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Introduction to the Bible


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Inspiration, canon, hermeneutics and History of the Bible in English.

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Introduction to the Bible

  1. 1. Foundations (Year One)“Encountering the Old Testament” I will be your teacher!
  2. 2. Goals: intellectual spiritualTo learn, to grow and to work hardThe sessionsThe textbookThe assignments“The story we find ourselves in” (Learn to see the big picture & how all the pieces fit)
  3. 3.  biblos = a collection of (66) books Divided into two testaments (covenants): OT (Old Testament) = 39 books NT (New Testament) = 27 books Approx. 40 different authors, editors & compilers In three languages: Hebrew, Aramaic & Greek Over a period of approx. 1500 years…& don’t forget the Apocrypha (14 extra “hidden” books, written between the testaments)
  4. 4. “Inspiration is the mysterious process by which the Word of God & the word of man combined to produce the original autographs (manuscripts) of the Bible. The result was a fully authoritative & trustworthy revelation.”Key verses: 2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Peter 1:21 & Heb. 4:12
  5. 5. Dictation God uses authors only as instrumentsVerbal/ plenary God breathed out inspiration each part & all of itLimited God protected some inspiration of itNeo-Orthodox Gods word speaks through it
  6. 6. Creation GOD Jesus Scripture The basic message:God made, God loves & God saves…our world.
  7. 7. “Art is limitated: the essence of every picture is the frame” GK Chesterton “Orthodoxy” 1908.
  8. 8. Derived from Heb. kaneh (a reed)?From ancient Greek κανον (rod, measuring stick) …later used in Greek for a standard or rule. Philo of Alexandria (20 BCE – 50 CE): uses the term κανον to refer to the “rule of truth”First used by the Church fathers from the time of Irenaeus (115/ 120 -178 CE ) (ie. kanon of the church…of the truth…of faith)
  9. 9. “As for those who follow this rule (κανον) – peace be upon them, and mercy upon the Israel of God.” (Gal. 6:16 NASV) “Let us keep living by that same standard (κανον) to which we have attained.” (Phil. 3:16 NASV)
  10. 10. 2 Cor. 10:13 We will not boast about things done outside our area of authority. We will boast only about what has happened within the boundaries of the work God has given us, which includes our working with you. 14 We are not reaching beyond these boundaries when we claim authority over you, as if we had never visited you. For we were the first to travel all the way to Corinth with the Good News of Christ.15 Nor do we boast and claim credit for the work someone else has done. Instead, we hope that your faith will grow so that the boundaries of our work among you will be extended. 16 Then we will be able to go and preach the Good News in other places far beyond you, where no one else is working. Then there will be no question of our boasting about work done in someone else’s territory.” (NLT)
  11. 11. “Canon serves as a road marker of biblical authority by serving as the rule of Scripture. Canon both reflects the theological shaping of Scripture and sets the boundaries for the interpretation of Scripture as the Word of God by communities of faith.”(Charles Scalise From Scripture to Theology , p.72)
  12. 12.  …is contained within  …is preserved withinA sentence A manuscriptA paragraph A scroll (or a codex)A chapter A collection (ofA book writings)A collection (of A canon books) A translationA testament
  13. 13. ALWAYS read a text…Within it’s contextIn light of the big picture (great narrative)Listening to what others have saidRecognizing your limitations"Knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation" (NKJV)"But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of ones own interpretation" (2 Peter 1:20)
  14. 14. Historical narrativeLawsPoetry & songParables & sayingsProphecy (& Apocalyptic)BiographyLetters
  15. 15. The Law The ScripturesThe Prophets “it stands written”The Writings γεγραπται (Jesus x18)Jesus said “All things that were written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.” Luke 24:44
  16. 16. The Law (Torah) The Writings (Hagiographa) Genesis Poetic books Exodus Psalms Leviticus Job Numbers Proverbs Deuteronomy The Twelve Five rolls/ scrollsThe Prophets Hosea (Megilloth) Former Joel Ruth Prophets Amos Songs of Songs Joshua Obadiah Ecclesiastes Judges Jonah Samuel Lamentations Micah Esther Kings Nahum Latter Prophets Habakkuk Historical books Isaiah Zephaniah Daniel Jeremiah Haggai Ezra/ Nehemiah Ezekiel Chronicles Zechariah Malachi
  17. 17.  Written by a reputable leader from God Inspired by the Spirit of God (ie. does it have the consistent ring of truth/ would God say this?) Recognized by men of God (ie. was it accepted by kings, priests, prophets & other leaders) Collected, preserved & used by the people of God (Deut. 31:26 & later rulers, ie. 2 Chron. 34; Neh.8)
  18. 18. His scripture was the Torah (the Law & the Prophets)He… read it, “People do not memorized it, live on bread quoted it, alone, but on preached & taught it. every word that comes from theHe… loved it, mouth of God.” “fed” on it, Matt 4:4/ Luke used it, 4:4, q. Deut. 8:3 lived it & fulfilled it.
  19. 19. Hebrew/Aramaic/ GreekLatin Vulgate (405)John Wycliffe (1320-84) William Tyndale (1494-1536)Modern Catholic Bibles King James Version (1611) Modern versions
  20. 20. RV 1881 NIV 1978ASV 1901 NKJV 1982RSV 1952 (rev. 1971) (New Jerusalem 1985)NEB 1970 NCV 1986(NAB 1986/ rev. 1992) NRSV 1989NASB 1963 CEV 1995Amplified 1987 NLT 1996(Jerusalem 1966) ESV 2001LB 1971 The Message 2002GNB 1974 (rev. 1993) TNIV 2005
  21. 21. Lit… to translate, explain, interpretTwo examples:Ezra (Ezra 7:6, 10; Nehemiah 8:1-8)Jesus (Luke 24:27,45; Luke 10:21)
  22. 22. " I do not seek to understand that I may believe, but I believe that I may understand. For this too I am persuaded, that unless I first believe, I shall not understand.“ 1033-1109 CE
  23. 23. “Nor does his (the Father) word dwell in you, for you do not believe the one he sent. You diligently study the Scriptures because you think that by them you possess eternal life. These are the Scriptures that testify about me, yet you refuse to come to me to have life.” John 5:38-40
  24. 24. Scripture (inspired & authoritative) Hermeneutics (principles, practice & discipline)Exegesis (lit. to dig = to study for truth) Theology Lifestyle(what we believe) (how we live)
  25. 25. Three steps Three gaps(to interpretation) (of interpretation)The author HistoryThe text (or message) CultureThe reader (recipient) Language
  26. 26. 2. Interpretation (What does it mean?) 3. Comparison 1. Observation(How does it correlate?) (What does it say?) 4. Application (How does it affect our lives today?)
  27. 27. Inspires authors to Reveals to the reader write the text through the text "But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth." (John 16:13)
  28. 28. “Let scripture interpret scripture”Interpret the text in light of the wholeInterpret the OT in light of the NT (& vice versa) “The new is in the old concealed – the old is in the new revealed”
  29. 29.  A good translation (formal vs. dynamic equivalent) Other translations (for comparison) Interlinear Bible (Heb/Eng. Gk/Eng.) Concordance (online or software = easiest) Dictionary/ Encyclopedia (NBD; ISBE) Atlas (or good maps) Commentaries (background, culture, theology)
  30. 30. “Promise & fulfillment”
  31. 31. Promise Fulfillment Shadow (Type)  Substance Law (Moses)  Grace (Jesus) – John 1:17 (Old) Covenant  (New) Covenant Sacrifice & offerings  One sacrifice Priesthood  All priests Kings (David)  One King (son of David) Nation  Nations Land  Earth
  32. 32. The kingdom of GodJudgment & SalvationThe people of GodRestoration of IsraelHope of a MessiahTemple, Torah & RedemptionVictory (over God’s enemies)Good News to all nationsNew Creation