Dka Vs Hhs Suraya


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This presentation was present by my friend during emergency posting seminar with Dr.Mohd. Kamal Mohd. Arshad. I upload this ppt here for all of us and my own reference too. Good luck in your life.

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Dka Vs Hhs Suraya

  1. 1. DKA vs HHS by suraya salleh
  2. 2. CASE A <ul><li>A 60 year old unconscious man was brought to ED by his family, presented with 3 weeks history of loss of appetite and increase in frequency of urination. Son noted that patient has been very weak until they have to help him with his daily life activity. </li></ul><ul><li>On examination, patient looked cachexic and profound dehydration noted. Patient was also found to be hypotensive and tachycardic. Blood sugar is 38. </li></ul><ul><li>DIAGNOSIS ? </li></ul>
  3. 3. CASE B <ul><li>A 25 year old lady presented with 2 day history of nausea and vomiting. She also has been feeling unwell, thirsty, weak and noticed that she frequently had to go to the toilet to urinate. Her blood sugar is 24. </li></ul><ul><li>On examination, her breath smell sweet, she is tachycardic and dehydrated. She also has a productive cough with crepitations on the left lower base. Her pH is 7.30 </li></ul><ul><li>DIAGNOSIS ? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Which one is HHS? Which one is DKA?
  5. 5. DKA vs HHS <ul><li>Common </li></ul><ul><li>Type 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitated by infection </li></ul><ul><li>Ketoacidosis </li></ul><ul><li>Short prodromal sympts </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality 5-10% </li></ul><ul><li>Age 20-29 </li></ul><ul><li>Uncommon </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2 </li></ul><ul><li>More severe illness </li></ul><ul><li>Not ketoacidotic </li></ul><ul><li>Longer prodromal sympts </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality 40-60% </li></ul><ul><li>Age 57-70 </li></ul>
  6. 6. DKA vs HHS <ul><li>Kussmaul respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain (occasionally) </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Thirsty </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet smelly breath (acetone) </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion, drowsiness </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotension </li></ul><ul><li>Tachycardia </li></ul><ul><li>Usually presented dehyrated and stupor or coma. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>LOA and polyuria (several weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>Profound dehyration </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotension (later) </li></ul><ul><li>Tachycardia </li></ul>CLINICAL FEATURES
  7. 7. DKA vs HHS <ul><li>Hyperglycemia : Blood glucose > 14 mmol/L </li></ul><ul><li>Acidosis : pH < 7.3, HCO 3 <15 mmol/L </li></ul><ul><li>Ketonaemia or ketonuria </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma glucose level of > 33 mmol/L </li></ul><ul><li>Arterial pH > 7.3, serum bicarbonate > 15 mmol/L </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of severe ketonaemia or ketonuria </li></ul><ul><li>Serum total osmolality >330 mmol/L </li></ul>Diagnostic Criteria
  8. 8. DKA vs HHS <ul><ul><li>Full Blood Count (FBC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Urea Serum Electrolyte (BUSE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dextrose stick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urine dipstick / Urinalysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full Blood Count (FBC) </li></ul><ul><li>Urea and electrolytes </li></ul><ul><li>- raised d/t dehydration, with urea incr disproportionately to creatinine </li></ul><ul><li>ABG  pH decr, HCO3 decr, PCO2 incr </li></ul><ul><li>urinalysis </li></ul>Investigations
  9. 9. DKA vs HHS <ul><li>Managed in monitored area. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemental high-flow oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor : ECG, Pulse oximetry, blood levels of glucose, ketones , potassium and acid base balance 1-2hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Managed in monitored area. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemental high-flow oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor : ECG, Pulse oximetry, blood levels of glucose and potassium 1-2hrs. </li></ul>MANAGEMENT
  10. 10. DKA vs HHS <ul><li>Circulatory support : IV NS 1L per hr initially (basic), switch to IV Dextrose saline as glucose level drops (<15mmol/L). (Total fluid loss~4-6L) </li></ul><ul><li>maintain BSL 8-12 mmol/L </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary catheter to monitor urine output </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory support : (Total fluid loss~6-10L) half of the estimated water deficits will need to be replace during the first 12 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>maintain BSL 14-16mmol/L </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary catheter to monitor urine output </li></ul>MANAGEMENT
  11. 11. Do you know how to differentiate DKA and HHS now??
  12. 12. Referrence : <ul><li>Clinical Medicine Kumar and Clark </li></ul><ul><li>SARAWAK Handbook of Medical Emergencies 2 nd edition </li></ul>
  13. 13. THANK YOU