Dairy cattle


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VTS257: Lg Animal Diseases & Nursing

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Dairy cattle

  1. 1. Dairy Cattle
  2. 2. Terminology• Cow- female that has had one or more calves• Bull- intact sexually mature male• Calf- newborn of either sex or intact male that has not reached sexual maturity• Calve-verb, to give birth• Heifer- female that has not had a calf• Steer- neutered male of any age
  3. 3. • Freemartin- genetic female born twin to a male, sterile as a result of arrested development of the reproductive tract. Ovaries are hypoplastic and most lack a cervix. More common in cattle than in sheep and goats.
  4. 4. • Polled- born without horns• Shrink- weight loss, ( leading to financial loss) associated with stress, transportation, weaning• Freshen- verb, to give birth• Pasteurize- flash heating to kill bacteria• Homogenize- blending technique used to prevent cream from separating from milk
  5. 5. Breeds of Dairy Cattle• Holstein- black and white or red and white• Jersey- soft brown, small cow, fat and protein production higher in milk• Ayrshire- brick red and white, looks like a small Holstein• Guernsey- butterscotch color, lots of white, skin is yellow, resemble jersey• Brown Swiss- largest, chocolate milk color, late to mature
  6. 6. Industry Facts• Average milk production per cow is 18,200 lbs• 305 day lactation period ( 10 mos) and a 60 day dry period ( 2 mos) equals a 12 month calving interval• Milk production peaks 4-6 weeks after freshening• Milked 2 times a day
  7. 7. Dairy Products• Milk and milk by products• Replacement heifers ( average 30-40% of the herd is replaced each year)• Veal calves• Dairy steers fed out as beef cattle
  8. 8. Nutrition• Water- most important nutrient, average 20 gallons per head per day• Factors that increase water consumption- Environmental heat and humidity- Lactation- Exercise- diet
  9. 9. Factors that decrease water consumption• Palatability• Temperature• Salinity/mineral content• Medication• Availability/ competition• illness
  10. 10. Body Scoring System• Monitoring body score to maximize production• Monitoring body score to minimize disease
  11. 11. Conditions associated with high body scores ( 4 or 5)• Dystocia- impeded fetal passage through birth canal• Retained placenta, metritis• Ketosis- increase in ketone bodies in tissues and body fluids• Displaced abomassum, liver abcesses• Milk fever- acute flaccid paralysis after calving, need emergency ca
  12. 12. Conditions associated with low body scores ( 1 or 2)• Infertility/ delayed conception• Prolonged interval before resuming normal estrus cycles post calving• Decreased milk production• Decreased milk fat content
  13. 13. When to assess body score• Midway through the period• At freshening• 45 days into lactation• 90 days into lactation• 180 days into lactation• 270 days into lactation
  14. 14. Body Score Goals• Midway through dry period 3.5• At freshening 3.5• 45 days into lactation 3.0• 90 days into lactation > 2.5• 180 days into lactation 3.0• 270 days into lactation 3.5
  15. 15. Terminology• Vector- individual ( arthropod, mammal, avian etc) which transfers and infectious agent• Fomite- inanimate object which mechanically transfers an infectious agent• Intermediate host- an organism passes through its larval or asexual stages of development• Dead end host- organisms life cycle is interrupted, disease not transmitted
  16. 16. • Definitive host- host in which organism attains sexual maturity and is able to be transmitted• Reservoir host- host, other than definitive, in which organism can exist, usually w/o causing clinical disease• Latency- presence of a pathogenic organism without clinical disease but with the potential for clinical disease to develop when triggered
  17. 17. • Pre-patent period- interval from exposure to onset of clinical symptoms• Infective period- period during which a disease is able to be transmitted from one definitive host to another• Lateral/horizontal transmission- transmission other than by placental transfer or lactation• Vaccination- the administration of a vaccine
  18. 18. • Immunization- the development of protective immunity through challenge with pathogen, with vaccine or natural exposure• Bacterin- vaccine derived from killed bacteria or bacterial fragments• Index case- initial case of disease outbreak• Endemic- present in the population at a steady rate• Epidemic- disease occurrence rises
  19. 19. • Morbidity- incidence of disease in a population, stated as a percentage• Mortality- incidence of death ( as caused by a specific disease) stated as a percentage
  20. 20. Disease Outbreak Management• Index case• Symptomatic animals• Asymptomatic animals• Latency• resevoirs
  21. 21. Disease ContainmentOrganism identification- virus/bacteria/parasitic/other- Prepatent period- Infective period- Environmental persistance/viability- Mode of disease transmission- Source of organism
  22. 22. Hosts immune response to pathogenic organisms• Does natural infection confer immunity?• What is the duration of immunity?• Vaccinal immunity?a. Vaccinate prior to exposureb. Vaccinate in face of outbreakc. Vaccination intervals
  23. 23. • Reinfection• Chronicity• Residual effects of disease after organism has been eliminated from the body• Mitigating/exacerbating conditionsa. Immunocompentencyb. Stressc. Nutritiond. Sanitation/hygiene
  24. 24. Zoonotic Diseases
  25. 25. Anthrax• Bacteria- bacillus anthracis• Species affected- all warm blooded animals, cattle especially affected• Route of exposure- consumption of spores while grazing, usually in areas where soil has recently been disturbed ( spores persist in soil for >35 years)• Symptoms- sudden death, +/- hemorrhage from all body openings
  26. 26. Anthrax, cont• Treatment – none• Carcass disposal- CRITICAL- burial minimum 10 feet covered with lime
  27. 27. Anthrax in Humans• Route of exposure- Cutaneous Woolsorters disease, bacteria spores on hair/hide/wool/leather products enter a wound on skin- Inhalation pulmonary anthrax, spores inhaled- Intestinal consumption of contaminated meat
  28. 28. Anthrax in Humans• Symptomsa. cutaneous- papule resembles insect bite, progresses to necrotic lesion, 20% mortality in untreated casesb. Pulmonary- symptoms resemble common cold, death occurs in 1-2 daysc. Intestinal- gastroenteritis, mortality 25-60%
  29. 29. Anthrax treatment• Antibiotics if diagnosed earlyCommentsReportable disease in humans and animalsNo human to human transmission through normal contact
  30. 30. Brucellosis• Bacteria- Brucella abortus/Brucella suis• Bang’s disease in animals• Route of exposure- direct contact with reproductive tract secretions from infected animal• Infected animals are identified with orange ear tag in the right ear
  31. 31. Symptoms• Abortion• Birth of weak calves• Diminished fertility
  32. 32. Control of Brucellosis Brucellosis Eradication Programa. Surveillance- Testing bulk milk containers- Livestock market testingb. Vaccinationc. Test and slaughter, no treatment
  33. 33. Brucellosis in Humans Undulent Fever1. Route of exposure- oral- consumption of unpasteurized milk or milk products- Mucus membranes in contact with aborted fetuses, placental membranes, uterine discharges or carcasses of infected animals
  34. 34. Symptoms of Brucellosis in Humans• Fatigue, headaches, fever, chills, drenching sweats, joint pain,• Rarely fatal but symptoms persist for months• Treatment- antibiotics• Prevention- no vaccine available, wear gloves and protective clothing
  35. 35. Rabies• Virus- rhabdovirus, affects all warm blooded animalsAnimal symptomsa. Furious form- aggresssion, hyper- alertness, excessive response to stimulib. Dumb/paralytic form- tail paralysis, loss of sensation, incoordination, choke, urine dribbling
  36. 36. Rabies Note• Any warm blooded animal with neurologic symptoms should be considered a rabies suspect until proven otherwisess
  37. 37. Human Rabies1. Route of exposure- animal bite, saliva entering skin wound, defect, mm2. Prevention- vaccination for individuals at risk3. Control- post exposure anti serum for exposed, unvaccinated individuals4. Treatment- none, once contracted, rabies is always fatal
  38. 38. Ringworm Fungus - MicrosporumAnimal1. Species affected- cattle, horses, sheep, goats, swine2. Route of exposure- organism is ubiquitous in environment, development of clinical disease is associated with immunosuppression3. Symptoms- dermal lesions4. Treatment- antifungal meds, topical or systemic, UV light ( sunlight)
  39. 39. Human Ringworm1. Route of exposure- direct contact with skin lesions of affected animals, immunosuppression is not necessary to high conc. Of organisms in lesion2. Symptoms- skin lesions w/wo pruritis3. Diagnosis- fungal culture4. Treatment- antifungal medications, topical or systemic
  40. 40. SalmonellosisAnimal1. Species affected- cattle, swine, goats, sheep, horses, poultry, reptiles, amphibians2. Route of exposure- oral contact with feces from infected animals3. Symptoms- profuse watery diarrhea, endotoxic shock, ( carrier state exists)4. Treatment- supportive, fluid replacement, intestinal protectants
  41. 41. Human Salmonella1. Route of exposure- consumption of contaminated food or water, inadequate hygiene after handling patient with salmonella2. Symptoms- fever, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain3. Treatment- usually requires hospitalization
  42. 42. Tuberculosis ( bacteria) Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosisAnimal1. Route of exposure- consumption of contaminated water, milk from infected cows2. Symptoms- animals may remain asymptomatic until disease is advanced, weight loss, unthriftiness, poor hair coat3. Post mortem- lung abcesses resulting in devaluation/condemnation of carcasses
  43. 43. Tuberculosis in animals cont4. Diagnosis- intradermal skin testing5. Control/prevention- maintain closed herd, test replacement stock
  44. 44. Tuberculosis in Humans1. Route of exposure- consumption of raw, unpasteurized milk, aerosol2. Symptoms- cough, pulmonary disease, debilitation, “consumption”3. Diagnosis- tuberculin skin test, chest rads, culture of sputum4. Treatment- 95% recovery rate with 6-9 months of antibiotic treatment