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Companion Animals in the         EU Paula Boyden BVetMed MRCVS          Dogs Trust
Movement of Animals• From 2001, pet animals have been  allowed to travel throughout the EU as  long as they had a pet pass...
1st January 2012• Individual country derogations reviewed /  removed:   – NO requirement for rabies titre (blood) test to ...
Movement of Pets: The Future• 998/2003  – Movement of animals before 3 months of age  – Derogation from anti-rabies vaccin...
…..so is this a problem?
Rabies Control in Europe     Rabies infected countries 1998
Number of Cases in the EU
Rabies in Europe 2003
Rabies in Europe in 2012
Rabies: The Disease• Very variable, sometimes death can be  acute and few signs seen  – Change of demeanour and behaviour ...
Rabies in Humans        • Localised pain or          paraesthesia        • Change in behaviour,          anxiety, fear,   ...
Rabies PEP
What about rabies  vaccination?
Factors Affecting Vaccine Failure• Vet Record (2004) 154, 423-426  – Factors affecting the serological response of    dogs...
Factors Affecting Failure1. Brand2. Number of doses   used3. Age4. Timing of sampling5. Breed
Comparison of Vaccines         (Dogs)3025                                           Vaccine A2015                         ...
Number of Doses Used• Dogs: Using a primary course of 2 doses will  increase the mean titre achieved• Cats: No significant...
Age• Adults significantly more likely to pass  than old or young• Kennedy: 10400 dogs;  – <1yr, 1-7yrs, >7yrs  – Adults>ol...
Effect of Interval Between      Vaccination and Sampling8765                           Mean Titre (IU/mL)43210     <30    ...
Breed• Larger breeds appear  to have lower  response to  vaccination than small  breeds  – Burr, personal    communication...
Study: Main Conclusions• Dogs <6months old had significantly lower titres• Ability to respond may decline with age• Timing...
Risk of Rabies• Number of cases across EU has declined• No guarantee of the response to  vaccination• Increased potential ...
Rabies Control“To solve the problem of rabies would be a blessing for humanity” (Louis Pasteur)
Echinococcus multilocularis
Echinococcus multilocularis
Risk of Echinococcus granulosus• Praziquantal will only kill tapeworms  present at the time• Increasing the treatment wind...
Limitations of PETS• PETS is in place to protect human health• Animal health is not a primary  consideration• No vaccine i...
Diseases associated with             Travelling Pets•   Leishmania (Sandfly)•   Babesia (Tick)•   Ehrlichia (Tick)•   Diro...
Introductions
Travelling diseases•   Increasing over last few years•   Previously unknown diseases introduced•   PETS travel scheme•   R...
Plan1. Leishmania2. Babesia3. Ehrlichia4. Dirofilaria5. Case study –   leishmania6. Case study – ehrlichia7. Conclusions
1. Leishmania
Leishmania• Protozoon• Up to 40% of dogs in endemic  areas• 12 million people in 88  countries• Transmitted by sandflies
Where is it found?
Leishmania infection• Highly immune dogs clear infection (20-40%)• Some breeds (eg Ibizan hounds) appear to  have higher r...
Clinical infection• Very variable!• Vague illness• May be a long gap between being  infected and becoming ill
Skin signs of infection
Other signs
Testing – what are we       looking for?      Leishmania itself               AntibodyIncludes looking at blood/    Dog ha...
When to test• Easier to diagnose when dogs are ill  – Both antibody and parasite levels are higher• If available, use PCR ...
Treatment• Generally remission NOT  cure• Allopurinol (Zyloric)• Meglumine antimonate  (Glucantime)• Amphotericin B (Fungi...
Preventing leishmania• Insect repellent (eg Scalibor collar)• Keep inside between dusk and dawn
Leishmania vaccine• Must test first• 3 injections, 3 weeks  apart• Dogs over 6 months
Plan1. Leishmania2. Babesia3. Ehrlichia4. Dirofilaria5. Case study –   leishmania6. Case study – ehrlichia7. Conclusions
Babesia• Like leishmania, a protozoon• Lives inside the red blood  cells• AKA piroplasmosis
Signs of babesia•   Anaemia•   Bleeding problems•   Red urine•   Sudden collapse
Treatment of babesia• Drugs similar to leishmania       -   Imidocarb       -   Iminazine       -   Atovaquone       -   A...
Plan1. Leishmania2. Babesia3. Ehrlichia4. Dirofilaria5. Case study –   leishmania6. Case study – ehrlichia7. Conclusions
Ehrichia• Bacteria• Live inside white blood cells  (macrophages)
Signs of ehrlichia• Acute (8-20 days after infection)  – Vague depression, fever, weight loss, poor    appetite  – Enlarge...
Chronic ehrlichia infection• As for acute, but more severe  – Emaciation  – Swelling of hindlegs and scrotum  – Pale gums ...
Treatment of ehrlichia• Doxycycline for at least 2-3 weeks• May relapse• Infection with both ehrlichia and babesia  may oc...
Prevention of babesia and           ehrlichia• Good parasite control• Scalibor, Frontline, AdvantixBabesia only:-• Vaccine...
Plan1. Leishmania2. Babesia3. Ehrlichia4. Dirofilaria5. Case study –   leishmania6. Case study – ehrlichia7. Conclusions
Heartworm (dirofilaria          immitis)• A type of roundworm• Spread by mosquitos• Worms lodge in the  arteries of the lu...
Signs of infection• Depends on how bad the infection is• May be sudden onset but more often  gradual• Coughing• Trouble br...
Treatment of heartworm• Regular worming (not all  wormers!)• Macrolides  – Ivermectin, Moxidectin,    Selamectin)• Reactio...
Plan1. Leishmania2. Babesia3. Ehrlichia4. Dirofilaria5. Case study –   leishmania6. Case study – ehrlichia7. Conclusions
Should we worry?•   Animal health and welfare•   Owner awareness•   Vet awareness•   Treatment availability•   Stress and ...
Conclusions•   Travelling diseases a serious problem•   May be different in non endemic country eg UK•   Export of infecti...
Acknowledgements• Centre for Evidence-based Veterinary  Medicine• Rachel Dean and Gemma Clark• Dogs Trust• ICAWC• Thank you!
Websites which pictures have   been ‘borrowed’ fromhttp://www.parasitologie.univ-montp1.fr/english_vers/en_leish2.htmhttp:...
Adoption Across Borders
The Law: EU and listed non-EU•   Microchip•   Vaccinate against rabies•   Wait for 3 weeks•   Travel•   If travelling to U...
Listed Non-EU CountriesBelarus       Liechtenstein Russian                            FederationBosnia        Monaco      ...
Unlisted Countries• Microchip• Vaccinate• Blood sample after 30 days• Wait 3 months from date of successful  blood sample•...
Further Considerations• What infectious diseases are prevelent  across Europe?  – CPV / CDV / CAV  – Leptospirosis  – FPL ...
Further Considerations• What infectious diseases are prevalent in the  country of origin?• Are there appropriate tests ava...
Further Considerations?• What infectious diseases are prevalent in  the destination country?• Is there a vaccine available...
Leishmaniasis•   Sandfly transmitted•   Prevalent around the Med basin•   Zoonotic•   PCR test available    – Before trave...
Other Diseases• Dirofilaria (Heartworm)  – Regular treatment required to prevent clinical    disease• Babesia• Ehrlichia
In Practice• Comply with rules regarding movement of  animals• Test for diseases prevalent in the country  of origin but a...
But this costs money- what happens if I don’t?
ICAWC 2012 : Paula Boyden Companion Animals in the EU
ICAWC 2012 : Paula Boyden Companion Animals in the EU
ICAWC 2012 : Paula Boyden Companion Animals in the EU
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ICAWC 2012 : Paula Boyden Companion Animals in the EU

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  • All species except bats
  • A passport remains valid for travel until the date the animal’s rabies booster is due. The date is calculated by REFERENCE TO THE VALIDITY PERIOD OF THE VACCINE GIVEN ON THE MANUFACTURER’S DATA SHEETThe validity period will vary depending on which country an animal was vaccinated in
  • Distribution in 2010
  • Diseases which cross bordersMainly dogsSome catsMainly from a UK perspectiveFor those who are importing animalsSome affect cats or other animals tooSome charities importingAlso pets, breeding stock
  • Arthropod-borne
  • Visceral, cutaneous and mucocutaneous
  • German Shepherd Dogs appear to be especially susceptible
  • Ie it comes and goes over timeMany infected dogs will look healthy for weeks, months or years before becoming ill
  • Eye problems, splenomegaly, weight loss despite good appetite, sometimes lameness
  • Antibody shows the dog has been exposedUnlike many other diseases, where high antibodies are present in recovered animals, high abs in leish tend to be related to parasitic dissemination. However may take up to 5 months post-infection for titre to riseBoth are higher in actively infected dogsNeither completely rules out infection if negativeSensitivity of tests varyOften a combination used to diagnoseOften only one used for screening – expensiveThis means some positives will always be missed – but need to minimise number
  • Because of lag to antibody +ve is useful to re-test
  • Leish attacks the kidneys which is a particular problem with all of the anti-leish drugs
  • Dog to dog transmission rare but has been reportedNo competent vector yet in the UK
  • Arthropod-borne
  • Babesia – abx won’t work, life stages, hard to get rid of
  • Can also show liver, kidney, neuro, resp signs
  • Different drugs and combinations to tryOften can have side effects, sometimes severe – like leishmaniaUnlike leishmania, no vaccine as yet
  • Arthropod-borne
  • Babesia – abx won’t work, life stages, hard to get rid of
  • Many of the signs are similar – can be hard to tell clinically which is which or both – more anaemia with babesia but can be either
  • Different drugs and combinations to tryOften can have side effects, sometimes severe – like leishmaniaUnlike leishmania, no vaccine as yet
  • Vaccine available in some parts of EuropeLimits clinical signs rather than preventing infection
  • Arthropod-borne
  • Low burden may be clinically silent
  • If worm a heavily infected dog, all of the dying worms can cause a rxn and make them quite sick
  • Arthropod-borne
  • Dog to dog transmission of leishRhipicephalus population in UK
  • Transcript of "ICAWC 2012 : Paula Boyden Companion Animals in the EU"

    1. 1. Companion Animals in the EU Paula Boyden BVetMed MRCVS Dogs Trust
    2. 2. Movement of Animals• From 2001, pet animals have been allowed to travel throughout the EU as long as they had a pet passport
    3. 3. 1st January 2012• Individual country derogations reviewed / removed: – NO requirement for rabies titre (blood) test to enter UK, Ireland, Malta, Sweden – 6 month wait prior to (re-)entry reduced to 3 weeks – Tapeworm treatment window extended to 24- 120 hours – NO requirement for tick treatment
    4. 4. Movement of Pets: The Future• 998/2003 – Movement of animals before 3 months of age – Derogation from anti-rabies vaccination – Participating in competitions, exhibiting, sporting or recreational events or in training for these events
    5. 5. …..so is this a problem?
    6. 6. Rabies Control in Europe Rabies infected countries 1998
    7. 7. Number of Cases in the EU
    8. 8. Rabies in Europe 2003
    9. 9. Rabies in Europe in 2012
    10. 10. Rabies: The Disease• Very variable, sometimes death can be acute and few signs seen – Change of demeanour and behaviour – Restless, confused, disoriented – Altered vocalisation – Incoordination, paralysis, salivation, ‘bone in throat’ syndrome – Aggression, biting, hypersexuality – ‘Fly-snapping’, pica
    11. 11. Rabies in Humans • Localised pain or paraesthesia • Change in behaviour, anxiety, fear, aggression • Aerophobia • Hydrophobia • Paralysis, coma, death
    12. 12. Rabies PEP
    13. 13. What about rabies vaccination?
    14. 14. Factors Affecting Vaccine Failure• Vet Record (2004) 154, 423-426 – Factors affecting the serological response of dogs and cats to rabies vaccination (Mansfield, Burr et al)• BSAVA Proceedings 2005 (Abstract) – Do dogs vary in their response to Rabies vaccination (Kennedy et al)
    15. 15. Factors Affecting Failure1. Brand2. Number of doses used3. Age4. Timing of sampling5. Breed
    16. 16. Comparison of Vaccines (Dogs)3025 Vaccine A2015 Vaccine B10 Vaccine C 5 0 Mean Titre IU/m L % Failed Tes ts (<0.5IU/m L)Significant differences (p<0.01) between eachvaccine for mean titres and % fails
    17. 17. Number of Doses Used• Dogs: Using a primary course of 2 doses will increase the mean titre achieved• Cats: No significant increase in titre after 2 doses• D/S recommends 2 doses in young, naïve individuals
    18. 18. Age• Adults significantly more likely to pass than old or young• Kennedy: 10400 dogs; – <1yr, 1-7yrs, >7yrs – Adults>old>young• ?Take into account when electing number of doses to use
    19. 19. Effect of Interval Between Vaccination and Sampling8765 Mean Titre (IU/mL)43210 <30 30-59 60-89 90-119 ≥120Compared to 30-59 day interval, significant (p<0.05)increase in titre for 0-29 days, and highly significant(p<0.01) decreases in titre for longer time intervals.
    20. 20. Breed• Larger breeds appear to have lower response to vaccination than small breeds – Burr, personal communication – Kennedy: Rottweilers Greyhounds
    21. 21. Study: Main Conclusions• Dogs <6months old had significantly lower titres• Ability to respond may decline with age• Timing of sampling and number of doses had most significant impact of titres
    22. 22. Risk of Rabies• Number of cases across EU has declined• No guarantee of the response to vaccination• Increased potential for incubating animals to cross borders• Number of animals travelling (legally) has increased• Increase in illegal movements
    23. 23. Rabies Control“To solve the problem of rabies would be a blessing for humanity” (Louis Pasteur)
    24. 24. Echinococcus multilocularis
    25. 25. Echinococcus multilocularis
    26. 26. Risk of Echinococcus granulosus• Praziquantal will only kill tapeworms present at the time• Increasing the treatment window up to 5 days increases the chances of re- infection prior to travel• Sweden has already lost its derogation due to Echinococcus granulous being detected
    27. 27. Limitations of PETS• PETS is in place to protect human health• Animal health is not a primary consideration• No vaccine is 100% effective• Complying with PETS will not ensure a pet remains healthy if it travels to another country
    28. 28. Diseases associated with Travelling Pets• Leishmania (Sandfly)• Babesia (Tick)• Ehrlichia (Tick)• Dirofilaria (Mosquito)
    29. 29. Introductions
    30. 30. Travelling diseases• Increasing over last few years• Previously unknown diseases introduced• PETS travel scheme• Relaxing of travel rules
    31. 31. Plan1. Leishmania2. Babesia3. Ehrlichia4. Dirofilaria5. Case study – leishmania6. Case study – ehrlichia7. Conclusions
    32. 32. 1. Leishmania
    33. 33. Leishmania• Protozoon• Up to 40% of dogs in endemic areas• 12 million people in 88 countries• Transmitted by sandflies
    34. 34. Where is it found?
    35. 35. Leishmania infection• Highly immune dogs clear infection (20-40%)• Some breeds (eg Ibizan hounds) appear to have higher resistance• Once infection is established, it cannot be cured
    36. 36. Clinical infection• Very variable!• Vague illness• May be a long gap between being infected and becoming ill
    37. 37. Skin signs of infection
    38. 38. Other signs
    39. 39. Testing – what are we looking for? Leishmania itself AntibodyIncludes looking at blood/ Dog has fought infectionbone marrow under Body’s response to diseasemicroscope and PCR test Includes Speed Leish K
    40. 40. When to test• Easier to diagnose when dogs are ill – Both antibody and parasite levels are higher• If available, use PCR tests – most sensitive
    41. 41. Treatment• Generally remission NOT cure• Allopurinol (Zyloric)• Meglumine antimonate (Glucantime)• Amphotericin B (Fungizone)• Treatment can be toxic, especially when combined with damage from leishmania
    42. 42. Preventing leishmania• Insect repellent (eg Scalibor collar)• Keep inside between dusk and dawn
    43. 43. Leishmania vaccine• Must test first• 3 injections, 3 weeks apart• Dogs over 6 months
    44. 44. Plan1. Leishmania2. Babesia3. Ehrlichia4. Dirofilaria5. Case study – leishmania6. Case study – ehrlichia7. Conclusions
    45. 45. Babesia• Like leishmania, a protozoon• Lives inside the red blood cells• AKA piroplasmosis
    46. 46. Signs of babesia• Anaemia• Bleeding problems• Red urine• Sudden collapse
    47. 47. Treatment of babesia• Drugs similar to leishmania - Imidocarb - Iminazine - Atovaquone - Azithromycin
    48. 48. Plan1. Leishmania2. Babesia3. Ehrlichia4. Dirofilaria5. Case study – leishmania6. Case study – ehrlichia7. Conclusions
    49. 49. Ehrichia• Bacteria• Live inside white blood cells (macrophages)
    50. 50. Signs of ehrlichia• Acute (8-20 days after infection) – Vague depression, fever, weight loss, poor appetite – Enlarged lymph nodes, nosebleeds, bleeding into skin• If diagnosed and treated in acute phase, often recover• Otherwise progress to chronic infection
    51. 51. Chronic ehrlichia infection• As for acute, but more severe – Emaciation – Swelling of hindlegs and scrotum – Pale gums – Eye problems – Neurological problems
    52. 52. Treatment of ehrlichia• Doxycycline for at least 2-3 weeks• May relapse• Infection with both ehrlichia and babesia may occur
    53. 53. Prevention of babesia and ehrlichia• Good parasite control• Scalibor, Frontline, AdvantixBabesia only:-• Vaccine (does not completely prevent infection)
    54. 54. Plan1. Leishmania2. Babesia3. Ehrlichia4. Dirofilaria5. Case study – leishmania6. Case study – ehrlichia7. Conclusions
    55. 55. Heartworm (dirofilaria immitis)• A type of roundworm• Spread by mosquitos• Worms lodge in the arteries of the lungs• Dogs and cats
    56. 56. Signs of infection• Depends on how bad the infection is• May be sudden onset but more often gradual• Coughing• Trouble breathing• Unable to exercise• Weight loss• Fainting• Sudden death
    57. 57. Treatment of heartworm• Regular worming (not all wormers!)• Macrolides – Ivermectin, Moxidectin, Selamectin)• Reactions can occur on worming• Surgical removal of worms from heart
    58. 58. Plan1. Leishmania2. Babesia3. Ehrlichia4. Dirofilaria5. Case study – leishmania6. Case study – ehrlichia7. Conclusions
    59. 59. Should we worry?• Animal health and welfare• Owner awareness• Vet awareness• Treatment availability• Stress and expense for new owner
    60. 60. Conclusions• Travelling diseases a serious problem• May be different in non endemic country eg UK• Export of infection best avoided where possible• Test before import (and 6 months after if leish endemic)
    61. 61. Acknowledgements• Centre for Evidence-based Veterinary Medicine• Rachel Dean and Gemma Clark• Dogs Trust• ICAWC• Thank you!
    62. 62. Websites which pictures have been ‘borrowed’ fromhttp://www.parasitologie.univ-montp1.fr/english_vers/en_leish2.htmhttp://globalhealthvet.com/2010/10/05/working-in-morocco-recurring-leishmaniasis-in-a-canine-patient/http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/surveillance/slides_manual/en/index5.htmlhttp://www.bestvetstore.com/leishmaniasis-in-dogs/http://www.flickr.com/photos/19187511@N00/2478336427/http://silvercoastangelicdogs.wordpress.com/2012/04/05/canine-leishmaniasis-vaccine-now-available-in-portugal/http://www.pepisdogrefuge.com/news.htmlhttp://www.noahs-arks.net/RESCUE/SAM.html
    63. 63. Adoption Across Borders
    64. 64. The Law: EU and listed non-EU• Microchip• Vaccinate against rabies• Wait for 3 weeks• Travel• If travelling to UK, Ireland, Malta, Finland: treat against tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus 24-120 hours before travel
    65. 65. Listed Non-EU CountriesBelarus Liechtenstein Russian FederationBosnia Monaco SwitzerlandHerzegovinaCroatia Norway Vatican
    66. 66. Unlisted Countries• Microchip• Vaccinate• Blood sample after 30 days• Wait 3 months from date of successful blood sample• Travel• Tapeworm
    67. 67. Further Considerations• What infectious diseases are prevelent across Europe? – CPV / CDV / CAV – Leptospirosis – FPL / FeLV / Cat ‘flu• What about further afield? – WSAVA guidelines
    68. 68. Further Considerations• What infectious diseases are prevalent in the country of origin?• Are there appropriate tests available?• Are these diseases endemic in the destination country? – Naïve population – Should we risk introducing the disease into this?
    69. 69. Further Considerations?• What infectious diseases are prevalent in the destination country?• Is there a vaccine available?• Vaccinate before travel?
    70. 70. Leishmaniasis• Sandfly transmitted• Prevalent around the Med basin• Zoonotic• PCR test available – Before travel – 6 months later• Can manage but not cure
    71. 71. Other Diseases• Dirofilaria (Heartworm) – Regular treatment required to prevent clinical disease• Babesia• Ehrlichia
    72. 72. In Practice• Comply with rules regarding movement of animals• Test for diseases prevalent in the country of origin but absent at destination• Prevention against diseases prevalent in the destination country
    73. 73. But this costs money- what happens if I don’t?
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