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Conserving Animal Health for a
Better Tomorrow
Deepa Raju Menon
Post-doctoral Research Associate,
Southern Research & Outr...
Overview
 Definitions
 Animal diseases - impact
 Signs of health and disease
 Classification of diseases
 Disease con...
Definitions
• Health - a state of complete physical, mental
and social well-being and not merely the
absence of disease or...
What is Disease?
Any disruption of the normal function and
health of an animal that is typically
manifested by distinguish...
Impact of Animal Diseases
• Loss of animal productivity
• Cost of treatment
• Market disruption
• Affecting human health
•...
Types of Diseases - Population
• Endemic - farm level - constant presence
• Epidemic or transboundary - highly infectious,...
Classification of Diseases - Etiology
• Bacterial - Brucellosis, Tetanus
• Viral - Avian influenza, Pox
• Parasitic - Mang...
Disease is Multifactorial
• Agent (infectious) factors
• Host animal factors
• Environmental factors
– Management
– Feed a...
Disease / Epidemiological Triangle
HOST
ENVIRONMENTPATHOGEN
DISEASE
Resistance, age and immunity
Facilities and management...
Transmission
• Disease occurs when the host’s defences are
overwhelmed by stressors, malnutrition, or
high levels of infec...
Factors in Disease Proliferation
• Reservoirs: - where organisms live
• Amplifiers: reservoirs where organisms proliferate...
Ports of Entry and Exit for DiseaseAgents
Source: Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups http://people.vetmed....
Spectrum of Disease Severity
Source: Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups
http://people.vetmed.wsu.edu/jmgay...
“Iceberg”Concept-Infections
EXPOSURE WITHOUT INFECTION
INFECTION WITHOUT
CLINICAL ILLNESS
MILD ILLNESS
SEVERE
DISEASE
DEAT...
Signs / Evaluation of Health
• Postures, alertness, activity
• Skin, eyes, nose/ muzzle, mouth
• Appetite, thirst and elim...
Record Keeping for Assessment
• Feed and water intake
• Occurrence, clinical signs and time of death
• Occurrence of abort...
Disease Prevention
Susceptible animal
Infected animal
Exposure
Remove infection
Detect and remove or treat
Stop transmissi...
Steps to Manage Health Risks
Biosecurity
• Isolation
• Acclimation
• Testing
• Vaccination
• Disinfection
18
Why Biosecurity?
• Improved animal welfare
• Improved production, productivity, profit
• Increase value of the herd
• Decr...
Prevention and Control of Diseases
• Maintain a closed herd
• Isolate, test and treat incoming animals
• Control visitors ...
• Truck and foot dips
• Using all-in, all-out flow
• Using shower-in, shower-out
• Keeping facility clean, disinfect
• Fen...
Quarantine
• All incoming stock - quarantined in isolation
• Initial 30-days - any signs of illness
• Another 30-days peri...
Pathogen Elimination
• Blanket treatment - antibiotics, vaccine
• Identifying carriers (test and cull)
• Depopulation
• Co...
Disinfection
24
• Remove all excess dirt / debris
• Wash with detergent or soap
• Immerse or wet with a disinfectant
• Phe...
Porcine Reproductive and
Respiratory Syndrome
• Blue-eared pig disease
• Mystery swine disease
• Swine Infertility and Res...
PRRS
• Etiology: RNA virus
• Genus: Arteri virus
• Family: Arteriviridae
• Two distinct strains
–Variants of varying virul...
PRRS - Epidemiology
• Highly contagious
• Reproductive failure in sows
• Respiratory disease in young pigs
• Enters swine ...
PRRS - Why a Big Problem
28
Spreads through:
• Milk, colostrum, intrauterine, semen
• Feces, urine, saliva, blood
• Windbo...
PRRS - Reproductive Form
• Late gestation abortions
• Stillbirths
• Mummified fetuses
• Weak neonates
• High rate of retur...
PRRS - Respiratory Form
• Anorexia
• Fever
• Dyspnea, polypnea, coughing
• Unthriftiness
• High mortality in young pigs
• ...
Healthy v.s Diseased
Signs Healthy Diseased
Postures
Appetite
Respiration rate
Body temperature
31
Differential Diagnosis - PRRS
• Parvo virus
• Mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae)
• Pasteurellosis (Pasturella multoc...
PRRS - Treatment
• Maintain a closed herd
• Segregate and rear young pigs off site
• Antibiotic therapy
• Depopulate and t...
PRRS - Control
• Difficult, unreliable and frustrating
• Infection of breeding stock results in immunity
• Maternal immuni...
PRRS - Challenges
• Highly infectious-only small amount of virus
necessary to infect a herd
• Persistent infection up to 2...
PRRS - Testing
• Rope sampling of oral fluids
• Blood testing
ELISA
PCR
FAT
36
References
• Pugh, D. G and Baird, N. (2011). Sheep and Goat Medicine.
2nd ed., Elsevier.
• Mathew, G. J. (2009). Diseases...
References
• Biosecurity protocols for the prevention of spread of PRRS virus -- by
Andrea Pitkin, Satoshi Otake and Scott...
Summary
Define: Disease, health and epidemiology
Classifications: Etiology, Population, Clinical signs
Epidemiological Tri...
Conclusion
40
Understanding epidemiology helps us to prepare better to
control and prevent diseases, reduce health hazards...
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Controlling diseases to ensure better animal health

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Controlling diseases to ensure better animal health

  1. 1. Conserving Animal Health for a Better Tomorrow Deepa Raju Menon Post-doctoral Research Associate, Southern Research & Outreach Centre, University of Minnesota, MN.
  2. 2. Overview  Definitions  Animal diseases - impact  Signs of health and disease  Classification of diseases  Disease control and prevention  PRRS  Summary  Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Definitions • Health - a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1946) • Epidemiology - is the science that studies the incidence, distribution, causes and control of diseases in a population 3
  4. 4. What is Disease? Any disruption of the normal function and health of an animal that is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms 4
  5. 5. Impact of Animal Diseases • Loss of animal productivity • Cost of treatment • Market disruption • Affecting human health • Loss of income • Food insecurity and poor nutrition 5
  6. 6. Types of Diseases - Population • Endemic - farm level - constant presence • Epidemic or transboundary - highly infectious, sudden increase, one country • Pandemic - several countries, newer organism • Sporadic - infrequent, irregular • Outbreak - limited area • Zoonotic - man animal (Perry et al., 2001) 6
  7. 7. Classification of Diseases - Etiology • Bacterial - Brucellosis, Tetanus • Viral - Avian influenza, Pox • Parasitic - Mange, Taeniasis • Fungal - Aspergillosis, Ringworm • Protozoal - Coccidiosis, Babesiosis • Managemental - Indigestion, Poisoning • Metabolic - PEM, Rickets 7
  8. 8. Disease is Multifactorial • Agent (infectious) factors • Host animal factors • Environmental factors – Management – Feed and water quality – Ventilation – Comfort – Weather 8
  9. 9. Disease / Epidemiological Triangle HOST ENVIRONMENTPATHOGEN DISEASE Resistance, age and immunity Facilities and management (Temperature, pH) Virulence and persistence 9
  10. 10. Transmission • Disease occurs when the host’s defences are overwhelmed by stressors, malnutrition, or high levels of infectious agent • Vertical • Horizontal • Direct • Indirect - air borne, fomite, vector 10
  11. 11. Factors in Disease Proliferation • Reservoirs: - where organisms live • Amplifiers: reservoirs where organisms proliferate • Vehicles: inanimate objects / materials - fomites and biologicals • Vectors: carriers – Mechanical vectors: biting insects – Biological vectors: must propagate in the vector 11
  12. 12. Ports of Entry and Exit for DiseaseAgents Source: Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups http://people.vetmed.wsu.edu/jmgay/courses/EpiMod2.htm 12
  13. 13. Spectrum of Disease Severity Source: Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups http://people.vetmed.wsu.edu/jmgay/courses/EpiMod2.htm 13
  14. 14. “Iceberg”Concept-Infections EXPOSURE WITHOUT INFECTION INFECTION WITHOUT CLINICAL ILLNESS MILD ILLNESS SEVERE DISEASE DEATH Clinical Disease Sub Clinical Disease 14 Source: Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups http://people.vetmed.wsu.edu/jmgay/courses/EpiMod2.htm
  15. 15. Signs / Evaluation of Health • Postures, alertness, activity • Skin, eyes, nose/ muzzle, mouth • Appetite, thirst and elimination • Body temperature, respiration, heartbeat and pulse • Body condition, weight and production • Hematology and biochemistry 15
  16. 16. Record Keeping for Assessment • Feed and water intake • Occurrence, clinical signs and time of death • Occurrence of abortions • Occurrence of mortality and culls • Lesions at slaughter or post mortem 16
  17. 17. Disease Prevention Susceptible animal Infected animal Exposure Remove infection Detect and remove or treat Stop transmission Direct and indirect Enhance resistance Acquired, passive, active or inherent 17
  18. 18. Steps to Manage Health Risks Biosecurity • Isolation • Acclimation • Testing • Vaccination • Disinfection 18
  19. 19. Why Biosecurity? • Improved animal welfare • Improved production, productivity, profit • Increase value of the herd • Decreased use of medicines • Less antibiotic resistance Prevention is better than cure 19
  20. 20. Prevention and Control of Diseases • Maintain a closed herd • Isolate, test and treat incoming animals • Control visitors and motor vehicles • Avoid contact with wildlife and domestic species • Feed and water - free of contamination 20
  21. 21. • Truck and foot dips • Using all-in, all-out flow • Using shower-in, shower-out • Keeping facility clean, disinfect • Fencing, fans and curtains • Rodent, bird and insect control SOPs for Biosecurity 21
  22. 22. Quarantine • All incoming stock - quarantined in isolation • Initial 30-days - any signs of illness • Another 30-days period - acclimation • Reputed suppliers • Retest animals if necessary 22
  23. 23. Pathogen Elimination • Blanket treatment - antibiotics, vaccine • Identifying carriers (test and cull) • Depopulation • Complete cleaning - sanitation • Repopulation with pathogen free stock 23
  24. 24. Disinfection 24 • Remove all excess dirt / debris • Wash with detergent or soap • Immerse or wet with a disinfectant • Phenolic-based (Lysol) or quaternary ammonium- based (Roccal D) are most effective • Bleach is effective against most viruses and bacteria but it's inactivated by organic material
  25. 25. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome • Blue-eared pig disease • Mystery swine disease • Swine Infertility and Respiratory Syndrome (SIRS) 25
  26. 26. PRRS • Etiology: RNA virus • Genus: Arteri virus • Family: Arteriviridae • Two distinct strains –Variants of varying virulence 26
  27. 27. PRRS - Epidemiology • Highly contagious • Reproductive failure in sows • Respiratory disease in young pigs • Enters swine herd • Immunosuppression • Survives in cold wet conditions 27
  28. 28. PRRS - Why a Big Problem 28 Spreads through: • Milk, colostrum, intrauterine, semen • Feces, urine, saliva, blood • Windborne -aerosol up to 6 miles • Contaminated needles and flies • Infected hands, boots and protective clothing
  29. 29. PRRS - Reproductive Form • Late gestation abortions • Stillbirths • Mummified fetuses • Weak neonates • High rate of return to estrus • Problem may persist and recur for many months 29
  30. 30. PRRS - Respiratory Form • Anorexia • Fever • Dyspnea, polypnea, coughing • Unthriftiness • High mortality in young pigs • Low mortality in older pigs 30
  31. 31. Healthy v.s Diseased Signs Healthy Diseased Postures Appetite Respiration rate Body temperature 31
  32. 32. Differential Diagnosis - PRRS • Parvo virus • Mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae) • Pasteurellosis (Pasturella multocida) • Brucellois (Brucella suis) • Leptospirosis (Leptospira pomona) • Streptococcus suis 32
  33. 33. PRRS - Treatment • Maintain a closed herd • Segregate and rear young pigs off site • Antibiotic therapy • Depopulate and thoroughly clean weaner unit • Routine procedures - not done during the acute phase of the disease • Serum inoculation of naive gilts 33
  34. 34. PRRS - Control • Difficult, unreliable and frustrating • Infection of breeding stock results in immunity • Maternal immunity in piglets from seropositive sows • Eradication of the virus • Create a stable positive system - swine herd lives with the disease 34
  35. 35. PRRS - Challenges • Highly infectious-only small amount of virus necessary to infect a herd • Persistent infection up to 200 days -shedders • Mutates easily- commercial vaccines less effective • Simple blood tests cannot differentiate between field strain and vaccine strain of virus 35
  36. 36. PRRS - Testing • Rope sampling of oral fluids • Blood testing ELISA PCR FAT 36
  37. 37. References • Pugh, D. G and Baird, N. (2011). Sheep and Goat Medicine. 2nd ed., Elsevier. • Mathew, G. J. (2009). Diseases of the Goat. 3rd ed., Wiley- Blackwell. • Merck Veterinary Manual 10th Edition (2010). Kahn, C. M. and Line, S. Eds., Merck. • Straw, B. E., Zimmerman, J. J., D'Allaire, S., and Taylor, D. J. (2006). Diseases of swine 9th ed., Blackwell Publishing. 37
  38. 38. References • Biosecurity protocols for the prevention of spread of PRRS virus -- by Andrea Pitkin, Satoshi Otake and Scott Dee. https://www.aasv.org/aasv/PRRSV_BiosecurityManual.pdf • PRRS.org -- the official site for USDA's PRRS Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) research and educational outreach resources. • Spickler, Anna Rovid. "Title of Factsheet." "Date of Factsheet (Last Updated)." At http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu /DiseaseInfo/factsheets.php • Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. http://navybmr.com/study%20material/CCDM.pdf • Dohoo, I., martin, W., and Stryhm, H. Veterinary Epidemiological Research (2005) 2nd ed. 38
  39. 39. Summary Define: Disease, health and epidemiology Classifications: Etiology, Population, Clinical signs Epidemiological Triangle Proliferation: Reservoirs, Amplifiers, Vehicle, Vectors, Transmission: Vertical, Horizontal, Direct, Indirect Iceberg Concept Biosecurity 39
  40. 40. Conclusion 40 Understanding epidemiology helps us to prepare better to control and prevent diseases, reduce health hazards and economic losses, thus ensuring healthier animals for a better tomorrow.

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