Chapter 14 b enlgish civil war and american religious freedom
England and the Glorious Revolution
Causes Hostilities between different provinces of the Kingdom Unresolved religious animosities between Catholics and Protestants Struggles for power between competing branches of the aristocracy A fiscal system that could not keep pace with with the increasing costs of government
1590’s increasing government debt during final years of Elizabeth’s reign Antiquated taxation system in which nobility paid few taxes Expenses of war with Spain Widespread crop failures Rebellion in Ireland James Stuart (James VI of Scotland) and Elizabeth’s cousin named King 1603 Elizabeth did not finally settle the question of her successor until just before she died James I had little support at Court Rather than tax nobility or bargain over taxation in Parliament, James I taxed commerce Conflicts between Anglicans and Calvinist (Puritans) Plantation of Ulster 1603 and 1609: Transplantation of more than 8,000 Scottish Calvinists in Ulster (Northern Ireland) and took property and rights away from Roman Catholics
James I of England, DanielMatyns, 1621, NationalPortrait Gallery, London
Reigned from 1625 to 1649 Married Henrietta Maria daughter of Louis XIII of France (Roman Catholic) Renewed war with Spain in 1626 Favored Anglicans over Calvinists within Church of England Scots rebelled in 1640 Scottish army invades England demanding end of Charles’s Catholic Reforms Charles required to call Parliament Petition of Right (1628)
Charles I of England, Anthony van Dyck1636, Royal Collection
Defined “Rights and Liberties of Englishmen” No Englishman could be forced to provide the King a loan or pay a tax without an act of Parliament No person should be imprisoned or detained unless a cause is shown Soldiers cannot be housed in private homes without permission Summary military proceedings cannot be brought against citizens Collaboration between Houses of Commons and Lords against the King
Charles attempted to govern England without Parliament but was forced to recall Parliament when the Scots invaded in 1640 Calvinists in Parliament sided with Scots and stalemate lasted till 1642 Charles marched his own guards into Parliament intending to arrest Parliament’s leaders Charles was defeated
Charles recruited supporters from among the Aristocracy (Cavaliers) Merchants and Tradesmen who were mostly Calvinist supported Parliament. They were called Roundheads because they cut their hair English Civil War 1642-1646. Roundheads won Reformed church of England Oliver Cromwell led radical Protestants Restorationists favored restoring Charles to power and imposing a uniform Calvinist religion on England and Scotland
1648 Charles led another campaign to defeat the Roundheads but was forced to surrender Cromwell resolved to execute “Man of Blood” Ejected all moderates who opposed executing the English King from Parliament Rump Parliament tried Charles I for “treason against his subjects.” Charles beheaded on January 30, 1649
1649 House of Lords abolished England declared commonwealth Power of Parliament vs. Power of Military Oliver Cromwell dissolved Parliament in 1653 Ruled as “Lord Protector” according to Instrument of Government (in reality a written constitution) Office of Lord Protector was hereditary Offices of “Triers” and “Ejectors” decided who was “suitable” to be a parish minister or a schoolteacher. Divided England into 15 military districts governed by 15 Major Generals (called “Godly Governors”) answered only to Cromwell. Died in 1658 (malaria and kidney infection) 30 January 1661, body exhumed and he was posthumously executed His head was displayed on a pike until 1665
Oliver CromwellBy Samuel CooperNational PortraitGallery, London
Prohibition of public recreation on Sunday Closing of London’s theatres Public punishment for “sins” Women were primary targets of public punishment
Following Cromwell’s death in 1658, George Monck (Scottish Military Governor) restored Parliament. Parliament recognized Charles II (Son of Charles I) as king. Charles II was living in the court of his cousin Louis XIV of France. Power was exercised by “The King in Parliament” indicating England had become a Constitutional Monarchy. Power of king is derived through a written document that is agreed to by those who are governed. Who may have a say in how they are governed is continually debated.
ReligiousLiberty Letters Concerning Toleration (1689-1692) Earthly judges—particularly the government— cannot dependably evaluate the truth-claims of competing religious standpoints. Even if they could, enforcing a single “true religion” would not be possible because belief cannot be compelled by violence. Coercing religious uniformity leads to more social disorder than permitting diversity.
1789 Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, Fredericksburg, Virginia That the impious presumption of legislators and rulers, civil as well as ecclesiastical, who, being themselves but fallible and uninspired men have assumed dominion over the faith of others, setting up their own opinions and modes of thinking as the only true and infallible, and as such endeavouring to impose them on others, hath established and maintained false religions over the greatest part of the world and through all time; That to compel a man to furnish contributions of money for the propagation of opinions which he disbelieves is sinful and tyrannical; That our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions any more than our opinions in physics or geometry, That therefore the proscribing any citizen as unworthy the public confidence, by laying upon him an incapacity of being called to offices of trust and emolument, unless he profess or renounce this or that religious opinion, is depriving him injuriously of those privileges and advantages, to which, in common with his fellow citizens, he has a natural right,
That it tends only to corrupt the principles of that very Religion it is meant to encourage, by bribing with a monopoly of worldly honours and emoluments those who will externally profess and conform to it; That it is time enough for the rightful purposes of civil government, for its officers to interfere when principles break out into overt acts against peace and good order; And finally, that Truth is great, and will prevail if left to herself, that she is the proper and sufficient antagonist to error, and has nothing to fear from the conflict, unless by human interposition disarmed of her natural weapons free argument and debate, errors ceasing to be dangerous when it is permitted freely to contradict them: Be it enacted by General Assembly that no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief, but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of Religion, and that the same shall in no wise diminish, enlarge or affect their civil capacities. And though we well know that this Assembly elected by the people for the ordinary purposes of Legislation only, have no power to restrain the acts of succeeding Assemblies constituted with powers equal to our own, and that therefore to declare this act irrevocable would be of no effect in law; yet we are free to declare, and do declare that the rights hereby asserted, are of the natural rights of mankind, and that if any act shall be hereafter passed to repeal the present or to narrow its operation, such act will be an infringement of natural right.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.