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  • 1. Wilbury A. Crockett Library Wellesley High School The names inscribed on the banner in the Wilbury CrockettLibrary belong to individuals who achieved excellence in theirrespective fields as writers, thinkers, politicians, communityactivists, or artists. They inspire us in our work at WellesleyHigh School and remind us that our work here prepares us forthe challenges of citizenship in a much larger world.Additionally, their accomplishments reflect who we are as acommunity and embody Wellesley core values: Academic Excellence Commitment to Community Respect for Human Differences Cooperative and Caring Relationships
  • 2. Confucius 551 BCE - 479 BCE • Chinese teacher, philosopher, and founder of Ju or Confucianism. • Emphasized education, moral and virtuous example, and ritual correctness. • His ideas were recorded after his death in AnalectsImage source: Asiasociety.org (Lunyu).
  • 3. Howard Zinn 1922 - 2010 • American historian, author, activist, playwright, intellectual, and professor of political science at Boston University. • Most famous book, A Peoples History of the United States (1980), surveys American history from the point of view of working class and minority groups. • Selected Major Works: Vietnam: The Logic of Withdrawal (1967); The Twentieth Century: A Peoples History (1984); You Cant Be Neutral on a Moving Train: A Personal History of Our Times (1994).Image source: Howardzinn.org
  • 4. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 1929 - 1968 • Minister and civil rights leader whose actions led to the passage of Civil Rights Act in 1964. • Winner of Nobel Peace Prize (1964). • Founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957). • Coordinated civil rights activities such as Montgomery Bus Boycott, the March on Washington, the Birmingham Campaign of 1963, and the lunch counter sit-in movement with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). • Assassinated April 4, 1968.Image source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 5. Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803 - 1882 • American author, resident of Concord, Mass., leader of New England transcendentalism, and abolitionist. • Started his career as a Unitarian minister and became a prominent lecturer and essayist. • Spoke out against materialism, organized religion, and slavery. • Selected Major Works: Essays that includes "Self Reliance" (1841), Nature (1863).Image Source: CredoReference Database
  • 6. Eleanor Roosevelt 1884 - 1962 • Wife of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President of United States. • As first lady gave regular press conferences, radio interviews, lectures and wrote newspaper columns. • Worked with the Womens Division of the Democratic National Committee (1928). • Champion of civil rights for African Americans and women and advocate for the rural poor. • Served as a delegate to the United Nations (1945, 1960) where sheImage Source: Credo Reference Database worked on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN in 1948.
  • 7. Franklin Delano Roosevelt 1882 - 1945 • 32nd President of the United States. • Stricken with polio (1921) leaving him paralyzed. • Elected to presidency for four terms and led the country through the Great Depression and World War II. • Pioneered the New Deal and created a more socially responsible government.Image Source: Biography in ContextDatabase • Helped lay the foundation for the United Nations.
  • 8. Frederick Douglass 1817 - 1895 • Abolitionist, pacifist, activist and eminent thinker of the 19th century. • Born into slavery and escaped to freedom when he was 18 years old. • Major lecturer for Massachusetts Anti- Slavery Society and ally of abolitionist, William Lloyd Garrison. • Lived in New Bedford, Mass. (1838) and Lynn, Mass. (1841) • Major Works: Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself (1845); My Bondage and My Freedom (1855); The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (1881).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 9. Barack Obama 1961 - • 44th President of the United States, first Black president. • United States Senator for Illinois (1996 - 2004). • Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (2009). • Major Publications: Dreams From My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance (1995); The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream (2006).Image Source: Whitehouse.gov
  • 10. Nelson Mandela 1918 - • President of South Africa (1994 - 1999), anti-apartheid activist. • Jailed from 1964-1990 for his efforts to end apartheid. • Dedicated his life to fighting for the rights of black South Africans. • Selected Major Works: No Easy Walk To Freedom (1965); Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela (1994)Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 11. Toni Morrison 1931 - • American novelist known for "her poetically-charged and richly- expressive depictions of Black America." (The Nobel Foundation) • Editor, public lecturer, and academic. Has held a chair at Princeton University since 1988. • Won the Nobel Prize for literature (1993), and the Pulitzer Prize for fiction (1988) for her novel Beloved. • Major Works: The Bluest Eye (1970); Sula (1974); Song of Solomon (1977); Tar Baby (1981); Beloved (1987).Image Source: Credo Reference Database
  • 12. William Shakespeare 1564 - 1616 • English playwright and poet. • "Shakespeare will go on explaining [humans], in part because he invented us." (Bloom) • Wrote over thirty plays and over 150 sonnets. • Shakespeares works are quoted more than the works of any other single author. • Major works include: A Midsummer Nights Dream; Hamlet; Othello; The Tempest.Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 13. Helen Keller 1880 - 1968 • American lecturer, writer, and philanthropic fund-raiser. • Became blind, deaf and mute from an illness when 19 months old. • Student at Perkins School for the Blind (1888). • Graduated cum laude from Radcliffe College (1904). • Devoted life to social reforms to benefit women, the deaf and the blind. • Awarded the Presidential Medal of Honor (1964). • Selected Works: The Story of My Life (1903); The World I Live InImage Source: Credo Reference (1908).Database
  • 14. Edmund Burke 1729 - 1797 • British statesman, speaker, political theorist, and writer. • His speeches and principles address the importance of morality implicit in the practical concerns of politics. • His work, Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757), launched him as a leading literary figure. • Famous speeches include: Speech to the Electors of Bristol and Speech on Presenting to the House of Commons the 11th of February a Plan.Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 15. Mahatma Gandhi 1869 - 1948 • Leader in Indian Independence Movement. • His practice of non-violent civil disobedience provided an exemplar for the American Civil Rights Movement. • Evolved from an important political and cultural figure to the conscience of the Indian Empire. • Selected Work: Gandhi an Autobiography: The Story of My Experience with Truth (1993).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 16. John F Kennedy 1917 - 1963 • 35th president of the United States. • In a post-Depression era, inspired confidence in American people to reach toward new goals and effect change. • Called for federal support of the Civil Rights Movement to enforce the Voting Rights Act and other civil rights laws. • Established The Peace Corps. • Winner of Pulitzer Prize for Profiles in Courage (1956) • Assassinated in November, 1963.Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 17. Sylvia Plath 1932 - 1963 • American poet and novelist. • Became an icon for the representation of female "selfhood" in poetry. • Graduated from Wellesley High School in 1950. • Attended masters level program at Cambridge University on a Fulbright Fellowship (1955). • Selected Works:The Colossus (1960); The Bell Jar (1963); Ariel (1965).Image Source: Poets.org
  • 18. Harvey Milk 1930 - 1978 • American politician, activist. • Pursued an ambitious agenda of political, economic, and social reform including protection of gay rights. • Proponent of strong, safe, cohesive neighborhoods as essential to urban life. • Assassinated in 1978. • Posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009).Image Source: Credo Reference Database
  • 19. César Chávez 1927 - 1993 • A grass-roots labor organizer who rose from the ranks of California migrant workers to form and lead the first agricultural union, the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA). • In the 1950s he helped build Community Service Organization (CSO) chapters, which led voter registration drives and aided dispossessed Mexicans and Mexican- Americans on issues ofImage Source: Americaslibrary.gov immigration, welfare, and police abuse.
  • 20. Jackie Robinson 1919 - 1972 • Major League Baseball player, civil rights leader, businessman. • Leading symbol and spokesperson for integration both within baseball, in the U.S. Army and in broader society. • First African American player to be: Rookie of the Year (1947), Most Valuable Player (1949), elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame (1961).Image Source: MLB.com
  • 21. Jane Addams 1860 - 1935 • Social worker, reformer, and pacifist. • In 1889, founded the most famous settlement house in American history, Hull House in Chicago, which helped working class people and immigrants. • Co-founded the Womens Peace Party and opposed both World Wars. • Was the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1931).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 22. Albert Einstein 1879 - 1955 • German-born American physicist. • Revolutionized the science of quantum physics - physics at the level of atoms and sub atomic particles. • Best known for his theory of relativity. • Won the Nobel Prize for Physics (1921).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 23. Benjamin Franklin 1706 - 1790 • Statesmen, writer, printer, scientist, inventor and diplomat to France during the American Revolution. • Signer of Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States, and Treaty of Peace with Great Britain. • Proved that lightning is electricity. • Selected Works: Poor Richards Almanack (1723); Autobiography (1757)Image Source: Archives.gov
  • 24. Susan B. Anthony 1820 - 1906 • Leader of the American womens suffrage movement. • Formed the National Woman Suffrage Association. • Published weekly journal, The Revolution and 4-volume set, History of Woman Suffrage. • 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution giving women the right to vote became law 14 years after her death.Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 25. Abraham Lincoln 1809 - 1865 • 16th President of the United States. • Issued the Emancipation Proclamation (1863). • During his presidency the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery, passed. • His speeches, such as the Gettysburg Address are classic statements of democratic beliefs and goals. • Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 26. Immanuel Kant 1724 - 1804 • German philosopher. • Critical philosophy constituted a watershed in Western intellectual history. • Major Works: The Critique of Pure Reason (1781); Foundations of Metaphysics of Morals (1785); Critique of Judgement (1790).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 27. Mark Twain 1835 - 1910 • Born Samuel Langhorne Clemens. • Humorist and major author who developed a uniquely American writing style. • "All modern American literature comes from...Huckleberry Finn." - Ernest Hemingway • Selected Major Works: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1875); The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885); A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court (1889).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 28. Louis Armstrong 1901 - 1971 • American trumpeter and singer, born in New Orleans. • One of the most influential figures in jazz. • Recordings made in the 1920s under the names Hot five and Hot Seven are considered masterpieces that show his tremendous range and tone and include his famous scat singing (rhythmic wordless singing). • Famous Songs: "Hello Dolly!" (1963) and "What a Wonderful World" (1968).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 29. Bob Dylan 1941 - • American Singer and songwriter. • Born Robert Allen Zimmerman. • Influential folk-song writer of the early 1960s. • Early songs often protested the wrongs of society that were emblematic of the counter-culture movement. • Songs: "The Times They are A-Changin" (1963), "Like a Roling Stone" (1965), "Blowin in the Wind" (1962).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 30. Dalai Lama 1935 - • Leader of the Yellow Hat, the chief Buddhist sect of Tibet. • Has lived in exile since 1959 in response to Chinas control of Tibet. • Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1989) for his non-violent struggle to end Chinas rule of Tibet. • Has dedicated his life to campaigning peacefully for world peace and the liberation of oppressed people. • Selected Works: My Land and My People (1997); Freedom in Exile: The Autobiography of the Dalai Lama (1991).Image Source: Dalailama.com
  • 31. John Adams 1735 -1826 • 2nd president of the United States. • Born in Braintree (now Quincy), Mass. • Signer of Declaration of Independence. • Department of Navy and Marine Corps established under his presidency. • Wrote the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780. • Father of John Quincy Adams, 6th President ofImage Source: Credo Reference the United States.Database
  • 32. Homer Dates Unknown • Blind, Greek, oral poet who composed the first epic poems, The Iliad and The Odyssey (8th Century, BC), essentially defining the Greek people as a nation. • Details about his life and work are controversial and debate about the "Homeric question" still exists today.Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 33. Sitting Bull 1831 - 1890 • Medicine man and leader of the Teton Sioux Indians. • Encouraged Indians to fight to preserve their land. • Participated in the battle at Little Bighorn during which General George Custer was defeated and killed (1876).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 34. John Locke 1632 - 1704 • British moral and political philosopher who began the empiricist tradition. • Attempted to center philosophy on an analysis of the extent and capabilities of the human mind. • Major Works: Two Treatises (1690); Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 35. Jane Austen 1775 - 1817 • 19th century English writer. • Recognized for her shrewd observations of the human condition and society in her novels. • Masterfully crafted character, scene, and plot while introducing profound themes found in ordinary life. • Major Works: Sense and Sensibility (1811); Pride and Prejudice (1813); Emma (1816); Persuasion (1815).Image Source: Literaryhistory.com
  • 36. Leo Tolstoy 1828 - 1910 • 19th century Russian prose writer. • Dissident, religious thinker and social reformer. • Anna Karenina (1875- 77) and War and Peace (1869) are considered literary masterpieces.Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 37. Leonardo DaVinci 1452 - 1519 • Italian painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, costume and set designer, mathematician, musician, and inventor during the Italian Renaissance. • Considered the Father of the Modern Age with drawings of architecture, botany, physics, engineering, cartography, anatomy anticipating future discoveries such as flight, the effect of the moon on tides, and blood circulation. • His most famous paintings include The Virgin of the Rocks (1483- 85), the Mona Lisa (1503), and The Last Supper (1495-97).Image Source: CredoReference Database
  • 38. Anne Frank 1929 - 1945 • German teenager, who fled the Nazis with her family and lived in hiding in Amsterdam for two years. • Her diary documents her life, including the two years, she and 7 others hid in the attic rooms of her fathers office. • Died of typhus in Bergen- Belsen concentration camp, Germany. • The Diary of Anne Frank (1947) has been translated into fifty-five languages.Image Source: Thedigitaljournalist.org
  • 39. Emily Dickinson 1830 - 1886 • American poet. • Born, lived, and died in Amherst, Mass. • Her poetic style employs the common ballad meter while, at the same time, using rhythm and meter in a revolutionary way. • Her poetry expresses her defiance of literary and social authority. • All of her 1,775 poems are published in The Poems of Emily Dickinson (1955).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 40. Duke Ellington 1899 - 1974 • American jazz composer, prolific song writer, renowned bandleader, arranger, and pianist. • As bandleader at Harlems Cotton Club (1927-1931) became internationally recognized. • Won 11 Grammy Awards and Presidential Medal of Freedom (1970). • Selected Hits: "It Dont Mean A Thing If It Aint Got That Swing"; "Dont Get Around Much Anymore".Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 41. Pablo Picasso 1881 - 1973 • Spanish painter, sculptor, and graphic artist. • A revolutionary and prolific artist who established the basis for abstract art. • Establish a legacy of artistic "adventurism" through exploration of monochromatic color, Cubism, papires collé (paper collage), and Surrealism.Image Source: Pablopicasso.org
  • 42. René Descartes 1596 - 1650 • French Thinker, called "the father of modern philosophy". • Initiated the Rationalism movement and defined the basic problems of philosophy for at least a century. • Major Works: Rules for the Directions of the Mind (1629); The World (1634); Treatise on Man (1634); Discourse on Method (1637).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 43. Sir Isaac Newton 1642 - 1727 • English scientist and mathematician. • Made major contributions in mathematics and theoretical and experimental physics. • Achieved a synthesis of the work of his predecessors on the laws of motion, especially the law of universal gravitation.Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 44. Charles Darwin 1809 - 1882 • English naturalist. • Developed the theory of evolution that placed humans in the natural order of life amongst other creatures for the first time. • On the Origin of Species (1859) shaped the development of modern biology, ecology, embryology, morphology, and paleontology.Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 45. Marie Curie 1867 - 1934 • Polish born internationally renowned physicist and chemist. • First female professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. • Discovered the elements radium and polonium and launched the study of modern physics. • Made significant advancements in radiological technology during World War I. • Winner of Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Physics (1903 and 1911).Image Source: CredoReference Database
  • 46. Socrates 469 - 399 BC • Greek philosopher, teacher. • Famous for his view of philosophy as a pursuit proper and necessary to all intelligent men. • Developed the Socratic Method of reasoning that involves questions and answers designed to evoke truths.Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 47. Georgia O’Keeffe 1887 - 1986 • American Modernist painter. • "I simply paint what I see." (G. OKeeffe) • Known for her artistic form and paintings of nature: flowers, bleached skulls, Western terrain. • Famous works include Blue and Green Music (1919), Black Iris (1926), and From the Faraway Nearby (1934).Image Source: Metmuseum.org
  • 48. Alfred Hitchcock 1899 - 1980 • British filmmaker. • Master of suspense and director with distinctive film making style. • Nominated for five Oscars. • Famous Works: The Birds, Strangers on a Train, Vertigo, Notorious, Rear Window, Psycho, North by Northwest.Image Source: Credo Reference Database
  • 49. Stephen Sondheim 1930 - • 20th century lyricist and composer of American musicals. • One of the most important creative personalities in American musical theatre. • Selected Works: A Little Night Music (1973); Sweeney Todd (1977); Into The Woods (1987).Image Source: Broadwayworld.com
  • 50. Rachel Carson 1907 - 1964 • American biologist, environmentalist. • In 1929, had a Fellowship at Woods Hole Marine Biology Laboratory in Massachusetts. • Gathered empirical evidence showing correlation between DDT usage, insect resistance and thinning of avian eggshells. • Challenged scientific communities and petrochemical big business views of conquering nature. • Major Work: Silent Spring (1962).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 51. George Orwell 1903 - 1950 • 20th century British author. • Work is characterized by a sense of social conscience and distrust of political dictatorship. • Major Works: Animal Farm (1945); Nineteen Eighty- Four (1949).Image Source: Credo Reference Database
  • 52. Maya Lin 1959 - • American architect and artist. • Awarded the National Medal of Arts by President Obama in 2009. • Important Designs: Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C; Civil Rights Memorial in Montgomery, Alabama; Memorial at Ground Zero, New York City.Image Source: Prelectur.stanford.edu
  • 53. Jorge Luis Borges 1899 - 1986 • Argentine poet, critic, and short-story writer. • Widely hailed as the foremost contemporary Spanish- American writer. • Exponent of ultraísmo, a poetic movement that followed the decline of modernismo. • Selected Major Works: Ficciones (1962); Dreamtigers (tr.1964); Other Inquisitions (1964); In Praise of Darkness (tr.1972)Image Source: CredoReference Database
  • 54. Chinua Achebe 1930 - • Nigerian novelist, critic, poet and teacher. • One of Africas most acclaimed authors; considered by some to be the father of modern African literature. • Awarded Man Booker International Prize (2007). • Teacher at University of Nigeria (1976- 81) and Bard College (1990-present). • Selected Work: Things Fall Apart (1958), No Longer At Ease (1960), A Man of the People (1966), Beware Soul Brother (1971).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 55. James Joyce 1882 - 1941 • Irish Modernist novelist and poet. • Experimented with language, symbolism and use of narrative technique. • "His intellectualism and grasp of a wide range of philosophy, theology, and foreign languages enabled him to stretch the English language to its limits." (Biography in Context) • Selected works: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916); Ulysses (1922); Finnegans Wake (1939).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 56. George Washington 1732 - 1799 • 1st president of the United States. • Commander in chief of the American and French forces in the American Revolution. • Presided over Constitutional Convention that led to adoption of Constitution of the United States. • Famous for his Farewell Address (1796).Image Source: Credo ReferenceDatabase
  • 57. Bill Gates 1955 - • Chairman and co-founder, Microsoft Corporation. • Designed and developed innovative software for the personal computer (PC). • The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funds education initiatives, technology in schools, and provides college scholarships. • The Gates Foundation also funds worldwide health initiatives to provide vaccines to children, eradicate polio,Image Source: Credo Reference Database and prevent the spread of HIV/ AIDS.
  • 58. Frank Lloyd Wright 1867-1959 • American architect. • Known for designing many buildings that were in harmony with nature and were made of natural materials such as Falling Water in Pennsylvania. • Famous building designs: the Kaufman House (1936). Johnson Wax Company headquarters (1936-37, 1947- 50), Taliesin West (1938), the Usonian houses.Image source: Credo ReferenceDatbase
  • 59. SourcesAmerican National Biography. John Garrity and Mark C. Carnes, eds. New York: Oxford,1999.American National Biography.Biography in Context Database.Credo Reference Database.Dictionary of World Biography. Frank N. Magill, ed. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999.Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. Jack Salzman et al., eds. NewYork: MacMillan, 1996.Encyclopedia of Asian History. Anslie T. Embree, ed. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988.The Oxford Companion to Womens Writing in the United States. Cathy N. Davidson andLinda Wagner-Martin, eds. New York: Oxford, 1993.World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book, 1998.