
  7. 7. Arrival of Christianity to S.A.Arrival of Christianity to S.A.  Flight of Jesus & parents to Egypt (Coptic Church)  Simon of Cyrene (carries cross of Jesus)  Baptism of Ethiopian chancellor by Philip (Acts 8)  Augustine, Tertullian, Cyprian & Alexandrian school  1652 (Jan van Riebeeck) settles on Cape  1737 Moravians (from Germany) establish a mission  1794 London Missionary Society (Wm. Carey & John Ryland) David Livingstone & Johannes van der Kemp  Xhosa prophets (Nxele & Ntsikana) develop an African faith Great Hymn: “He, the Great God, who is in Heaven.”  Most Christians converted by Africans, not Europeans  1911 census: 1.5 m. black Christians (same as white) 2001: 32 m. (8 to 1 = black)  1848 first Anglican Bishop: Robert Gray (5 dioceses)  Follow Moravian methods (schools, hospitals, farms & churches)
  8. 8. Praise poem to GodPraise poem to God  Community of the Resurrection (formed 1892, Charles Gore - Christian socialist & reviver of English monasticism) Key = spiritual disciplines & social justice  Invited by Bishop of Pretoria to minister to workers in Transvaal, following Anglo-Boer war (1903)  Evangelisation of blacks by blacks (establish communities)  By 1950 34 black priests, 2 deacons & 26 catechists  Solomon Tutu (grandfather) minister in independent church  Desmond baptized in June 1932 (Methodist)  Become Anglican after sister enters Secondary school  Mother a devout member of “Mother’s Union” (prayer group)  Becomes server in St Francis’ (age 7). Accompanies priest Zachariah Sekgapane to serve remote rural churches  “Plays church” by chanting liturgy (imagines becoming priest)  Renews baptismal vows & is confirmed age 12  Taught by Harry Madibane-founds & teaches Ch. primary sch.
  9. 9. A sense of worthA sense of worth  Family turn to Community of Resurrection, Sophiatown for help  First priest (Raymond Raynes) appoints Trevor Huddleston, every kids favourite priest & spiritual role model: “They showed us that we mattered as people…they instilled in you a sense of worth.”  Takes up rugby & works as golf caddie  Tutu calls himself: “the township urchin”  May 1947 diagnosed with tuberculosis (18 month recovery)  Returns to school (photographic memory, top debater)  Wants to become doctor – but attends teacher college (1951)  Organizes “Literary & Dramatic Society” & chairs “Cultural & Debating Society” (Learns to use persuasion over the fist)  Meets Nelson Mandela briefly (Johannesburg lawyer in thirties)  1954 first teaching position (teaches English)  Meets Leah Shenxane, a Catholic, in ‘55 (as she starts teacher training) – marry in June. Pays lobola to her family.  Son (Trevor) born 1956, daughter Thandeka, 1957.  Life in Sophiatown in the roaring 50’s (“Little Chicago; Paris”)
  10. 10. Gifts of leadershipGifts of leadership  Results of 1948 election & rigid segregation policies  Communities uprooted (schools, churches, hospitals)  Targeting of Sophiatown (Feb. 1955)–Renamed: “Triomf”  Only 3% of all blacks made it to high school (by 1950)  Education now provided by the churches  Removal of state subsidies for independent schools  Discriminatory pay scales  1958 Tutu enters St Peters Theological College  Tutu learns theology, Greek, spiritual life (by CR fathers)  “Freedom Charter” (endorsed by ANC, trade unions etc.)  1960 = watershed yr. “Sharpeville massacre” – leads to strikes, protests, arrests & military wing of ANC  1961 SA declared a Republic (leaves Commonwealth)  Tutu ordained (St Mary’s) to “the incredible privilege of ministry”
  11. 11. “The often haphazard segregation of the past three hundred years was to be consolidated into a monolithic system that was diabolical in its detail, inescapable in its reach and overwhelming in its power.” (Nelson Mandela: “The long walk to freedom” p. 104) “The Dutch reformed Church conceived and gave birth to the secular gospel of apartheid.” (Rev. David Botha: Message at “Church & Kingdom in South Africa” conf., 1980)
  12. 12. A breath of fresh airA breath of fresh air  Tutu applies for passport to study at Kings College, London  Funded by TEF, estd. Largely by JD. Rockefeller Jr. ($2m)  Britain = anti-establishment (Beatles; David Frost; Sexual liberation & liberal bishops – John Robinson “Honest to God”)  Leah & children join him (stay in St Albans Ch. rectory). Kids attend local school & treated as equals  Makes connections with CR, old friends, whites & an Afrikaner  “He could giggle at almost anything.”  Only student already ordained  Upgrades to honours degree & remains for a masters  Writes a thesis on Islam in West Africa  Makes a pilgrimage to Jerusalem (visits Paris & Rome)  Anglican Synod declares “Policy of racial separation is contrary to Scriptures & its practical implementation is morally wrong.”  Returns to SA, Dec. 1966
  13. 13. Campus parentsCampus parents  Commences ’67 academic year at St Peters College (Now part of Fedsem. – an ecumenical project)  First black lecturer to be apptd. All races can enroll to study  “An oasis of sanity & love in an otherwise arid country.”  Also act as chaplains to adjoining campus: Fort Hare (“The travesty next door”). Sun. evening coffee discussions/debate  Anglican Students Fed. & Univ. Christian Movement (Steve Biko attends. Medical student in Natal)  1966 Hendrik Verwoerd (PM) assassinated in Parliament  1968 European & US student protests break out (M.L. King)  Sept. ‘68 Student confrontation at Fort Hare. Turning point: Tutu preaches sermon comparing SA to Eastern Europe & intervenes to stand among the protestors.  Fedsem is closed down. Tutu takes post in Lesotho. Teaches OT theology, publishes journal articles & becomes chaplain.  WCC recognize ANC (‘66) & send humanitarian grants (‘70).
  14. 14. TransformationTransformation  Tutu becomes African director for TEF (in London) 1972  48 visits to 25 countries over next 3 years. Witnesses struggles of many Christians. Records thoughts in notebooks  Profoundly shifts his theological thinking  “I believe fervently that the church is going to be the salvation of Africa. If she fails, then I am frightened for the future.” (Tutu’s WCC travel notes, Zaire ‘74)  Emergence of a “Black (contextualized) theology”  Two key questions: 1. How to replace an alien, imported faith with an authentically African one; 2. Liberation from bondage  First visit to U.S. (Union Theo. Sem. in NY, 1973) “Black theology is an engaged not an academic, detached theology. It is a gut level theology, relating to the real concerns, the life & death issues of the black man…It is a clarion call to align oneself with the God of the Exodus, the liberator who leads his people out of all kinds of bondage into the glorious liberty of the sons of God.” (WCC paper, Sept. ‘73)
  15. 15. Bloody confrontationBloody confrontation  In SA the church elects it’s leaders(secret ballot/2 /3 majority)  Tutu lost out to being elected bishop after 8 ballots, but… still recalled to be first black dean of Johannesburg (1975)  Installed by Timothy Bavin as Dean at St Mary's Cathedral  Leah & 2 of their children move to Soweto (28 townships)  Poverty, deprivation/ 15-20 people murdered every weekend  Begins 7 yr. term (“Committed to reconciliation”)  Elected as Bishop of Lesotho (reluctantly) after 10 months  Warns PM of pending outbreak of violent uprising.  May 17 ‘76 rebellion starts in local secondary school – quickly spreads to other townships & across the country  Police use tear gas, dogs & open fire (660 killed, most u.24)  July 11 consecrated as bishop; enthroned in Maseru 3 wks.  Sept. ‘77 Steve Biko killed in police custody (Tutu does funeral)  Controversially accepts position of Gen. Sec. of SACC in ‘78.
  16. 16. The jazz conductorThe jazz conductor  Secretary of South African Council of Churches (1978)  Member churches have 12-15 million adherents  Tutu introduces mandatory daily staff prayers, weekly study, monthly Eucharist & annual silent retreats  Encouraged improvisation & “led like jazz conductor”  ANC recruits now undergoing military training  Became a spokesman in the struggle for liberation. Under-stood why some turn to violence - yet advocated exploring alternative means (ie. economic sanctions/ boycotts)  ‘79 writes to new PM:PW Botha (“Christian to Christian”)  Appeals rejected. Has passport confiscated twice over next few years  Archbishop of Canterbury & Jimmy Carter denounce action & call for reform
  17. 17. Jazz conductorJazz conductor  Allen Boesak (Rising leader among black Dutch Reformed Chs.) Advocates acts of civil disobedience. Tutu unsure.  May 1980 arrested (with 53 others) following clergy protest march over arrest of fellow Congregational pastor (prayed & sand hymns in jail)  August: 20 church leaders meet with PW Botha. No progress. Defiant & defensive.  1981, Tutu refers to the ANC dead as: “our sons, our fathers & our brothers”  Tutu’s “gospel” speech to the court at the Rees financial affair within the SACC (1982)  By 1984, Tutu was the black leader white South African’s most loved to hate!
  18. 18. A fire burning in my breastA fire burning in my breast  1983 United Democratic Front launched in Cape Town (Boesak, a key leader)  Fresh uprising in townships.  “Black Monday” (Sept. 3 ’84) – 14 die, 32 injured (8 policemen)  Army sent into townships. On verge of civil war.  Oct. 15 Tutu awarded Nobel Peace Prize.(Reads Ps.139,in NY)  Elected soon after as Bishop of Johannesburg  In his 60 minute sermon, he gives notice that if the dismantling of apartheid was not started within 24 months, he would call for more punitive economic sanctions.  “Word of Lord was like a fire in my breast” (Jer. 20:7-9)  Calls for daily Eucharist, prayer, fasting & teaching to change attitudes & overcome racial divisions.  Violence increases. State of emergency declared in July ’85  Tutu conducts repeated mass funerals in soccer stadiums.  Calls for international community to apply strict pressure
  19. 19. Tutu’s outline for democratic & justTutu’s outline for democratic & just society without racial divisionssociety without racial divisions As presented to PW Botha (Aug. 7, 1980):  Equal civil rights for all in undivided SA  The abolition of South Africa's passport laws  A single, uniform system of education  The cessation of forced deportation from South Africa to the so-called "homelands" In an interview with BBC same year, predicts that Mandela will be president of SA within 10 years. His reason to be optimistic? My faith is based on a man who died on a Friday in ignominious defeat – yet by Sunday he rose!
  20. 20. Free at lastFree at last  1986 Archbishop of Capetown (Head of Anglican Church. in Africa)  1989 Botha suffers from stroke. Steps down as party leader, but not president. FW de Klerk replaces him. Visits UK and exhorted by Thatcher to implement reform.  March of 30,000 in Cape Town: “Defiance Campaign”, Sept. ’89  “This country is a rainbow country” Rainbow people of God”  De Klerk open negotiations & un-bans political parties.  1990 Nelson Mandela released after 27 years in prison  1991 Racial discrimination laws start to be repealed  De Klerk accepts Tutu’s request to make formal apology ‘93  1994 First multi-racial elections (Nelson Mandela elected as President). De Klerk becomes deputy minister.  Tutu appointed chair of Truth & Reconciliation Commission  1996 Retires as archbishop/ continues as ambassador for peace, reconciliation, ecumenism & restorative justice.
  21. 21. Truth & Reconciliation CommissionTruth & Reconciliation Commission “Forgiveness is one of the key ideas in this world. Forgiveness is not just some nebulous, vague idea that one can easily dismiss… Without forgiveness there is no future… Without forgiveness resentment builds in us, a resentment which turns into hostility and anger… No one can be fully human unless he or she relates to others in a fair, peaceful, and harmonious way… Anything that subverts this harmony is injurious, not just to the community but all of us, and therefore, forgiveness is an absolute necessity for continued human existence.” (Desmond Tutu “Why forgiveness?”)
  22. 22. Tutu: secret of his successTutu: secret of his success Stability Obedience Conversion of life