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NT Session 9 Writings of John


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Gospel of John & 1, 2 & 3 John slides for Foundations Bible School (copyright Don Palmer).

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NT Session 9 Writings of John

  1. 1. Foundations (Year Two)“Encountering the New Testament” Session #9. Encountering The writings of JOHN
  2. 2. Written earlier: The NT Writings Letter of James (40’s/50’s)Letters of Paul: Written later:Galatians (48/49 CE) Letters of Peter (64-66)1 & 2 Thessalonians (51-52) Mark (68-70 )1 & 2 Corinthians (53-57) Matthew (70-80)Romans (56-57) Luke-Acts (70-80)Prison letters (61-62): Hebrews (50’s/60’s?) (Colossians, Ephesians, Philemon & Philippians) Letter of Jude (50’s ?)Pastoral letters (64-66): Writings of John: (1, 2 Timothy & Titus) Gospel, Letters & Revelation (90-96)
  3. 3. Who was John?SUMMARY:The restless fisherman.The “son of thunder”The “disciple whom Jesus loved”The courageous followerThe apostle of love
  4. 4. John – the man• John was one of Zebedee’s sons, the younger brother of James (Mark 4:21,22). James & John were both fishermen.• As he was mending his nets, Jesus called him to be his disciple. (Matt. 4:21-22; Mark 1:19-20; Luke 5:10)• Previously was a disciple of John the Baptist? (John 1:35)• Included in the inner circle (with Peter & James)• Present at the raising of Jarius’ daughter (Mk 5:37)• One of the witnesses of Jesus’ transfiguration (Matt 17:1)• Accompanies Jesus to the Garden of Gethsemene (Mark 14:33)• The “disciple whom Jesus loved” (Jn 13:23; 19:26; 20:2; 21:7,20)• Accompanies Peter to the empty tomb (John 20:3-8)• Closely associated with Peter & his work (Acts 3:1; 8:14; Gal. 2:9)
  5. 5.  Possessed an ardent temperament; one of “sons of thunder” (Mark 3:17). Rebuked man for casting out demons (Luke 9:49) Wanted to call down fire on a Samaritan village for not accepting Jesus (Luke 9:51-56) Asked Jesus to grant him and James special places in the kingdom (Matthew 20:28) Given place of prominence at the Last Supper (John 13:23) Accompanied Christ into the court and stood by him; witnessed his death; given charge of his mother (19:26,27) Also the author of 1,2 and 3 John, as well as Revelation. Spent later part of his life in Asia Minor, probably Ephesus. Banished to Isle of Patmos during reign of Domitian. Only disciple who did not die as a martyr (John 21:22). Lives to advanced age; probably last apostle to die; became important link to the Church Fathers (Polycarp & Irenaeus).
  6. 6. John’s vision of JESUS“We have seen his glory” (1:14). “He thus revealed his glory, and his disciples put their faith in him” (John 2:11)“That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked at and our hands have touched— this we proclaim concerning the Word of life. The life appeared; we have seen it and testify to it, and we proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and has appeared to us. We proclaim to you what we have seen and heard...” (1 John 1:1-3)“The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John, who testifies to everything he saw...I, John...saw ... someone like a son of man, dressed in a robe reaching down to his feet and with a golden sash around his chest. His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and his eyes were like blazing fire. His feet were like bronze glowing in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of rushing waters. In his right hand he held seven stars, and out of his mouth came a sharp double-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining in all its brilliance. When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead.” (Revelation 1:1-2, 12-17)
  7. 7. What did he have to say?His gospel (Introducing Jesus, the son of God)His letters (Knowing Jesus, the son of God)His apocalypse (Faithfully following Jesus, the son of God)
  8. 8. The good news according to… JOHN“John Rylands Fragment” OLDEST COPY OF NT (c.125-150) JOHN 18:31-33, 37-38
  9. 9. Four perspectives on the Gospel The gospel according to… Matthew (man) Jesus as king Mark (lion) Jesus as servant Luke (ox) Jesus as saviour John (eagle) Jesus as LordOne Message: That God has broken into history, in the person of Jesus Christ, to bring salvation to all people, and to establish his kingdom.
  10. 10. Four Gospels – One Jesus1. Matthew (Jesus, the Messiah of Israel & fulfiller of the promise to Abraham)2. Mark (Jesus, the man of action)3. Luke (Jesus, the saviour of the world)4. John (Jesus, the son of God)
  11. 11. Or to put it another way John (Jesus = son of God) Matthew Luke (Paul) (Jesus = saviour (Jesus = saviour to the Jews) to the whole world) Mark (Peter)(Jesus = the supreme son of man, the “lion of Judah”, who came “to serve and give his life as a ransom for many” – the “beginning of the gospel”)
  12. 12. Gospel of JOHN“John’s gospel is deep enough for an elephant to swim and shallow enough for a child not to drown.” (Attr. to Augustine)“If the synoptic gospels provide us with a series of photographs of Jesus, John’s gospel surely provides us with a portrait.” (Archbishop William Temple)
  13. 13. Authorship? Internal evidence  External evidence“The disciple whom Jesus loved” 13:23 (last supper) Irenaeus, q. Polycarp: 19:26 (cross) “John, the disciple of 20:2 (tomb) the Lord, who leaned 21:7 (sea of Galilee) back on his breast,Inner circle: “Peter, James & John” published the Gospel Catch of fish (Luke 5:8-10) while he was resident First in lists (Mt.10:2/ Lk. 6:14; Mk. 3:16-17; at Ephesus in Asia.” Acts 1;13) (Vs. Heresies 3.1.2) Jairus’ daughter (Mk. 5:37; Lk. 8:51) Transfiguration (Mk. 9:2; Mt. 17:1; Lk. 9:28) Clement: “John, last of End of the age (Mark 13:3) all... composed a Garden of Gethsemene (Mark 14:33) spiritual gospel”“This is the disciple who testifies to these (Eusebius, HE 6.14.7) things and who wrote them down. We know his testimony is true” (21:24) Papias: “John...the elder”
  14. 14. Differences in Content Unique Material  92% of John not found elsewhere in other gospels Different Chronology  Jesus ministry in John clearly 3+ years (nb. Cleansing of Temple placed at beginning, Jn. 2, rather than end!) Different Themes  Not in John:  Kingdom, demons/exorcism, repentance, prayer, parables  Birth, baptism, temptation, transfiguration of Jesus  Secrecy about Jesus’ identity  New in John:  Truth, life, world, abiding, light & darkness  Jesus as the logos (pre-existent to incarnation)  Baptism by Jesus’ disciples  Miracle stories (ie. Wedding at Cana; Raising of Lazarus)  Interviews (Nicodemus, Woman at the well; Thomas)  Extended discourses (“I am’s” & the Upper Room)
  15. 15. Different Geography & DurationSynoptics JohnJesus in Galilee Jesus makes frequentJesus goes to Jerusalem trips up to Jerusalem once at the end Jesus has an extensive ministry in JerusalemOne Passover mentioned At least 3 Passovers mentioned (2:13; 5:1?; 6:4 & 11:55)Implication = a ministry of Implication = ministry of only one year three years or more
  16. 16. Difference in Form and Content of Jesus’ TeachingsSynoptics JohnParables & misc. short Long meditative sayings discourses on a single theme (eg. Bread of life)Jesus speaks secretly Jesus speaks openly about the Kingdom and about his identity and downplays talking about relationship to God himselfEnvisions a future Eternal life is a present judgment; apocalyptic possession: more of a eschatology realized eschatology
  17. 17. Distinctive VocabularyDualistic Common theological wordsLife vs death Believe x 98Light vs darkness Life (eternal life) x 50Truth vs error Signs – mighty works,Things above vs below pointing to faith in GodFlesh vs spirit TestimonyBelief vs unbelief The Word (Logos) “I Am”
  18. 18. Kingdom of God vs Eternal life In reply Jesus declared (to “eternal life” x16 Nicodemus), “I tell you the truth,“life” x50 no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again”… “In him was life, and that Jesus answered, “I tell you the life was the light of truth, no one can enter the men.” John 1:4 kingdom of God unless he is “But these are written that born of water and the Spirit.” you may believe that John 3:3, 5 Jesus is the Christ, the Jesus said (to Pilate), "My Son of God, and that by kingdom is not of this world. If it believing you may have were, my servants would fight to life in his name.” prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another John 20:31 place." John 18:36
  19. 19. John’s gospel: An outlinePrologue: Getting a right perspective on Jesus (1:1-18) (a) The book of signs (1:19-10:42) “The light shines in the darkness...” An interlude (11-12) “...and the darkness (b) The book of glory (13-20) has not overcome it!”Epilogue: Peter, John & the reason for writing (21)
  20. 20. John’s Jesus – the high-flying eagleThe eagle has landed (1)The eagles talons, bared for conflict (2-12)Living under the shadow of the eagle’s wings (discipleship/ 13-17)The pursuit & death of the eagle (passion/ 18-19)Risen with healing in his wings (resurrection/ 20-21) …from Richard Burridge: “Four gospels – one Jesus”
  21. 21. John’s purpose in writing“Jesus did many other miraculous signs in the presence of his disciples, which are not recorded in this book. But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.” John 20:30-31“Many people saw the miraculous signs he was doing and believed in his name” (John 2:23)
  22. 22. Miracles & Claims SIGNS (2:11,23) I AM (Jn. 8:58)1. Water into wine (2) The (true) vine - 15:12. Noblemen’s son (4) The door (gate) – 10:7,93. Lame man by pool (5) The good shepherd – 10:11,144. Feeding of 5000 (6) The bread of life – 6:35,48,515. Walking on water (6) The way, the truth & the life 14:66. Healing of blind man (9) The light of the world – 8:127. Raising of Lazarus (11) The resurrection & the life 11:25(Later) Resurrection (20) Miraculous catch of fish (21)
  23. 23. Jesus = the wedge of truth Signs (wonders, mighty-works)Belief (light) Unbelief (darkness) Life Death
  24. 24. John’s mystical prologue (1:1-18)Beginning of John: no infancy gospel.Matthew & Luke begin with Jesus’ birth, then through genealogies to Abraham (Matt.) and to Adam (Luke).John pushes Jesus’ origin back even further, “In the beginning” – echoing Genesis 1:1!“Word” (Logos) – Gk. means something like Reason, Cause, Speech; The creative, governing principle behind the universe and all of lifeSo the true origin of the Christ is the pre-existent Logos of God; Jesus is the enfleshment (incarnation) of that Logos in human form.All very philosophical, very Greek. But also relates to the idea of God’s Wisdom in Hebrew Scriptures.
  25. 25. The Wisdom of God (Proverbs 8:22-31)The Lord brought me [Wisdom ] forth at the beginning of his work, The first of his acts of long ago. Ages ago I was appointed, At the first, before the beginning of the earth.When there were no depths I was brought forth, When there were no springs abounding with water.Before the mountains had been shaped, Before the hills, I was brought forth –When he had not yet made earth and fields, Or the world’s first bits of soil.When he established the heavens, I was there, When he drew a circle on the face of the deep,When he made firm the skies above, When he established the fountains of the deep,When he assigned the sea its limit, So that the waters might not transgress his command,When he marked out the foundations of the earth, Then I was beside him, like a master craftsman;And I was daily his delight, rejoicing before him always,Rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the human race.
  26. 26. JESUS?It all began with his baptism (Mark)Actually no, it all began when the angel Gabriel appeared to the virgin Mary (Luke)Actually no, it all began with an ancient promise to Abraham (Matthew)Well (states John), before all of these: “In the beginning... the WORD was… the WORD was with God… the WORD was God!” (John)
  27. 27. The Word of Life.The WORD was God, yet with God (vv.1-2)The WORD was the creator (v.3)The WORD was the source of life (vv.4-5,9)The WORD became flesh (v.14)His titles: He is the (one & only) Son of God (14, 18, 34, 49) He is the promised Son of Man (51) He is the long-awaited Messiah (41) He is the true King of Israel (49) He is the final lamb of God (29, 36)
  28. 28. SUMMARY: Jesus, the “Word”He’s the WORD who commanded all things into being ...LIFEHe’s the WORD who explains God fully ...LIGHTHe’s the WORD who came into our world to speak salvation ...LOVE
  29. 29. Encounters with JESUS John the Baptist (Chs.1. 3:22-27; 4:1; 5:33-36; 10:40-41) The disciples (Andrew, Peter, Philip, Nathanael) (Wedding at Cana: “He thus revealed his glory”) Money changers in the Temple Nicodemus Samaritan woman Roman official’s son Paralyzed man (by the Pool of Bethesda) (Woman caught in adultery) Man born blind Lazarus (Martha & Mary) Jewish religious leaders vs. The twelve disciples DEATH: Annas, Caiaphas, Peter, Pilate, Mary, Joseph RESURRECTION: Mary, Peter, (John), Disciples, Thomas
  30. 30. John the Baptist’s testimony about Jesus“He came as a witness to testify…” (1:6)“He who comes after me has surpassed me because he was before me” (1:15)“I am not the Christ” (1:20)“I am the voice of one calling in the desert” (1:23)“I am not worthy to untie the thongs of his sandals” (1:27)“Look the lamb of God” (1:29, 36)“He will baptize with the Holy Spirit” (1:33)“This is the Son of God” (1:34)“He must increase – I must decrease” (3:30)
  31. 31. A righteous man & a sinful womanNicodemus (1:11-13) (Unnamed) woman at a wellReligious, scholar, Character Samaritan, sinful, moral outcastSecretly comes to Jesus goes to meet her Jesus by night Context at midday“Born again” Conversation “Living water”3:1-15; 7:50-51; 19:39-40 Challenge 3:16-21; 4:39-42
  32. 32. Discourses of JESUSNew wine/ new wineskins – “new temple” (Ezek.40); “born again” (Ezek. 37); “living water” (Ezek. 47) “Life through the Son” (5:16-47) “The bread of life” (6:25-71) “The living water” (7:14-39) “The light of the world” (8:12 - 9:41) “The good shepherd” (10:1-42) “The resurrection” (11:17-57) “Prediction of his death” (12:20-50) Upper room discourse (13-17): service - suffering - discipleship - Spirit – prayer (intimacy, unity, protection)
  33. 33. The Upper Room (13-17)Lessons in discipleship:Learn how to serve (the betrayer, the beloved, the denier)Trust in Jesus (the way to get to the Father/ the way the Father comes to us)Receive & rely upon the Holy Spirit (14:15-27; 15:26- 27; 16:5-16)Stay connected to Jesus (the secret to loving, the secret to survival)The best is (always) yet to comeBe devoted to prayer (faith, hope & love)
  34. 34. The Passion of the ChristThe trials (rejection by the Jewish leaders)The denials (failure of Peter)The sentence (interaction with Pilate)The crucifixion (the lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world – a new Passover)The burial (the forgotten day – Matt. 12:40; 1 Pet. 3:19)The resurrection: Mary Magdalene; Peter & John; The disciples; Thomas; By the Sea of Galilee (reinstatement of Peter, responsibility of John)
  35. 35. The Letters of JOHN• To all true believers (1 John)• To “the chosen lady & her children” (2 John)• To “my dear friend Gaius” (3 John)
  36. 36. Letters of John Early signs of heresy concerning CHRIST 1 John 1:1 “What was from the beginning [αρχη], what we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, what we beheld [θεαοµαι] and our hands handled, concerning the Word of life [ολογοs τη ζωη]” cf. John 1:1 “In the beginning [αρχη] was the Word [ο λογο s ] . . . in it was life [ζωη]” (v. 4); “and we beheld [θεαοµαι] its glory” (v. 14). 1 John 4:2 “By this we know the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses Jesus as the Messiah having come in the flesh is of God.” cf. John 20:31 “These things are written that you believe that the Messiah, Son of God, is Jesus.” John 1:14 “The Word became flesh.” 2 John 7 “Many deceivers have gone out into the world, who do not confess Jesus as the Messiah having come in the flesh.” 1 John 2:22 “Who is the liar, other than the one who denies, (by saying,) ‘Jesus is not the Messiah.’” cf. John 20:31
  37. 37. More heresy “Many deceivers have gone out into the world, who do not confess Jesus as the Messiah having come in the flesh. Watch yourselves, lest you lose what you worked for, and should receive a full reward. Everyone who goes too far and is not abiding in the teaching [διδαχη] of the Messiah does not have God; the one abiding in the teaching [διδαχη] has both the Father and the Son. If someone comes to you and does not bring this teaching [διδαχη], do not receive him into your home and do not even speak to him a greeting. For the one who greets him partakes in his evil deeds” (2 John 7–11). Note: An early collection of the teaching of Jesus is in fact called the Didache, i.e., “The διδαχη of the Lord.”“I wrote something to the church, but Diotrephes, who loves to be first overthem, does not receive us. For this reason, if I should come, I shall recall hisdeeds that he does, slandering us with evil words, and not satisfied with this,he does not receive the brothers, and those who are like-minded he forbidsand casts out of the church. Beloved, do not imitate the bad, but the good” (3 John 9–11a).
  38. 38. Theme of 1 John = CERTAINTYThree tests: 1. LIGHT To expose those x5 (doctrinal test/ believing) who were false: 2. LIFE x11 To assure those (moral test/ being) who were genuine: 3. LOVE x26 (social test/ doing)
  39. 39. John’s purpose in writingI am writing these things to you about those who are trying to lead you astray. (2:26)“I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life.” (5:13)“Dear children, keep yourselves from idols.” (5:21)
  40. 40. Walking in the light (having a right view of God & a right view of sin)Three false claims (1:5-2:2): Solution/ evidence (2:3-29): I can do whatever I Obey Christ’s commands want – God will forgive (v.3-8) me! (1:5-7) Love your brother (v.9-14) Do not love this world I was not born a sinner! (v.15-17) (1:8-9) Discern the spirit of It’s not really my fault! antichrist (v.18-27) (1:10-2:2) Continue in Christ (v.28-29)
  41. 41. Living in the love (“We exist to love God & love others”)Real love has a source: The father(2:5 - 3:1-3, 10; 4:7-8, 13-18)Real love should be seen: The son(2:2 - 3:16; 4:9-12)Real love must be shared: The church(2:10 - 3:17-24; 4:7, 19-21)
  42. 42. Discerning the spirits“The Unholy Trinity”Spirit of antichrist (2:18-27) …BelongingSpirit of evil (3:4-10) …BehaviourSpirit of error (4:1-6) …Belief
  43. 43. Summary (How to know that you know) Everyone who: (5:1-5) Believes in the son of God Loves the people of God Obeys the commands of God Who is Jesus Christ? (5:6-12) He came by water (baptism) He lived by the Spirit (who convinces our heart) He died by (offering) his blood He (now) lives, and offers eternal life
  44. 44. Privileges & responsibilitiesWhat we know: What we owe:We have eternal life To ask according to theWe don’t continue to live will of God in sin To rescue others fromWe are under the lives of sin (where protection of God, in an possible) evil world To keep ourselves fromWe know God and are in idols God – only through Jesus Christ
  45. 45. 2 John – 3 John (“The elder”)To the chosen lady To my dear friend Gaius(whom I love in the truth) (whom I love in the truth)Grace, mercy & peace Healthy in body & soul“walking in the truth” “walking in the truth”Dear lady, love one Dear friend, love one another anotherWatch out for deceivers/ Watch out for Diotrephes/ continue in what is good Imitate DemetriusI won’t write more, as I I won’t write more, as I hope hope to see you soon to see you soonGreetings Greetings & peace