Sarah AliahIlham 2006 2005 02 Coma in diabetic patient
Diabetic coma Also known as hyperglycemic hyperosmolarnonketotic syndrome serious complication that can happen to a person with type 2 diabetes who is ill or stressed diabetic coma occurs most often among people who are older than 60. Most sufferers have a history of diabetes, but for some, the disease is undiagnosed or untreated.
blood sugar gets too high and the body becomes severely dehydrated. No ketone formed
In most cases, there is a history of excess thirst and urination for weeks prior to diagnosis. Excess urination and extreme elevations of blood sugar levels lead to dehydration throughout the body, including cells becoming dehydrated. The severe loss of body water can lead to shock, coma, and death. Death rates can be as high as 50%. People who are especially at risk include those who are chronically ill or disabled.
What Are the Early Symptoms of Diabetic Coma? Early symptoms that may lead to diabetic coma if not treated include: Increased thirst Increased urination Weakness Drowsiness Altered mental state Headache Restlessness Inability to speak Paralysis
Investigation Plasma glucose ABG Urea and electrolyte ECG CXR Urinanalysis, culture and microscopic examination * calculate plasma osmolality 2 x (Na + K) + glucose 285 – 295 mOsmol/Kg Coma = > 400 mOsmol/Kg
Management Aim: To correct the high osmolality with fluid and insulin over 48-72 hours Avoid fluid overload (central venous line)
Management Manage as for DKA except: Initial resuscitation with colloid 0.9% saline for fluid replacement If [Na+] is > 150 mmol/L, use 5% dextrose Slow correction of Na Start insulin at 3 U/hr Anticoagulate
CBD if Serum creatinine is high Oliguria When blood glucose is <10 mmol/L – 5% dextrose Stabilized - stop insulin therapy, start OHA or diet control
Hypoglycemic coma Dxt Management : 75 ml 20% glucose IV or 1mg glucagon IM Once recovered give bread or biscuits Should regain consciousness within 10 minutes If not repeat blood glucose and consider other cause of coma Admit if the cause is long –acting SU or long acting insulin Continuous infusion of 10% dextrose (1L / 8hrly) Check glucose hourly