RabiesKINGDOM Undecided • Rabies is a zoonotic disease (a disease that isPHYLUM Undecided transmitted to humansCLASS Undecided from animals) that is caused by a virus MononegaviraleORDER s Rhabdoviridae family. The disease infects domestic and wild animals, and isFAMILY Rhabdoviridae spread to people through close contact withGENUS Lyssavirus infected saliva via bites orSPECIES Rabies virus scratches.
• The rabies virus is an RNA virus that infects nerve cells of mammals. When a healthy mammal comes into contact with saliva or other body fluids from a rabid mammal, the virus travels through the nerves into the brain.
Is it Harmful?• The fatality of rabies is really high with or without proper medical attention. The prognosis or how long it take the man survive rabies virus depends on the site and intesity of bite injury. The rule of thumb is, the nearer to the head the more fatal.
What type of organism does it infect and what part?• Dogs are the source of 99% of human rabies deaths. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death.
Signs & Symptoms Of Canine Rabies?• Unusual restlessness• Fever• Dilatation of pupils• Watchful apprehensive look• Biting at inanimate objects• Aimless running & unprovoked aggressiveness• Difficulty of swallowing followed by a change in the bark or howling sounds of animals
Signs & Symptoms Of Human Rabies? • Fever • Anorexia • Nausea & vomiting • Headache • Pain or paresthesia at site bite • Signs of nervous system dysfunction as hyperactivity, disorientation, hallucination, seizures & paralysis
• Rabies occurs in more than 150 countries and territories.• Worldwide, more than 55 000 people die of rabies every year.• 40% of people who are bitten by suspect rabid animals are children under 15 years of age.• Dogs are the source of 99% of human rabies deaths.
Prevention• Rabies is a vaccine-preventable disease. The most cost-effective strategy for preventing rabies in people is by eliminating rabies in dogs through vaccination. Vaccination of animals (mostly dogs) has reduced the number of human (and animal) rabies cases in several countries, particularly in Latin America. However, recent increases in human rabies deaths in parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America suggest that rabies is re- emerging as a serious public health issue.
Mode of Transmission A bite from a rabid animal (an animal infected with the rabies virus) is the most common form of rabies transmission. Non-bite exposure and human-to-human exposure are both rare.• Rabies Transmission From Bites Rabies transmission usually begins when infected saliva of an animal is passed to an uninfected animal, through a bite. From the salivas point of entry, the rabies virus travels along nerve cells to the brain. It multiplies there and moves to the salivary glands. In a rabid animal, the cycle is repeated when the animal bites a person or another animal.
• Rabies Transmission Through Non-Bite Exposure Rabies transmission from non-bite exposures is rare. Scratches, abrasions, open wounds, or mucous membranes contaminated with saliva or other potentially infectious material (such as brain tissue) from a rabid animal, constitute non- bite exposures. Occasionally reports of non-bite exposure are such that post-exposure prophylaxis is given.