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An LGBTIQ History Part 4

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An LGBTIQ History Part 4

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Part 4 of an extensive LGBTIQ history from before the common era to the present.

Part 4 of an extensive LGBTIQ history from before the common era to the present.

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An LGBTIQ History Part 4

  1. 1. RECOVERING THE PAST: A “WESTERN” LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, TRANSGENDER, INTERSEX & QUEER HISTORY: PART FOUR Warren J. Blumenfeld warrenblumenfeld@gmail.com
  2. 2. •Dr. Warren J. Blumenfeld is available to come to your campus or community organization. •Contact: warrenblumenfeld@gmail.com
  3. 3. IDENTITY “…the organization of the individual’s drives, abilities, beliefs, and history into a consistent image of self. It involves deliberate choices and decisions, particularly about work, values, ideology, and commitments to people and ideas.” Anita Woolfolk
  4. 4. ASCRIBED IDENTITIES • In large part, identity depends on who the world around us says we are through socialization. • Charles Horton Cooley: Other people are the mirror in which we see ourselves. • What Cooley refers to as the “Looking Glass Self.”
  5. 5. ERIC ERIKSON • Psychologist who asserted that there is a genetic, instinctual drive or quest for personal identity. • This propels the personality development of the individual. • Development is contingent on how we handle “identity crises” or “tasks” at various stages of life.
  6. 6. SOME SOCIAL IDENTITY CATEGORIES • Race • Ethnicity • Nationality • Tribe • Linguistic Background • Sex Assigned at Birth • Religion • Sexual Identity • Gender Identity & Expression • Socioeconomic Class • Age • Physical and Mental Abilities • Physical Size & Appearance
  7. 7. INTERSECTIONALITY OR INTERSECTIONALISM • Kimberlé Crenshaw • Distinguished Professor of Law, UCLA Law School • Definition: the study of intersections between forms or systems of oppression, domination, or discrimination, • And how these impact the lives of people by investigating multiple identities.
  8. 8. INTERSECTIONALITY OR INTERSECTIONALISM • Each person is composed of MULTIPLE identities that interconnect with each other. • Depending on time and location, some of these identities may seem more or less important to the individual. • Most of us have some identities accorded more social privilege. • Simultaneously having some identities accorded less social privilege.
  9. 9. The “Homophile” Movement
  10. 10. “HOMOPHILE” • Self-descriptive term • “Love of same” • Preferred over clinical, sex-focused term “homosexual.”
  11. 11. HARRY HAY • Grassroots Labor Union organizer • Member: Wobblies (Industrial Workers of the World) • Member U.S. Community Party, 1934-51 • Homosexuals must join with other minorities to defeat Capitalism • Root of oppression • Need for a Movement based on: • Ideology • Organizational Strategy • Leaders Harry Hay
  12. 12. INTERNATIONAL BACHELORS FRATERNAL ORDERS FOR PEACE AND SOCIAL DIGNITY • Harry Hay supported Henry Wallace • Progressive Party Presidential Candidate • Hay founded “International Bachelors Fraternal Order for Peace and Social Dignity” • a.k.a. “Bachelors Anonymous” • To “be respected for our difference, not our sameness to heterosexuals. Our organization would renegotiate the place of our minority into the majority.”
  13. 13. INTERNATIONAL BACHELORS FRATERNAL ORDERS FOR PEACE AND SOCIAL DIGNITY The group is described as “a service and welfare organization devoted to the protection and improvement of Society’s Androgynous Minority! The reasons for the group’s formation…: • Encroaching American Fascism…seeks to bend unorganized and unpopular minorities into isolated fragments…The Androgynous Minority was…stampeded into serving as hoodlums, stool pigeons…hangmen, before it was ruthlessly exterminated… Harry Hay
  14. 14. • Hay could not find others to join gay political organization • Not even his lover, Will Geer Harry Hay Will Geer, “Grandpa,” The Waltons
  15. 15. MATTACHINE SOCIETY • By 1950, Los Angeles, Hay found homosexual men interested in a group • The Mattachine Society • Les Societes Mattachines • 13th- 14th-century France & Spain • Theater group • Unmarried men • Cross dressed • Hay quit Communist Party, 1951, Harry Hay (upper left) (l-r) Konrad Stevens, Dale Jennings, Rudi Gernreich, Stan Witt, Bob Hull, Chuck Rowland, Paul Bernard
  16. 16. MISSION & PURPOSE “The Mattachine Society holds it possible and desirable that a highly ethical homosexual culture emerge, as a consequence of its work, paralleling the emerging cultures of our fellow-minorities—the Negro, Mexican, and Jewish Peoples. The Society believes homosexuals can lead well- adjusted, wholesome, and socially productive lives once ignorance and prejudice against them is successfully combated, and once homosexuals feel they have a dignified and useful role to play in society.” from Radically Gay: Gay Liberation in the Words of Its Founder, Harry Hay
  17. 17. DALE JENNINGS • A founding Mattachine Society member • 1952, public men’s room Westlake Park • Man walked up to him with hand on his crotch. • Jennings wasn’t interested, and left men’s room. • The man talked to Jennings and followed him home. • Jennings said “good-bye” and went inside, but the man invited himself inside. • The stranger continued to make sexual advances to Jennings in his home, but Jennings refused. “At last he grabbed my hand and tried to force it down the front of his trousers. I jumped up and away. Then there was the badge and he was snapping the handcuffs on with the remark, ‘Maybe you’ll talk better with my partner outside’.”
  18. 18. MATTACHINE SOCIETY • Mattachine Society: Subcommittee • Citizens Committee to Outlaw Entrapment • Lawyer, George Shibley took the case • Won: 11 out of 12 voted for acquittal, 1 did not • : Hung Jury George and wife Elenor
  19. 19. “OUT OF MANY, ONE” • The publicity over the trial sparked other Mattachine Society Chapters in U.S. • Jan. 1953, One, Inc. separately published first issue of One Magazine devoted to Dale Jennings story.
  20. 20. ONE • First U.S. pro-homosexual publication Sold openly on the streets • 1954, U.S. Postal Service declared “obscene” under Comstock Law • 1958, Roth v. United States U.S. Supreme Court • One, Inc. successful • Freedom of Speech
  21. 21. MATTACHINE SOCIETY • 1953 leadership struggle at chapter conference • Increasing anti-Communism climate in U.S. • Delegates votes to take more conservative direction • Original Members left the organization • Kenneth Burns took over as new head of Mattachine.
  22. 22. KENNETH BURNS • Homosexuals are like heterosexuals except for what they do in bed: • The Mattachine Society “will consist of aiding established and recognized scientists, clinics, research organizations and institutions…studying sex variation problems.”
  23. 23. THE MATTACHINE REVIEW
  24. 24. DAUGHTERS OF BILITIS • 1950s , San Francisco • Small social club for lesbians • 1955, Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon • Daughters of Bilitis
  25. 25. BILITIS “Song of Bilitis” Sappho’s LoverPierre de Louÿs French poet & writer
  26. 26. DAUGHTERS OF BILITIS • Purpose: • to educate “the variant” to “understand herself and make her adjustment to society” • Leading public discussions • “advocating a mode of behavior and dress acceptable to society” • hoped to shatter negative myths • Worked to eliminate prejudicial laws
  27. 27. THE LADDER • Other chapter formed around country • The Ladder
  28. 28. BILLY LEE TIPTON • Born Dorothy Lucille Tipton • American Jazz musician & bandleader • Lived as trans man 40 years
  29. 29. DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER • Mattachine, & Daughters of Bilitis membership small • Conservative times • 1953, Executive Order 10450 • Excluding people engaging in “sexual perversion” from obtaining government jobs
  30. 30. ALLEN GINSBERG • 1955 • Controversial book Howl • Openly explores homoerotic themes Peter Orlovsky & Allen Ginsberg
  31. 31. JAMES BALDWIN • Novelist • Issues of homophobia & racism • Defended homosexuality • Exposed heterosexual hostility
  32. 32. LESBIAN “PULP FICTION • New genre • Drug stores & train stations • Steamy stories of lesbian & bisexual love and adventure
  33. 33. VIN PARKER, SPRING FIRE “A story once held in whispers, now frankly, honestly written.”
  34. 34. ARTEMIS SMITH, THE THIRD SEX “To fool society, they married, for Joan loved women and Marc preferred men.” “Told with unblushing honesty. Here is a penetrating story of society’s greatest curse: homosexuality.”
  35. 35. ARTEMIS SMITH, THIS BED WE MADE “She loved her husband. Then her girl friend.”
  36. 36. ANN BANNON, ODD GIRL OUT They witnessed “a confession of love — as shocking and as honest — as SPRING FIRE.”
  37. 37. LESLEY EVANS, STRANGE ARE THE WAYS OF LOVE “She’d come to New York to find someone to love. When she met Mike, she thought he might be the one. Then she met Laura.”
  38. 38. ANN BANNON, BEEBO BRINKER “Lost, lonely, boyishly appealing—this is Beebo Brinker—who never really knew what she wanted – until she came to Greenwich Village and found the love that smoulders in the shadows of the twilight world.”
  39. 39. CHRISTINE JORGENSEN • 1952, Coming out from another shadow • MtF gender confirmation procedure • Copenhagen, Denmark • Dr. Joseph Angelo
  40. 40. FRANKLIN KAMENY • Political front • 1957, Franklin Kameny fired from Army post • Homosexual • First to appeal • Lost in court • Founded Mattachine, DC
  41. 41. STOCKELY CARMICHAEL (KWAME TURE) • Kameny followed African Americans • Stokely Carmichael in 1960s • Motto: “Black is Beautiful” & “Black Power” • Kameny: “Gay is Good” • Urged others to take more militant stance • Pushed for homosexual rights • Radical departure from • Pleas for tolerance
  42. 42. JOSÉ SARRIA • 1961, first “out” homosexual • Run for elective public office U.S. • Entertainer Black Cat Club • San Francisco City Supervisor • Did not win • 5600 Votes
  43. 43. JOSÉ SARRIA • Sarria nightly performed the opera Carmen • Black Cat Bar • Following, patrons linked arms singing • “God Save Us Nelly Queens” • To tune of “God Save the Queen”
  44. 44. SOCIETY FOR INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS • San Francisco, 1964 • SIR, Political Organization • Formed by Tavern Guild, bar owners of LGBT bars to protect against police harassment
  45. 45. HOMOPHILE DEMONSTRATION • Coalition organized by One, Inc. with • Daughters of Bilitis • Mattachine Society • White House, April 17, 1965 • Protest federal government policy • “…discrimination and hostility against its homosexual American citizens.” • Men: suits & ties • Women: dresses and heels
  46. 46. HOMOPHILE DEMONSTRATION • Coalition • Daughters of Bilitis • Mattachine Society • July 4, 1966 – 1969 • Philadelphia: Independence Hall • “Annual Reminder” • Forerunner: • Annual LGBT Marches & Parades
  47. 47. U.S. SUPREME COURT • Griswold v. Connecticut, 7-2 decision, 1965 • Connecticut’s anti-contraception law, passed in 1879 prohibited the use of “any drug, medicinal article or instrument for the purpose of preventing conception.” • The Constitution guarantees right of privacy. • Connecticut’s law unconstitutional.
  48. 48. NOW ON LESBIANS • Beginning of NOW • 1969, Lesbian board member Rita Mae Brown purged Rita Mae Brown
  49. 49. “THE LAVENDER MANACE” • NOW founder, Betty Friedan referred to lesbians as “the lavender menace” Betty Friedan Lesbians wearing “Lavender Menace” T-shirts
  50. 50. RECONCILIATION • 1970 • NOW annual convention • Resolution: • “The oppression of lesbians as a legitimate concern of feminism.” • Today, lesbians & bisexual women integral part of NOW.
  51. 51. THE HOMOSEXUALS • March 7, 1967, CBS Reports, 1 hour • Interview: • Gay men • one partially hid by potted palm • Psychiatrists • Legal experts • Cultural critics • Footage of police raid on gay bar • Franklin Kameny picketing Independence Hall • Dr. Charles Socarides, disease model
  52. 52. THE HOMOSEXUALS • Professor Albert Goldman: “…homosexuality is just one of a number of...things all tending toward the subversion, toward the final erosion, of our cultural values." • Gay author Gore Vidal: Homosexuality is as natural as heterosexuality” "The United States is living out some mad Protestant 19th century dream of human behavior....I think the so-called breaking of the moral fiber of this country is one of the healthiest things that's begun to happen.”
  53. 53. THE HOMOSEXUALS • Host Mike Wallace concluded: • “The dilemma of the homosexual: told by the medical profession he is sick; by the law that he's a criminal; shunned by employers; rejected by heterosexual society. Incapable of a fulfilling a relationship with a woman, or for that matter with a man. At the center of his life he remains anonymous. A displaced person. An outsider.”
  54. 54. CHINA “CULTURAL REVOLUTION” (1966-1976) • Period of persecution • Government considered homosexuality a social disgrace and form of mental illness. • Police regularly arrested LGBT people. • Charged with hooliganism or disturbing public order.
  55. 55. END OF 1960S • Film • “The Boys in the Band” • Reflects stereotypes, shame, and humor of homosexual (not “gay”) men “The only happy homosexual is a dead homosexual.”
  56. 56. Post “Stonewall”
  57. 57. TURNING AWAY FROM NON-VIOLENT DEMONSTRATIONS • October 16, 1967 • Anti-war protestors shut down military induction center, Oakland, California
  58. 58. Founded Oakland, California by Bobby Seale & Huey Newton, October 15, 1966
  59. 59. DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION • August 28, 1968 • Chicago The “Chicago 7”
  60. 60. BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA • 1968 • Anti-war Demonstration
  61. 61. THE YOUNG LORDS • New York City, 1969
  62. 62. GENE COMPTON’S CAFETERIA RIOTS • San Francisco, August 1966 • First collective violent resistance to oppression against LGBT people in U.S. • Police conducted raid, entered Compton’s, began physically harassing the clientele.
  63. 63. GENE COMPTON’S CAFETERIA RIOTS • People fought back hurling coffee at the officers, heaving cups, dishes, and trays around the cafeteria. • Police retreated outside as customers smashed windows. Over the course of the next night, people gathered to picket the cafeteria, which refused to allow trans people back inside.
  64. 64. THE ADVOCATE • The Advocate • Los Angeles gay newspaper • Begins Publication • September 1967 • Begun by landscape gardener, Steve Ginsberg and PRIDE group.
  65. 65. LGBT BOOKSTORES • Craig Rodwell, a key person in the later Stonewall Inn riots • Founded first “Gay Bookstore” • New York City, 1967 • Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop
  66. 66. THE STONEWALL INN RIOTS • June 28, 1969 • Stonewall Inn, 53 Christopher Street • Greenwich Village, NYC • Transgender people, lesbians, gays, bisexuals, People of Color, street people, students • Police Raid • Trumped-up charge: Selling alcohol without license
  67. 67. THE STONEWALL INN RIOTS  Harassed too long  One of first time challenging police  flinging bottles, rocks, bricks, trash cans, parking meters as battering rams  Five nights
  68. 68. MATTACHINE PLEA FOR CALM
  69. 69. GAY LIBERATION FRONT (GLF)
  70. 70. GAY LIBERATION FRONT • Young people • Groups in U.S. & other countries • Living rooms, church basements, storefronts • Explore new ways of living Martha Shelley, GLF Co-Founder
  71. 71. GLF COLLECTIVE, DC
  72. 72. GAY LIBERATION FRONT • Coalition Building
  73. 73. • Snake Pit raid, NYC - March 8, 1970 • Unlicensed bar, dancing and alcohol, a few blocks from Stonewall Inn. • All of the patrons taken to police station. • One patron, Alfred Diego Vinales, 23-years old, Argentinian national, expired visa. • At police station, terrified, threw himself from a window in effort to escape • Impaled on iron spiked fence below in five places on his body. • Fence had to be cut away. • He was taken to hospital. • He survived • Community organized protest march.
  74. 74. MAY DAY DEMONSTRATIONS • May 1, 1971, D.C. • Purpose: Shut down government • Protest Vietnam War • GLF Washington, D.C. organized “Gay May Day” • Thousands arrested
  75. 75. GAY ACTIVISTS ALLIANCE • Ideological differences • Another Group: GAA • Militant, non-violent • Single Issue • More structured • Logo: Greek Lambda, • Symbol for wavelength in quantum physics, suggesting dynamism
  76. 76. GAY ACTIVISTS ALLIANCE • From GAA Preamble, demanded: • Freedom for expression of our dignity and value as human beings through confrontation with and disarmament of all mechanisms which unjustly inhibit us: economic, social and political.
  77. 77. GLF & GAA WOMEN • Some women remained in GLF & GAA, • Many women considered their issues different from gay men • Also, they sometimes experienced sexism in GLF & GAA
  78. 78. RADICALESBIANS • Separated • Formed groups • Publications • Argued: • fight against sexism required all women to band together to challenge male privilege & heterosexual institutions.
  79. 79. LABRYS • Taken as a symbol of female power
  80. 80. SYLVIA RIVERA • Latina U.S.-American gay liberationist and transgender rights activist. • Sylvia (Ray) Rivera • Co-Founded STAR — Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries • Shelter , support to young people living on the street • She worked tirelessly for the most vulnerable members of the community: drag queens, homeless youth, LGBT people in prison and jail, and transgender people. • Rivera worked on issues of intersectionality: issues of poverty and discrimination faced by people of color,
  81. 81. MARCIA P. JOHNSON • Marcia P. Johnson, a prominent activist in the Stonewall Inn uprising in 1969, a founding member of the Gay Liberation Front, co-founded the radical activist group Street Transvestite Action Rebolutionaries (S.T.A.R.) alongside close friend Sylvia Rivera. • A popular figure in New York City’s art scene, Johnson modeled for Andy Warhol, and a stage performer with the drag performance troupe Hot Peaches. • Johnson was known as the "mayor of Christopher Street, and an AIDS activist from 1987-1992 with the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP).
  82. 82. RADICAL FAIRIES • Founder: Harry Hay • Offshoot of men’s GLF • Nationwide, grassroots movement • Alternative ways of living • Spiritual movement • Nurture special gay consciousness that society attempts to kill Harry Hay & John Burnside
  83. 83. PRIDE MARCHES • Christopher Street Liberation Day Umbrella Committee • New York City • First March • Sunday, June 28, 1970 • Sixth Avenue • June: • “Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, &Transgender Pride Month”
  84. 84. Christopher Street Liberation Day, NYC, 1971, DC Contingent
  85. 85. FEMINIST BOOKSTORES • 1970, First Feminist Bookstore • Amazon Bookstore Cooperative • (called later True Colors) • Minneapolis, Minnesota
  86. 86. LGBT COMMUNITY CENTERS • Morris Kight, an organizer of GLF Los Angeles • Founded first LGBT Community Center • 1971, Los Angeles
  87. 87. NATIONAL GAY STUDENT CENTER • 1971, Washington, DC • National organization • Founded by Warren J. Blumenfeld • Serving student campus organizations • Office of National Student Association • Became office of U.S. Student Association
  88. 88. INTERCHANGE
  89. 89. FIRST UNIVERSITY CAMPUS GROUPS • 1967, Student Homophile League • Columbia University in 1967 • Followed soon by • MIT, Stanford, Cornell • 1920s, Oberlin Lesbian Society • Oberlin College • Women’s group devoted to writing poetry
  90. 90. CAMPUSES DENIED RECOGNITION San Jose State University, Boston College, University of New Hampshire Virginia Commonwealth University, University of Southern California Texas A & M University , Tulane University , University of Maryland Florida State University, Colorado College, University of Tennessee University of Alabama, Sacramento State University , California Polytechnic, William Jewell College, University of Texas at Austin, University of Southern Mississippi, University of South Carolina, University of Washington, Austin Peay State University , Polk Community College , Pennsylvania State University, University of Oklahoma at Norman, University of Missouri at Columbia, Georgetown University , California State University Fullerton, College of the Sequoias, University of Kansas at Lawrence, West Virginia University, Fordham University
  91. 91. CALIFORNIA • Consensual Same-Sex Sexuality illegal until 1975
  92. 92. 1. …the effect of recognition by the college of the Gay Liberation Front could conceivably be to endorse or promote homosexual behavior, to attract homosexuals to the campus, and to expose minors to homosexual advocacy and practices, and 2. …belief that the proposed Front created too great a risk for students – a risk which might lead students to engage in illegal homosexual behavior. [1970]
  93. 93. PRECEDENT SETTING COURT CASE • GLF Students, Sacramento State University, • Sued Chancellor Glen Dunke • Sacramento County Superior Court • Won case on First Amendment rights • Freedom of Speech • Freedom of Association • “…to justify suppression of free speech, there must be reasonable grounds to fear that serious evil will result if free speech is practiced; there must be reasonable ground to believe that the danger apprehended is imminent.”
  94. 94. FIRST “OUT” ELECTED UNIVERSITY STUDENT PRESIDENT 1970, Jack Baker, University of Minnesota “PUT YOURSELF---in---JACK BAKER’S SHOES! IF YOU Were ELECTED MSA President Could YOU Forget The People Who Put YOU There?
  95. 95. “HOMOPHOBIA” 1972
  96. 96. DEADLY HATE CRIME – LGBT CLUB • Arson Fire, Molotov Cocktail, Kills 32 • June 24, 1973 • The UpStairs Lounge, New Orleans, LA
  97. 97. HATE CRIME – GAY CLUB • Shooting Outside Club, No Injuries • November 18, 1980 • Ramrod club, New York City, NY Shooter said gay men are agents of the devil, are stalking him and “trying to steal my soul just by looking at me.”
  98. 98. HATE CRIME – LESBIAN CLUB • Nail Bomb, 150 Inside, 5 Injured • February 21, 1997 • Other Side Lounge, Atlanta, GA
  99. 99. DEADLY HATE CRIME – LGBT CLUB • Bomb, 2 Killed, 81 Injured • April 30, 1999 • Admiral Duncan pub, London, England
  100. 100. DEADLY HATE CRIME – LGBT CLUB • Shooter Opened Fire, 1 Killed, 6 Wounded • September 22, 2000 • The Back Street Cafe, Roanoke, VA
  101. 101. HATE CRIME – LGBT CLUB • Arson Fire, Gasoline on Carpeted Stairway • No injuries • December 31, 2013 • Neighbours night club, Seattle, WA
  102. 102. DEADLY HATE CRIME – LGBT CLUB • Shooter with Semiautomatic Weapon & Hand Gun • 49 Killed, 53 Injured • June 12, 2016 • Pulse club, Latin Night, Orlando, FL
  103. 103. NATIONAL GAY & LESBIAN TASK FORCE • 1973, National Gay Task Force, New York City • Changed to National Gay and Lesbian Task Force • Washington, D.C. Founders at 1973 Press Conference
  104. 104. HUMAN RIGHTS CAMPAIGN • 1980 "The Human Rights Campaign envisions an America where LGBT people are ensured of their basic equal rights, and can be open, honest and safe at home, at work and in the community.”
  105. 105. PFLAG • 1972, parents and friends organizing • Support for themselves & loved ones • Today, international network
  106. 106. LGBT POLITICAL CLUBS • 1972, Jim Foster, San Francisco • Developed concept • LGBT political clubs • First, Alice B. Toklas Memorial Democratic Club • Foster, first out person address a national political convention, July 12, 1972, Democratic
  107. 107. LGBT POLITICAL CLUBS • Log Cabin Republications • National Office • Local Chapters
  108. 108. KATHY KOZACHENKO • First “Out” lesbian • 1974 elected to public office • Ann Arbor, Michigan city council.
  109. 109. ELAINE NOBLE • First “out” lesbian • 1974, Elected to statewide office • House of Representatives in Massachusetts
  110. 110. FRED KARGER • First “out” candidate of a major political party (Republican) in the U.S., 2012 • Though unsuccessful, he had experience working in several political campaigns, and as a senior consultant to the campaigns of Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush
  111. 111. U.S. CONGRESSIONAL PIONEERS Gerry Studds (D- MA) Barney Frank (D-MA) Tami Baldwin (D-WI)
  112. 112. FIRST OUT AMBASSADOR • James Hormel • Ambassador to Luxembourg, 1999 • Bill Clinton, Congressional Recess Appointment
  113. 113. LEONARD MATLOVICH • Air Force Technical Sergeant • Vietnam War Veteran • Race Relations Instructor • Purple Heart, Bronze Star • 1975, Came out to oppose Military Policy • Discharged
  114. 114. LEONARD MATLOVICH • 1978, won case • Could be reinstated • Cash settlement • Donated to LGBT Organizations • Died 1988 "Never Again, Never Forget – A Gay Vietnam Veteran – When I was in the military they gave me a medal for killing two men and a discharge for loving one."
  115. 115. “SAVE OUR CHILDREN” • Anita Bryant • Former Beauty Queen • 1977, Campaign • Overturned • LGBT Rights Ordinance • Dade County, Florida
  116. 116. “THE BRIGGS INITIATIVE” • 1978, California Proposition 6 • John Briggs, California State Legislature • Ban Lesbians & Gays & Supporters • Working in California public schools. • Failed • Dampened climate
  117. 117. RAINBOW FLAG • 1978 • Designed by S.F. Artist • Gilbert Baker • Symbol LGBT diversity • Originally 8 colors • Pink & Turquoise removed
  118. 118. ABC-TV “SOAP” 1977-1991 Billy Chrystal (“Jodie Dallas”)
  119. 119. HARVEY MILK • 1977, San Francisco • Harvey Milk, open gay man • Elected City Supervisor
  120. 120. MILK & MOSCONE MURDERED • November 27, 1978 • Harvey Milk & pro-gay Mayor George Moscone murdered
  121. 121. DAN WHITE • Former police officer • Former San Francisco City Supervisor,
  122. 122. VERDICT • White convicted • “Twinkie Defense” • Reduced charge: • Voluntary Manslaughter • 6 year sentence • Released 5 1/2 years • October 21, 1985 • Committed suicide May 21, 1979 “White Night Riots” San Francisco
  123. 123. HARVEY MILK HIGH SCHOOL • Founded by Hetrick-Martin Institute • 1985, NYC, small high school • At-risk non-heterosexual & non- gender conforming youth • Fully accredited 2002 • Run by NYC School system
  124. 124. FRICKE V. LYNCH, 1980 • Aaron Fricke • Prevented by school officials from taking male date, Paul Guilbert, to Senior Prom • Cumberland, Rhode Island • Successfully sued, U.S. District Court • Fricke and Guilbert attended prom.
  125. 125. JAMIE NABOZNY • Subjected to relentless antigay bullying • By other students, High School, Ashland, Wisconsin • Mock rape, urinated on, kicked • Required surgery • School officials: “he should expect it because he is gay” • Attempted suicide several times, • Dropped out • Ran away
  126. 126. NABOZNY V. PODLESNY, 1996 • Sued school • Trial court dismissed lawsuit • Lambda Legal took case to federal appeals court • Finding: public school could be held accountable for not stopping antigay abuse. • Back to trial & jury • Verdict: school officials liable for harm they caused • Settlement: about $1 million
  127. 127. VANCE V. SPENCER COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICT, 2000 • Parents of 6th grade girl filed suit again Kentucky school under Title IX, Kentucky’s Civil Rights Act for failing to intervene against harassment on basis of sex, sexual orientation, and national (German) origin. • Court found “deliberate indifference” by Spencer County Public School District claiming that “[w]here a school district has actual knowledge that its efforts to remediate are ineffective, and it continues to use those same methods to no avail, such district has failed to act reasonably in light of current circumstances.”
  128. 128. MCLAUGHLIN V. PULESKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT, 2003 • Thomas McLaughlin, an openly gay 14-year-old 9th grade student at Jacksonville Junior High School, Jacksonville, Arkansas. School officials prohibited him from discussing his identity with other students. Thomas McLaughlin
  129. 129. MCLAUGHLIN V. PULESKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT, 2003 • An assistant principal preached his religious beliefs at Thomas. • Forced him to read Bible. • Expelled him for two days for telling peers about this. • McLaughlin family sued in court for violating First Amendment Establishment Clause. • Also, prohibiting him from discussing his identity, a violation of First Amendment freedom of speech, and 14th Amendment Equal Protection Clause. • Court ordered school to pay $25,ooo for violation of rights.
  130. 130. FLORES V. MORGAN HILL UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT, 2004 • Six students charged Morgan Hill (CA) Unified School District ignoring or minimizing claims of harassment & abuse by others who perceived them as LGBT. Alana Flores with Lawyer, Kate Kendall, 2004
  131. 131. FLORES V. MORGAN HILL UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT, 2004 • Students plaintiffs: Alena Flores, Freddie Fuentes, Jeanette Dousharm, and three others. • 9th District Court of Appeals ruled unanimously for the students declaring if a school knows anti-gay harassment is occurring, it must take meaningful steps to end it and protect students. • School ordered to implement comprehensive training program for administrators, staff, and students to combat homophobic harassment.
  132. 132. GAY/STRAIGHT ALLIANCES • High Schools & Middle Schools • Support Groups • Raise visibility • Work to reduce harassment & violence
  133. 133. GLSEN • Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network • 1990, NYC, National Organization “GLSEN seeks to develop school climates where difference is valued for the positive contribution it makes to creating a more vibrant and diverse community. “
  134. 134. MELVIN BOOZER • 1980, Lesbian & Gay Caucus • Democratic Presidential Convention • Nominate for Vice-President • Melvin Boozer, Chair GAA – DC • Addressed Convention • Raised LGBT issues • Then declined nomination
  135. 135. SHARON KOWALSKI • 1983, car accident • Seriously injured • Partner, Karen Thompson • Battled 10 years • Guardianship • Kowalski’s parents • Denied contact 3 ½ years • Thompson eventually won Kowalski & Thompson
  136. 136. SIMON NKOLI Gay South African Anti-Apartheid and AIDS Activist
  137. 137. BISEXUAL MOVEMENT • There from the beginning of activism • 1970s organized • Rights of bisexuals
  138. 138. FIRST NATIONAL BISEXUAL CONFERENCE
  139. 139. BISEXUAL PUBLICATIONS
  140. 140. 1970S + PUBLICATIONS
  141. 141. TRANSGENDER MOVEMENT • Liberation Movement • Deconstructing Categories • Obliterating Binary Opposites: man/woman heterosexual/non-heterosexual, masculinity/femininity
  142. 142. LESLIE FEINBERG Historian, Writer, Activist
  143. 143. KATE BORNSTEIN Writer, Activist, Performance Artist
  144. 144. RIKI WILCHINS Writer, Founder, GenderPac
  145. 145. INTERSEX MOVEMENT • More that two sexes • Approximately 1 in 2000 people • Fighting for the rights of intersex people to make their own choices regarding their bodies and to increase awareness of intersex people.
  146. 146. INTERSEX MOVEMENT “‘Intersex’" is the word that describes those of us who, without voluntary medical interventions, possess bodies that doctors can't neatly classify as male or female. This includes people who have chromosomal sex other than XX (female) or XY (male), or primary or secondary sex characteristics that defy the medical definitions of male and female. Somehow, doctors get freaked out when a newborn baby is found to be intersexed, and often mutilate her or his genitals to conform them to the doctors' idea of what a normal baby should look like, even though intersex conditions usually do not threaten the health of the infant. Parents are often not given enough information or support to make an informed decision regarding their babies' care.” Emi Koyama, Intersex Initiative Portland
  147. 147. INTERSEX MOVEMENT Cheryl Chase Nthabiseng Mokoena Tony Briffa Morgan Carpenter Natasha Jiménez MataMiquel Missé
  148. 148. ASEXUAL ACTIVISTS MOVEMENT • Asexual activists organizing for the rights or asexual people and raising asexual visibility. David Jay (left - founder of the Asexual Awareness Week committee, and Sara Beth Brooks (right- founder of The Asexual Visibility and Education Network).
  149. 149. ANNE FAUSTO-STERLING
  150. 150. STATEWIDE LGBT LAWS 1. 1982 – Wisconsin 2. 1989 – Massachusetts 3. 1991 – Hawai’i 4. 1991 – Connecticut 5. 1992 – Vermont 6. 1993 – Minnesota 7. 1997 – New Hampshire 8. 1999 – Nevada 9. 2001 – Rhode Island 10. 2001 – Maryland 11. 2002 – New York 12. 2003 – New Mexico 13. 2003 – California 14. 2005 – Illinois 15. 2005 – D. C. 16. 2005 – Maine 17. 2006 – Washington 18. 2006 – New Jersey 19. 2007 – Iowa 20. 2007 – Oregon 21. 2007 – Colorado 22. 2009 – Delaware LGB LGBT
  151. 151. AIDS & Beyond
  152. 152. “EARLY YEARS” • Late 1970s • Unexplained maladies • Epidemic: Western Africa • 1980, U.S. at least fifty cases • Majority: gay men + “4H Club”: • Gay & Bisexual Men (Homosexuals) • Haitians • Intervenes Drug Users (Heroine Users) • People with Hemophilia Kaposi sarcoma
  153. 153. “GRID” • “Gay-related immune deficiency” • Activists protested • Changed: “Acquired immune deficiency syndrome” (AIDS) • Not restricted to “4H” communities
  154. 154. ROCK HUDSON
  155. 155. GOVERNMENT INTRANSIGENCE • Ronald Reagan, elected 1980 • 7 full years • Not raise issue
  156. 156. PATRICK BUCHANAN • Reagan’s Chief of Communications • AIDS does not deserve compassionate response “The poor homosexuals -- they have declared war upon nature, and now nature is extracting an awful retribution (AIDS)” (Los Angeles Times, 11/28/86).
  157. 157. WOMEN’S HEALTH CENTERS
  158. 158. LGBT HEALTH CENTERS
  159. 159. AIDS ACTIVISM • 1986, New York City • ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) • Network formed • “Silence = Death”
  160. 160. AIDS ACTIVISM Non-Violent Civil Disobedience
  161. 161. WALL STREET PROTEST Immediate release by FDA of life- saving drugs; abolishment of double- blind studies where some get new drugs and some don't; availability of these drugs at affordable prices; massive public education to stop the spread of AIDS; policy to prohibit discrimination in AIDS treatment, insurance, employment, housing; establishment of a coordinated, comprehensive, compassionate national policy on AIDS. NYC, March 24, 1987
  162. 162. CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL • ACT UP Protesting CDC Definition of AIDS that Excludes Women, 1987, Throughout the Country
  163. 163. FEDERAL FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION • Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 1988 • Shut down the FDA to push for expedited drug approval process and drug availability
  164. 164. “STOP THE CHURCH” • ACT UP Demonstration • New York City, Sunday Dec. 10, 1989 • St. Patrick’s Cathedral • To oppose the Archdiocese of New York’s stands against the use of condoms and stands against comprehensive sexuality education.
  165. 165. WHITE HOUSE DEMONSTRATION • ACT UP organized demonstration, 1992 • Response to inaction by Reagan and Bush Administrations • Deposit ashes of people who died from AIDS on White House lawn
  166. 166. WHITE HOUSE DEMONSTRATION • ACT UP organized demonstration, 1998 • Response to Bill Clinton reneging on election promise to make combatting AIDS a priority • Steve Michael, founder ACT UP D.C. died May 25, 1998 • Wayne Turner, his partner, conducted political funeral with open casket as Michael’s final White House protest June 4, 1998
  167. 167. CLEAN NEEDLE EXCHANGE • ACT UP program giving out clean syringes and bleach kits to disinfect old needles, exchange up to 20 needles per person a week to slow the transmission of HIV in drug using populations.
  168. 168. SENATOR JESSIE HELMS • 1987, sponsored bill • Prohibited federal funding for AIDS educational materials that “promote or encourage...homosexual sexual activity.”
  169. 169. HOLD POLITICIANS ACCOUNTABLE 9/1991, Subgroup of ACTUP-NY Covered conservative Senator Jesse Helm’s (R-NC) House Suburban Virginia, Mock Condom
  170. 170. EDUCATION • LGBT people leaders “Safer Sex” education • Advocates Comprehensive Sex Education in Schools
  171. 171. AIDS PHOBIA  Ryan White  Kokomo, Indiana  Hemophilia  HIV Infected, early 1980s  “Accused” of being gay  Posed no risk to classmates  Expelled from Middle School  Won court case returned to school  Died 1990
  172. 172. “I’M STILL STANDING”
  173. 173. THE NAMES PROJECT • Cleve Jones, San Francisco, Founder, 1987 • Patchwork Quilt commemorating people who died of HIV/AIDS
  174. 174. “QUEER” ACTIVISM • Odd or Unusual • Became anti-LGBT Epithet • Youth reclaimed term • Empowerment • Transgressive • Counter Status Quo
  175. 175. QUEER NATION • 1990 • Young people • Direct-action • Non-Violent network
  176. 176. CONFRONTATIONAL POLITICS
  177. 177. QUEER NATION MANIFESTO • http://www.qrd.org/qrd/misc/text/queers.read.this rd/misc/text/queers.read.this Queers Read This: I Hate Straights
  178. 178. SUPREME COURT DECISIONS • Michael Hardwick • Arrested • Consensual Sex • Home • Arrested: Georgia’s 1816 Anti-Sodomy Law • 1986, Bowers v. Hardwick • Ruled against Hardwick
  179. 179. SUPREME COURT DECISIONS • 1996, Romer v. Evans • Ruled Unconstitutional • Ballot Amendment 2 • Colorado state Constitution • Would have prevented recognizing homosexuals as protected class. Plaintiffs Romer v. Evans
  180. 180. Justice Anthony M. Kennedy Majority Opinion: “A state cannot so deem a class of persons a stranger to its laws…”
  181. 181. NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS • 1989, Jesse Helms’s sponsorship • Congress passed amendment • Restrict funding art deemed “homoerotic” or “religiously offensive”
  182. 182. ROBERT MAPPLETHORP
  183. 183. DESERT HEARTS
  184. 184. MAKING LOVE
  185. 185. PARIS IS BURNING
  186. 186. NATIONAL MARCHES ON WASHINGTON • 1979 • 1987 • 1993 • 2000
  187. 187. HOLIDAYS • National Day of Silence, April 1 • LGBT Pride Month, June • Bisexuality Day, September 23 • National LGBT History Month, October • National Coming Out Day/Week, October 11 • Transgender Day of Remembrance, November 20 • World AIDS Day, December 1 • National Gay/Straight Alliance Day, January 25
  188. 188. • Lavender Graduation annual ceremony on campuses to honor LGBTQIA and ally students to acknowledge their achievements and contributions to their colleges and universities. • Created by Dr. Ronni Sanlo, a Jewish Lesbian, who was denied the opportunity to attend the graduations of her birth children because of her sexual orientation. • Encouraged by the Dean of Students at the University of Michigan, Dr. Sanlo designed the first Lavender Graduation Ceremony in 1995 with 3 graduates.
  189. 189. BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA ON ATHEISM "The Boy Scouts of America maintains that no member can grow into the best kind of citizen without recognizing an obligation to God. In the first part of the Scout Oath or Promise the member declares, ‘On my honor I will do my best to do my duty to God and my country and to obey the Scout Law.’ The recognition of God as the ruling and leading power in the universe and the grateful acknowledgment of His favors and blessings are necessary to the best type of citizenship and are wholesome precepts in the education of the growing members."
  190. 190. BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA ON HOMOSEXUALITY "Boy Scouts of America believes that homosexual conduct is inconsistent with the obligations in the Scout Oath and Scout Law to be morally straight and clean in thought, word, and deed. The conduct of youth members must be in compliance with the Scout Oath and Law, and membership in Boy Scouts of America is contingent upon the willingness to accept Scouting’s values and beliefs. Most boys join Scouting when they are 10 or 11 years old. As they continue in the program, all Scouts are expected to take leadership positions. In the unlikely event that an older boy were to hold himself out as homosexual, he would not be able to continue in a youth leadership position."
  191. 191. JAMES DALE • Assistant Scoutmaster • Co-president Lesbian/Gay Student Alliance. • Rutgers University • Expelled from BSA
  192. 192. BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA V. DALE • 2000, Supreme Court • Boy Scouts of America • Have constitutional Rights • Freedom of Association
  193. 193. BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA • Votes to end ban on gay and bisexual scouts, June 2013 • Votes to end ban on LGBT scout leaders, July 2015 • Votes to end ban on trans scouts, January 2017
  194. 194. SODOMY LAWS • Laws against “unnatural” sex – not leading to procreation • Anything from oral and anal sex to bestiality • Used in modern times to arrest people engaged in same-sex behavior • Most states in U.S. had such laws • By 2002, 14 states retained these laws
  195. 195. SAME-SEX SEXUALITY ILLEGAL IN U.S. • Same Sex Sexuality Illegal in all States and in D.C. before 1962 when Illinois became first to decriminalize.
  196. 196. SAME-SEX SEXUALITY IN U.S. Same-sex sexuality had become legal in Illinois in 1962, Connecticut in 1971, Colorado and Oregon in 1972, Delaware and Hawaii in 1973, Massachusetts and Ohio in 1974, New Hampshire, New Mexico, and North Dakota in 1975, California, Maine, Washington, and West Virginia in 1976, Indiana, Iowa, South Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming in 1977, Nebraska in 1978, New Jersey in 1979, Alaska, New York, and Pennsylvania in 1980, Wyoming in 1983, Kentucky in 1992, Nevada and District of Columbia in 1993, Tennessee in 1996, Montana in 1997, Georgia and Rhode Island in 1998, Maryland and Missouri (Western District counties only) in 1999, Arizona and Minnesota in 2001, and Arkansas in 2002, remainder in 2003 with Supreme Court Decision, Lawrence v. Texas.
  197. 197. LAWRENCE V. TEXAS (2003) "The petitioners are entitled to respect for their private lives. The state cannot demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime.“ John Geddes Lawrence & Tyron Garner Supreme Court Overturned Sodomy Laws
  198. 198. • Prohibits anyone who "demonstrate(s) a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts" from serving in U.S. armed forces • Because "it would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion that are the essence of military capability.“ • “Compromise,” 1993, Bill Clinton Administration • Don’t come out, we won’t investigate • Estimated 13,000 discharged between 1993 & 2011.
  199. 199. PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON • President Bill Clinton impeached by U.S. House of Representatives, December 19, 1998, for lying under oath to a federal grand jury and for obstructing justice for having a sexual affair with unpaid intern, Monica Lewinsky.
  200. 200. ANITA HILL V. CLARENCE THOMAS • In 1991, Anita Hill, attorney and professor, accused U.S. Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas, who was her boss at the U.S. Department of Education and the Equal Employment Opportunity, of sexual harassment. Thomas was later confirmed as an Associate Justice on the Court.
  201. 201. • May 27, 2010, U.S. House of Representatives approved Murphy amendment of National Defense Authorization Act for 2001 • Repeal relevant sections of the law following study by U.S. Department of Defense completed • U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee recommended similar measure in Defense Authorization Act • U.S. Congress Overturned DADT, 2011. Colonel Greta Cammermeyer Lieutenant Daniel Choy
  202. 202. U.S. MILITARY LIFTS TRANS BAN • July 1, 2016, U.S. Department of Defense Secretary, Ash Carter, lifts transgender military ban allowing trans people to serve openly in the U.S. military. Sergeant Shane Ortega Captain Jennifer Peace
  203. 203. MARRIAGE FOR SAME-SEX COUPLES • Fighting for rights of marriage for same-sex couples • On par with marriage for different-sex couples • 1,313 legal benefits
  204. 204. NEW ENGLAND BISHOPS STATEMENT • Statement of 16 New England Catholic Bishops • Delivered by Cardinal Bernard Law, Boston Archdiocese, June 2000 • Following Vermont legislature recognizing civil unions for same-sex couples, April 2000. Former Boston Cardinal, Bernard Law
  205. 205. “The Legislature of the State of Vermont, by passing the Civil Unions Bill, has attacked centuries of cultural and religious esteem for marriage between a man and a woman and has prepared the way for an attack on the well-being of society itself….We, the Catholic Bishops…and all people of good will…recognize the sacredness of marriage and the family as ordered by God….[S]uch legislation will undermine cultural and religious respect for marriage and will inflict a wound upon society itself. The obligation of society and the state to support and strengthen marriage as the intimate union of a man and a woman does not infringe upon the civil rights of others. Rather, those seeking to redefine marriage for their own purposes are the ones who are trying to impose their values on the rest of the population.”
  206. 206. POPE FRANCIS ON TRANS* PEOPLE • Summer 2016 during his visit to Poland • Pope denounced trans* people as the “annihilation of man” • “Today, in schools they are teaching this to children – to children! – that everyone can choose their gender.” • He blamed what he called the “ideological colonizing” of gender backed by “very influential countries.”
  207. 207. CATHOLIC CHURCH ON TRANS* IDENTITIES • Alex Salinas • 21-year-old transman, Cadiz, Spain • Applied, Godparent, of nephew • Vatican denied request, 2015.
  208. 208. • Catholic Church: Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith: Transgender status "reveals in a public way an attitude opposite to the moral imperative of solving the problem of sexual identity according to the truth of one's own sexuality. Therefore it is evident that this person does not possess the requirement of leading a life according to the faith and in the position of godfather and is therefore unable to be admitted to the position of godfather or godmother."
  209. 209. PROPOSITION 8 • 2008, Proposition 8, California Constitutional Amendment, voters passed • Section 7.5 of the Declaration of Rights, • "only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California.”
  210. 210. PROPOSITION 8 • Bishops, California Catholic Conference released statement in support • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Mormons, gave support and large funding • First Presidency of the Church wrote letter • Read in each Mormon California congregation: Church members encouraged to "do all you can to support the proposed constitutional amendment by donating of your means and time.”
  211. 211. PROPOSITION 8 • July 2010 • U.S. District Court • Northern District, California • Judge Vaughn R. Walker • California’s Proposition 8 • Unconstitutional
  212. 212. INTERSECTIONALITY & COALITIONS Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Questioning, Intersex, Asexual people are members of all identities and communities, and join in coalition in many movement struggles.
  213. 213. INTERSECTIONALITY & COALITIONS
  214. 214. HOLLINGSWORTH V. PERRY • June 26, 2013 • U.S. Supreme Court ruled, 5-4 • California’s Pro-Proposition 8 Advocates • Do not have standing to appeal the District Court’s order. • Therefore, Proposition 8, Unconstitutional • Only Effects California
  215. 215. DEFENSE OF MARRIAGE ACT • 1996, Passed by Congress • Section 2. Powers reserved to the states: No State, territory, or possession of the United States, or Indian tribe, shall be required to give effect to any public act, record, or judicial proceeding of any other State, territory, possession, or tribe respecting a relationship between persons of the same sex that is treated as a marriage under the laws of such other State, territory, possession, or tribe, or a right or claim arising from such relationship.
  216. 216. DEFENSE OF MARRIAGE ACT • Section 3. Definition of 'marriage' and 'spouse': In determining the meaning of any Act of Congress, or of any ruling, regulation, or interpretation of the various administrative bureaus and agencies of the United States, the word 'marriage' means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word 'spouse' refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife.
  217. 217. DEFENSE OF MARRIAGE ACT • July 8, 2010, • Judge Joseph L. Tauro • U.S. District Court, Boston • Defense of Marriage Act violates the equal protection of Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment, U.S. Constitution. • Obama administration, stated would no longer enforce the Act, 2011.
  218. 218. EDITH WINDSOR & THEA SPYER • Edith Windsor, and spouse Thea Spyer, married in Canada 2007. State of New York recognized as valid. • Together 44 years. Spyer died, left Windsor everything she owned. The Internal Revenue service determined under DOMA, Windsor and Spyer not considered married for Federal estate tax purposes. • Therefore, Spyer's estate owed the government $363,053 in estate taxes. Windsor paid the tax, then sued for a refund. Case went to U.S. Supreme Court.
  219. 219. UNITED STATES V. WINDSOR • DOMA, Unconstitutional, U.S. Supreme Court • “The federal statute is invalid, for no legitimate purpose overcomes the purpose and effect to disparage and to injure those whom the State, by its marriage laws, sought to protect in personhood and dignity. By seeking to displace this protection and treating those persons as living in marriages less respected than others, the federal statute is in violation of the Fifth Amendment.” Justice Anthony Kennedy, Majority Opinion, 5-4, June 26, 2013
  220. 220. MARRIAGE FOR SAME-SEX COUPLES (UNTIL JUNE 25, 2015)
  221. 221. OBERGEFELL, ET AL V. HODGES, DIRECTOR, OHIO DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, ET AL Supreme Court, June 26, 2015, 5-4 Decision Legalizes Marriage for Same-Sex Couples Nationwide Kagan Ginsberg Breyer Sotomayor Kennedy
  222. 222. OBERGEFELL, ET AL V. HODGES, DIRECTOR, OHIO DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, ET AL "No union is more profound than marriage, for it embodies the highest ideals of love, fidelity, devotion, sacrifice and family. In forming a marital union, two people become something greater than they once were.” 'Equal dignity in the eyes of the law’ "Their hope is not to be condemned to live in loneliness, excluded from one of civilization's oldest institutions. They ask for equal dignity in the eyes of the law. The Constitution grants them that right."
  223. 223. OBERGEFELL, ET AL V. HODGES, DIRECTOR, OHIO DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, ET AL Jim Obergefell Jim Obergefell sued Ohio when it would not legally recognize his Maryland marriage to his husband John Arthur, his partner of 21 years who has since died in 2013.
  224. 224. U.S. INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE • August 30, 2013 • Declares same-sex couples may file joint income tax forms if legally married, • Even if they move to a state that does not allow marriage equality.
  225. 225. MANDATED LGBT HISTORY • California legislature passed, Gov. Jerry Brown signed into law, April 2011 • SB48, first in nation, requires state Board of Education & local school districts to adopt textbooks & other teaching materials in social studies courses to include contributions of LGBT people. The law implemented 2013-2014 school year.
  226. 226. HILLARY CLINTON & BARACK OBAMA • Historic Speech • United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland • International Human Rights Day • December 6, 2011 • Declared LGBT Rights are Human Rights • Also December 6, 2011 • President Barack Obama • Issued Memorandum directing all agencies to “promote and protect the human rights of LGBT persons.”
  227. 227. “It is a violation of human rights when people are beaten or killed because of their sexual orientation, or because they do not conform to cultural norms about how men and women should look or behave. It is a violation of human rights when governments declare it illegal to be gay, or allow those who harm gay people to go unpunished. Being gay is not a Western invention; it is a human reality. And protecting the human rights of all people, gay or straight, is not something that only Western governments do. To LGBT men and women worldwide: Wherever you live and whatever your circumstances…please know that you are not alone.” Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton
  228. 228. UNITED NATIONS • 2016, United Nations, Human Rights Council • Voted to establish 3-Year position to monitor violence and discrimination around the world based on sexual and gender identity. • Vitit Muntarbhorn of Thailand, international human rights expert, chosen.
  229. 229. GOV. RICK PERRY, PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN TV AD, “STRONG,” 2011 I’m not ashamed to admit that I’m a Christian, but you don’t need to be in the pew every Sunday to know there’s something wrong in this country when gays can serve openly in the military but our kids can’t openly celebrate Christmas or pray in school. As President, I’ll end Obama’s war on religion. And I’ll fight against liberal attacks on our religious heritage. Faith made America strong. It can make her strong again. I’m Rick Perry and I approve this message. Campaigning, Iowa State Fair, Aug. 2011
  230. 230. FIRST PRESIDENT TO “COME OUT” FOR MARRIAGE EQUALITY – MAY 9, 2012
  231. 231. STONEWALL INN NATIONAL MONUMENT 2016: President Barack Obama designated the historic Stonewall Inn in NYC as a National Monument under the National Park Service to honor the broader LGBT Equality Movement.
  232. 232. BOBBY MONTOYA • 7-year-old transgender child wanted to join Girl Scouts, Denver, Colorado, Fall 2011 • Troop leader initially denied admission to Bobby for having “boy parts” • Bobby’s mother, Felisha Archuleta, petitioned Scouts who changed initial position & released a statement: “Girl Scouts is an inclusive organization and we accept all girls in Kindergarten through 12th grade as members. If a child identifies as a girl and the child’s family presents her as a girl, Girl Scouts of Colorado welcomes her as a Girl Scout.”
  233. 233. MARY GONZALEZ • August 2012 • Elected to Texas House of Representatives • First elected politician to identify as Pansexual
  234. 234. RAISING CHILDREN • Scientifically-based research studies • Outcomes for children raised by lesbians or gay men • Neither better nor worse than for other children in • “…peer group relationships, self- esteem, behavioral difficulties, academic achievement, or warmth and quality of family relationships.” (Carpenter, “What happens to kids raised by gay parents?” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 10, 2007).
  235. 235. RAISING CHILDREN • Study, University of Southern California • Children with lesbian or gay parents show more empathy and appreciation for social diversity, and they are less confined by gender-role stereotypes. (Stacey & Biblarz, “How Does the Sexual Orientation of Parents Matter?,” American Sociological Review, 2001)
  236. 236. NATIONAL GAY/STRAIGHT ALLIANCE DAY JANUARY 25 (FIRST CELEBRATED, 2012) National Gay/Straight Alliance Day is meant to strengthen the bond between LGBT people and straight allies, and in particular recognize and honor gay-straight alliances (GSAs), which work to educate their peers to stop heterosexism and cissexism in schools and colleges. GSA Alliance Network
  237. 237. •(L-R) Nevada High School students: •Anthony Martinez and Jacob Lescenski. •Lescenski asked Martinez to their high school prom 2015.
  238. 238. THOMAS BEATIE • Trans Man • 2008 • Gave birth to baby boy
  239. 239. THE EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION • June 2012 • Employers cannot discriminate on the basis of Gender Identity • Violate Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964, which Prohibits sex discrimination
  240. 240. LGBT EMPLOYMENT President Obama signs Executive Order 11246, July 21, 2014 banning discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity by federal contractors. No “religious exemptions” allowed.
  241. 241. NORTH CAROLINA HOUSE BILL 2 • Passed and Signed by Governor Pat McCrory, 2016 • Limit everyone to enter only bathroom of gender on birth certificate – Discriminatory to Trans* people.
  242. 242. NORTH CAROLINA HOUSE BILL 2 • U.S. Attorney General Loretta Lynch, May 9, 2016: “Instead of turning away from our neighbors, our friends, our colleagues, let us instead learn from our history and avoid repeating the mistakes of our past. It was not so very long ago that states, including North Carolina, had signs above restrooms, water fountains, and on public accommodations keeping people out based upon a distinction without a difference. We have moved beyond those dark days, but not without pain and suffering and an ongoing fight to keep moving forward. Let us write a different story this time.”
  243. 243. TRANS PROTECTION POLICY • President Barack Obama Administration • Department of Justice, May 12, 2016 • Policy Directive: Every public school must permit trans students to use bathrooms and locker rooms consistent with their gender identity.
  244. 244. TRANS PROTECTION POLICY • President Donald J. Trump Administration • February, 2017 • Policy Directive: Revoked Obama policy, taking away order for schools to allow trans students to use bathrooms and locker rooms consistent with their gender identity.
  245. 245. TRUMP REINSTATES MILITARY BAN OF TRANS SERVICE MEMBERS • “After consideration with my Generals and military experts, please be advised that the United States Government will not accept or allow…… ….Transgender individuals to serve in any capacity in the U.S. military. Our military must be focused on decisive and overwhelming….. ….victory and cannot be burdened with the tremendous medical costs and disruption that transgender in the military would entail. Thank you.” Three-Tweet Series, July 25, 2017 • The courts prevented the ban from taking effect!
  246. 246. TRANS EMPLOYEES DENIED PROTECTIONS • In a memo sent from his “Department of Justice” to US attorneys, department heads, and federal agencies, Trump’s Attorney General, Jefferson Beauregard Sessions, reversed an Obama-era policy that protected trans employees from discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Session made clear that his department would no longer interpret gender protections in Title VII to include gender identity and expression.
  247. 247. WHITE HOUSE WEB SITE • Trump’s White House website removed reference to LGBT issues and policies from the previous Obama administration,
  248. 248. VICE PRESIDENT MIKE PENCE • Mike Pence opposed marriage equality and LGBTQ non-discrimination protections, and helped to pass the so-called “Religious Freedom Restoration” law when he was Governor of Indiana allowing businesses to discriminate against LGBTQ people. The state was forced to amend the law after experiencing serious political and financial push back.
  249. 249. U.S. REPRESENTATIVE MIKE PENCE • Pence in his first congressional campaign in 2000, argued for public funding of so- called “conversion therapy” for LGBTQ people. On his website at the time, his disdain for same-sex attractions and sexuality stands out: “Congress should support the reauthorization of the Ryan White Care Act only after completion of an audit to ensure that federal dollars were no longer being given to organizations that celebrate and encourage the types of behaviors that facilitate the spreading of the HIV virus. Resources should be directed toward those institutions which provide assistance to those seeking to change their sexual behavior.” •
  250. 250. TRUMP’S MISOGYNIST COMMENTS • During the presidential campaign of 2016, Donald Trump was caught in 2005 on a live microphone by Access Hollywood having a lewd conversation with Billy Bush. Trump talked about a failed attempt to seduce Nancy O’Dell, Bush’s co-host. “I moved on her, and I failed. I'll admit it. I did try and fuck her. She was married. And I moved on her very heavily. In fact, I took her out furniture shopping. She wanted to get some furniture. I said, ‘I'll show you where they have some nice furniture.’ I took her out furniture — I moved on her like a bitch. But I couldn't get there. And she was married. Then all of a sudden I see her, she's now got the big phony tits and everything. She's totally changed her look.” • Then talking about Adrianne Zucker, whom they were about to meet, Trump said: “I better use some Tic Tacs just in case I start kissing her. You know I'm automatically attracted to beautiful — I just start kissing them. It's like a magnet. Just kiss. I don't even wait. And when you're a star, they let you do it. You can do anything. Grab 'em by the pussy. You can do anything.”
  251. 251. #METOO MOVEMENT • The Me Too Movement gained strength and speed on social media in October 2017 to report and denounce sexual assault and harassment following sexual misconduct allegations against Hollywood film producer and executive Harvey Weinstein. • The phrase was coined in this context by social activist Tarana Burke, and popularized by actress Alyssa Milano to report and demonstrate against misogynistic behaviors.
  252. 252. 2017
  253. 253. DANICA ROEM • Democrat Danica Roem defeated incumbent Robert G. Marshall (R) on Nov. 7, 2017 and became Virginia’s first open transgender elected official and one of the nation’s first open transgender elected officials. • She won a seat in the Virginia House of Delegates. “This is about the people of the 13th District disregarding fear tactics, disregarding phobias . . . where we celebrate you because of who you are, not despite it.”
  254. 254. SUPREME COURT: LGBTQ PEOPLE PROTECT FROM EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION • June 15, 2020 • U.S. Supreme Court ruled, 7-3 • Extended protections against employment discrimination to LGBTQ people under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits workplace discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion or national origin. • The 6-3 decision was written by Justice Gorsuch on behalf of Chief Justice Roberts and Justices Ginsburg, Breyer, Sotomayor, and Kagan. • The decision results from three cases: Altitude Express Inc. v. Zarda (from the Second Circuit Court of Appeals), Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia (from the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals), and R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes Inc. v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (from the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals).
  255. 255. SUPREME COURT: PROTECT LGBTQ PEOPLE FROM EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION • “The answer is clear,” the court’s opinion, written by Associate Justice Neil Gorsuch, said. “An employer who fires an individual for being homosexual or transgender fires that person for traits or actions it would not have questioned in members of a different sex. Sex plays a necessary and undisguisable role in the decision, exactly what Title VII forbids.”
  256. 256. End of Part 3

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