Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden    Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants                   Project SOUND ...
Promoting Pollinators    C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake     CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve       Madrona Marsh Preserve        ...
Did you ever wonder why there are so many types of flowers?                                                 © Project SOUND
Sex and the single flower Pollination is the act of transferring pollen grains from the  male anther of a flower to the f...
Sometimes physicalagents transfer thepollenOnly about 20% of plants are wind pollinatedAnd <1% are water pollinated       ...
So usually the pollinators are living organisms who      carry the pollen from flower to flower                           ...
Why worry about living pollinators?                They play a key role in the normal                 functioning of our ...
 Pollinators are at risk:                                        Non-native pollinators are                             ...
Who are the living (biotic) pollinators?Most common       Bees – of all sizes                  Butterflies              ...
What can we do to promote our nativepollinators?                    Plant the plants they need                     for fo...
Native Plants can be likened to theatrical settings. In its nativehome each plant species is the backdrop and producer of ...
Why are some plants pollinator magnets?                                 © Project SOUND
Plant families & genera that provide nectar & pollen        for a wide range of native pollinators                        ...
Annual Phacelias are                                                  among our best general                              ...
* Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia                                    © Project SOUND
* Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia                                                                         Mojave...
Desert Bluebells – an annual desert wildflower                                                                            ...
Flowers are a bright,                                                              pure blue                              ...
 Soils:Plant Requirements                                                                                   Texture: any...
Annual ‘Pollenator Plants’                                                                             can be tucked in an...
Advantages of ‘Pollinator Plants’ for the           home garden     They are often showy & pretty; usually      lots of b...
Plants in the Mint family are among ourbest summer perennial ‘Pollinator Plants’                    Many small flowers – ...
* Nettle-leaf Giant Hyssop – Agastache urticifolia© 2004, Ben Legler                                            © Project ...
* Nettle-leaf Giant Hyssop – Agastache urticifolia                                                                        ...
The genus Agastache – you’re going to                   see it more often….                                               ...
Giant Hyssop: a herbaceous perennial                                             Size:                                   ...
Giant Hyssop has a long history as a                            medicinal plant                                           ...
Pretty, old-fashioned                       flowers aplenty                      Blooms:                         In summ...
Propagation via                                                                                    seed                   ...
Giant Hyssop is    Soils:                       Texture: just about any well- easy to grow           drained soil       ...
Giant Hyssop adds a pastel                                                                                         element...
Providing homes for native pollinators                       Native bees don’t build the wax or                        pa...
The Sunflower family                                    (Asteraceae) provides                                     importan...
* CA Broomsage – Lepidospartum squamatum  © 2003 BonTerra Consulting                                 © Project SOUND
* CA Broomsage – Lepidospartum squamatum                                                   Sierra Nevada Foothills, South...
Broomsages aren’t                                                                                     sages at all…       ...
California Broomsage can be a bit homely in the wild                                                         Size:       ...
Flowers are like                              Goldenbush or Goldenrod                                 Blooms: in fall, Au...
Important fall habitat plant                                                              Attracts a wide                ...
Broomsage takes a                                         Soils:  lot of abuse…                                          ...
Broomsage is right at                                                                                  home in the desert ...
Three simple things you can do to increase        pollinators in your garden                     provide a range of      ...
Most of us know that butterflies can be         important pollinators                                  © Project SOUND
Butterfly flowers have certain characteristics due to    their relationship with their butterfly pollinators              ...
Butterfly flowers have certain characteristics due to  their relationship with their butterfly pollinators                ...
Pollination syndromes: a partial answer to the     question ‘why all those types of flowers?’               Pollination s...
*Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei  © 2003 BonTerra Consulting                                           ©...
*Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei                                                                       ...
*Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei                              © 2005 BonTerra Consulting  Ssp. intermedi...
Yuccas are interesting succulents                                                                          Size:         ...
Sub-species are adapted                                                                             to local conditions   ...
Yucca are useful                                                                          Leaves:                        ...
Flowers are spectacular –                                                                                                 ...
Yucca seeds are                                                                             also distinctive              ...
Plant Requirements                         Soils:                                               Texture: not particular,...
Yuccas make unique                                                                                                        ...
The CA Yucca Moth - Tegeticula maculata                                 Very specialized (and old)                       ...
Life cycle of the Yucca Moth          Spring nights             Larva pupate, adults emerge from sand-              cove...
The yucca plant and moth are absolutely dependent upon oneanother for reproductive success, yet the terms of their contrac...
Not all pollinators work during the day….© Paul Mirocha 2004                                       © Project SOUND
Moths are very common – though most                   people don’t know this                                              ...
Moths & Butterflies are in the same Order                                                                 Moths and Butte...
Why are moths so successful?   All moths undergo complete metamorphosis. Thus, the typical moth    lives 2 ostensibly dis...
Moths, like butterflies, can be ‘picky eaters’                                       The caterpillars of most moths are h...
Moths, like butterflies, can be ‘picky eaters’                                Caterpillars, in turn, have evolved        ...
Caterpillars (of both butterflies & moths)              are vulnerable              The scents of wounded leaves and     ...
Watching moths and their caterpillars can            be great fun…                                   © Project SOUND
Snowberry Clearwing - Hemaris diffinis                                                               Life history: Adults...
Caterpillar is a                                                     ‘hornworm’                                           ...
Snowberry                                                   Clearwing is a mimic                                          ...
Creeping Snowberry - Symphoricarpos mollis                           http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/snowbml.htm           ...
Creeping Snowberry is a ‘Honeysuckle’                                                                              Size: ...
Flowers & berries:                                                                                understated             ...
Growing Creeping Snowberry is easy                                   Light: full sun to full shade –                     ...
Creeping Snowberry is versatile shrub                                                                                Wond...
The moths of dawn                                   and twilight                                While earliest fossil mot...
Moths have developed an array of strategies that enable them        to avoid becoming evening snacks for a bat. Many nigh...
Large, night-flying moths are among the     most fascinating of creatures           Though moths possess visual systems e...
Ceanothus Silk Moth - Hyalophora euryalus                                                            Life history: Female...
Ceanothus Silk Moth                                                             larva are fearsome!                       ...
Giant Moths are more common than most              people think                  Ceanothus Silkmoth flies                ...
Hawk or Hummingbird Moths - Order                 Lepidoptera, Family Sphingidae                                          ...
White-lined Sphinx moth, Hiles lineata                                                                           The most...
White-lined Sphinx Moth                                                                    Hiles lineata                  ...
Attracting White-lined Sphinx Moth                  to our gardens is quite easy                                          ...
* White (Tufted) Evening Primrose – Oenothera caespitosa                                             © Project SOUND
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
Promoting pollinators   2010
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Promoting pollinators 2010

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This lecture was given in July, 2010 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Promoting pollinators 2010

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Promoting Pollinators C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve July 3 & 6, 2010 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. Did you ever wonder why there are so many types of flowers? © Project SOUND
  4. 4. Sex and the single flower Pollination is the act of transferring pollen grains from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma. © Project SOUND
  5. 5. Sometimes physicalagents transfer thepollenOnly about 20% of plants are wind pollinatedAnd <1% are water pollinated http://www.annerondepierre.com/wisdomarchive8.htm © Project SOUND
  6. 6. So usually the pollinators are living organisms who carry the pollen from flower to flower © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Why worry about living pollinators?  They play a key role in the normal functioning of our local ecosystems  > 200,000 plant species worldwide depend on pollination  Imagine life without these plants  They are required for production of many of our food, medicinal and other crops  ~80% of the world’s crop plants depend on pollination – 150 crops in the U.S. alone  A combined annual $20+ billion industry in the U.S  Without them, our gardens would not sustain themselves © Project SOUND
  8. 8.  Pollinators are at risk:  Non-native pollinators are vulnerable to environmental factors - limited genetic variability [Example: Honeybee Colony Collapse Disorder]  Native pollinators are at risk due to habitat loss, climate change and use of pesticidesHoneybee Colony Collapse Disorder  Crop production world-wide is decreasing due to decreasing numbers of pollinators  So we all should be worried – and taking action  The third week of June is designated National Pollinators Week (The fourth annual National Pollinator Week was June 21-27, 2010)! © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Who are the living (biotic) pollinators?Most common  Bees – of all sizes  Butterflies  Moths  Flies & other fly-like insects  Beetles  Hummingbirds  Ants  BatsLeast common  Even small reptiles & mammals © Project SOUND
  10. 10. What can we do to promote our nativepollinators?  Plant the plants they need for food – at all stages of their lives.  Provide places where they can reproduce and provide for their young  Protect them by practicing Integrated Pest Management – limited use of pesticides  Teach others – by word and example – about the importance of native pollinators © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Native Plants can be likened to theatrical settings. In its nativehome each plant species is the backdrop and producer of an age-olddrama -- one with a well-rehearsed cast of actors, mostly insects.When an exotic plant or even a native but not locally indigenousspecies is moved to a new land or locale, the cast of actors is leftbehind, and there is no plot, no play, for an interested audience towitness and enjoy.Edward S. Rossfrom Butterfly Gardening, The Xerces Society and The Smithsonian © Project SOUND
  12. 12. Why are some plants pollinator magnets? © Project SOUND
  13. 13. Plant families & genera that provide nectar & pollen for a wide range of native pollinators  Polygonaceae – Buckwheat Family  Asteraceae – Sunflower family  Lamiaceae – Mint familyEriogonum - Buckwheat  Clematis – Virgin’s Bowers  Phacelia - Fiddlenecks © Project SOUND Grindelia - Gumplant
  14. 14. Annual Phacelias are among our best general nectar sources in spring  Many flowers per stalk  Produce lots of high-quality nectarLarge-flowered Phacelia - Phacelia grandiflora  Nectar is easy for many types of pollinators to get to  Open over a long period of time – open ‘up the stalk’  High flower to foliage ratio – lots of energy put into floral production  Easy to grow – under many conditions - dependable Tansey-leaf Phacelia – Phacelia tanecetifolia © Project SOUND
  15. 15. * Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia © Project SOUND
  16. 16. * Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia  Mojave Desert & N. and W. Sonoran Desert of California  Open dry, sandy or gravelly places below 4000 ft.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4518,4587,4601 © Project SOUNDGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  17. 17. Desert Bluebells – an annual desert wildflower  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2+ ft wide  Growth form:  Annual wildflower  Mounded to somewhat sprawling shape - attractive  Stems often red-purple in color  Foliage:  Rounded, coarsely-toothed leaves – somewhat like Heuchera  Whole plant hairy/sticky – may cause mild skin allergies, so wear gloves to handlehttp://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/1886/phacelia-campanularia-desertbells/ © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Flowers are a bright, pure blue  Blooms: in spring - usually Feb-Apr. in our area, but may be later  Flowers:  Small-medium size (to 1 inch)  Bell-shaped – typical for Phacelia http://www.hortmag.com/article/desertbluebells/  Bright, intense true blue – iridescent – difficult to photograph  Seeds:  In dry capsules  Relatively easy – no pre-treatment; just plant in place in fall/winter – germinate in spring  Serial sow for longer bloom season  Will reseed – but not extensively –http://www.delange.org/BlueBells/BlueBells.htm usually must re-seed © Project SOUND
  19. 19.  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: any well-drained; sandy & gravelly soils great  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun (best) to light shade  Water:  Winter/spring: need plenty of water during active growth  Summer: occasional deep water extends blooming; taper off as flowering ends  Fertilizer: fine in poor soils, OK with light fertilizer (like any of our annual wildflowers)  Other: seeds need bare soil/light gravel mulch to germinate; requirehttp://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Phacelia_campanularia_var._campanulari light as germination cue.a&printable=yes&printable=yes © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Annual ‘Pollenator Plants’ can be tucked in anywhere  Spilling out of pots & planters  Along garden paths – often short  Massed for spring color – pairhttp://back40feet.blogspot.com/2008/06/friday-night-botanical-garden.html with Tidy-tips or CA Poppy for a real zing!  Between native shrubs & sub- shrubs  Mixed with native desert grasses  In a rock or gravel garden  Fine in hot places © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Advantages of ‘Pollinator Plants’ for the home garden  They are often showy & pretty; usually lots of blooms and attractive scents (remember, they have to attract their pollinators)  They will increase pollination of food plants, leading to better production  They will attract wonderful insects to your garden – hours of entertainment for the whole family (or neighborhood)  They are ecologically sound – an important part of local ecosystems © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Plants in the Mint family are among ourbest summer perennial ‘Pollinator Plants’  Many small flowers – and usually long bloom period  High-quality nectar  Due to shape, available to long- tongued pollinators (butterflies, moths, some bees, hummingbirds) Salvia species © Project SOUND Stachys species
  23. 23. * Nettle-leaf Giant Hyssop – Agastache urticifolia© 2004, Ben Legler © Project SOUND
  24. 24. * Nettle-leaf Giant Hyssop – Agastache urticifolia  Foothills & lower mountain slopes of the west – British Columbia to CA – and east to CO (Rocky Mtns)  Locally in San Bernardino & Santa Barbara Mtns.  Common. Generally woodlands, but many habitats, including open slopeshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4745,4753,4755 Another common name is ‘Horsemint’, although several species are known by this name © Project SOUND http://lh4.ggpht.com/_6r6fAoZCPVw/R8gH16PwAnI/AAAAAAAAAKk/AkQPvdqlLzE/HPIM2277.JPG
  25. 25. The genus Agastache – you’re going to see it more often….  ~ 30 species of aromatic perennials in the Lamiaceae family.  Predominately found in dry hilly areas of the U.S., Mexico, Japan, and China.  Many have fragrant foliage, their scents ranging from anise to mint and citrus. The leaves are used to make herbal tea, for flavoring, and in medicines  The ornamental flower spikes make a pretty addition to salads.  Very suitable for herb gardens or mixed borders.  Are highly attractive to beneficial insects, including native pollinators.http://www.glenleagreenhouses.com/agastache.JPG © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Giant Hyssop: a herbaceous perennial  Size:  2-5 ft tall; shorter in full sun  2-5 ft wide, slightly spreading  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial; mounded with square stems  Dies back to ground in winter inJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database most climates – you may need to cut back (like other Mints)  Foliage:  Large, toothed leaves – like a large Mint  Scented – can be used for teas  Medium green – nice color  Roots: fibrous; woody in mature plants © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Giant Hyssop has a long history as a medicinal plant  As a soothing tea (leaves and dried flowers), especially for upset stomach or colds  Leaves are also used as a flavoring or in saladshttp://www.darcyfromtheforest.com/servlet/Categories?category=Herbal+Pr  Mashed leaves were appliedoducts%3AHydrosols to swollen areas  Even sold today as an herbal: therapeutic properties said to include immune system stimulation, fluid level balancing, respiratory system aid, and aiding skin problems. http://www.calflora.net/recentfieldtrips/easternsierras09.html © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Pretty, old-fashioned flowers aplenty  Blooms:  In summer, usually June-July in western L.A. Co.  Flowers:  On stalks above the foliage – typical of the Mints; open up along the stem over several weeks  Many tiny flowers – like miniature snapdragons  Color usually lavender-pink; may be white to a darker© 2004, Ben Legler violet  Delicately scented - sweet © Project SOUND
  29. 29. Propagation via seed  Let capsules dry to papery brown on the plant  Crush capsules – sift outhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Agastache_urticifolia_seeds.jpg small seeds  Sow in place in fall/winter – or give 1 month cold-moist treatment before planting in spring  Can also propagate from tip cuttings (summer) or division of young shoots (when about 4-6 inches tall) in spring – fairly easy to root http://nativeplants.wordpress.com/2010/03/24/growing-in-the-green-house/ © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Giant Hyssop is  Soils:  Texture: just about any well- easy to grow drained soil  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Will attract more pollinators in sunny spot  Water:  Winter: needs water; winter flooding is fine  Summer: likes a bit of summer water Zone 2 or 2-3 – good under a birdbath  Fertilizer: not picky – fine with organic mulch  Other: spread slowly via rhizomes © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Giant Hyssop adds a pastel element to the summer garden  In mixed perennial beds – even mixed with non-natives  In areas with overspray from lawns, near fountains  In the vegetable garden or home orchard – fine with morning sun  Nice addition to a woodland garden – plant in sunny patches  Great bee plant – produces a light, minty-flavored honey  One of the best additions to the butterfly garden © Project SOUNDhttp://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:qxNbk1BRhPMJ:forums.gardenweb.com/forums/load/salvia/msg021927179459.html+Agastache+urticifolia+propagation&cd=29&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
  32. 32. Providing homes for native pollinators  Native bees don’t build the wax or paper structures we associate with honey bees or wasps, but they do need places to nest, which vary depending on the species.  Wood-nesting bees are solitary, often making individual nests in beetle tunnels in standing dead trees.  Ground-nesting bees include solitaryLearn about how you species that construct nest tunnels under the ground.can construct orpromote native  Cavity-nesting social species—bumblepollinator homes in bees—make use of small spaces, such asyour garden abandoned rodent burrows, wherever they can find them. © Project SOUND
  33. 33. The Sunflower family (Asteraceae) provides important food in fall  Bloom in late summer/ fallGoldenbushes – Hazardia & Isocoma  Long bloom season  Nectar and pollen available to many types of pollinators (even ants, beetles)  Lots of small flowers © Project SOUND Baccharis species
  34. 34. * CA Broomsage – Lepidospartum squamatum © 2003 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND
  35. 35. * CA Broomsage – Lepidospartum squamatum  Sierra Nevada Foothills, South Coast Ranges and Deserts to Baja  Sandy or gravelly washes, stream ledges, coastal sage scrub, chaparral, joshua tree woodland  Common on alluvial fans draining the San Gabriel Mtns.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Lepidospartum+squamatum © Project SOUND
  36. 36. Broomsages aren’t sages at all…  Lepidospartum - a small genus of three species of flowering plant in the Sunflower family In SM mtns  Known commonly as broomsageshttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Lepidospartum_squamatum.htm or scalebrooms.  Native to the southwestern United States and far northern Mexico.  Tall, woody shrubs with stiff twiggy branches that resemble brooms.  Have thin, narrow, needlelike or scalelike leaves and bear yellow daisy flowers.http://www.insectnet.com/photos/flora1/fl_scalebroom.htm © Project SOUND
  37. 37. California Broomsage can be a bit homely in the wild  Size:  3-5 ft tall  3-5 ft wide  Growth form:  Woody sub-shrub; herbaceous stems from a woody base  Branches look like brooms (or like Ephedra, if you know that plant)  Foliage:  Tiny, scale-like leaves are well adapted to hot dry climate  Roots: deep; branched© 2001 Thomas M. Elder, M.D. © Project SOUND © 2009 Stanley Spencer
  38. 38. Flowers are like Goldenbush or Goldenrod  Blooms: in fall, Aug-Oct.  Flowers:  Small, in sunflower heads – no true ray flowers  Very similar to Goldenbush or Mock Heather (Ericameria)  Plants just covered with flowering heads – very showy in bloom  Seeds:  Small, with fluffy ‘hairs’  Eaten by seed-eating birds© 2004 Dr. Daniel L. Geiger © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Important fall habitat plant  Attracts a wide variety of Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera  Bees  Flies & beeflies  Butterflies & moths  Beetles  And many, manyhttp://www.fotolog.com/treebeard/archive?v=day&month=8&year=2004&day=29 more © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Broomsage takes a  Soils: lot of abuse…  Texture: well-drained  pH: any local including alkali  Light: full sun; takes heat  Water:  Winter: tolerates seasonal flooding  Summer: very drought tolerant; best Zone 1-2 or 2  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Remember, this is a rather plain plant most of the year – plant accordingly  Best if pruned back after flowering when looks scragglyhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/scalebroom.html © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Broomsage is right at home in the desert garden  Usually used in desert-themed gardens; but fine also for dry streambeds, http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/scalebr4.htm rock gardens  Excellent choice for fall color in hot, dry gardens (better than Goldenbushes)  Fine habitat plant – nectar, seeds, and cover © Project SOUNDhttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Lepidospartum_squamatum.htm
  42. 42. Three simple things you can do to increase pollinators in your garden  provide a range of locally native flowering plants that bloom throughout the growing season  create nest sites for native pollinators  avoid using pesticides © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Most of us know that butterflies can be important pollinators © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Butterfly flowers have certain characteristics due to their relationship with their butterfly pollinators  Butterflies are very active during the day and visit a variety of wildflowers. Butterflies are less efficient than bees at moving pollen between plants. Highly perched on their long thin legs, they do not pick up much pollen on their bodies and lack specialized structures for collecting it.Butterflies have goodvision but a weak  Butterflies probe for nectar,sense of smell. Unlike their flight fuel, and typically favor the flat, clusteredbees, butterflies can flowers that provide a landingsee red. pad and abundant rewards. © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Butterfly flowers have certain characteristics due to their relationship with their butterfly pollinators  Butterfly Flowers often are:  In clusters and provide landing platforms  Brightly colored (red, yellow, orange)  Open during the day  Ample nectar producers, with nectar deeply hidden  Nectar guides present  May be clusters of small flowers (goldenrods, Buckwheats) © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Pollination syndromes: a partial answer to the question ‘why all those types of flowers?’  Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth.  These traits include flower shape, size, colour, odor, reward type and amount, nectar composition, timing of flowering, etc.  For example, tubular red flowers with copious nectar often attract hummingbirds; foul smelling flowers attract carrion flies or beetles, etc.  Pollination syndromes are excellent examples of convergent evolution. © Project SOUND
  47. 47. *Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei © 2003 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND
  48. 48. *Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei  Coastal S. California across portions of the Mohave Desert southward into Mexico and northeast to Arizona.  Locally, ssp. intermedia occurs in the Santa Monica Mtns & ssp. parishii occurs along the coastal slopes of the San Gabriel & San Bernardino Mtns.  Ssp. intermedia - coastal sage scrub and chaparral, 0-2000 ft. Usually in areas transitional between maritime and continental influences. Ssp. parishii on foothill slopes http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/draw_jmap.pl?38c0235501http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242101658 © Project SOUND
  49. 49. *Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei © 2005 BonTerra Consulting Ssp. intermedia – coastal Ssp. parishii – transverse ranges © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Yuccas are interesting succulents  Size:  2-3 ft tall; flower stalk to 10-12 ft  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Perennial succulent – evergreen to almost so  Spp. intermedia forms clonal clumps  Foliage:  Foliage in basal rosette  Leaves green to blue-green, bayonet-like with strong, sharp spine on tips  Very decorative – long used in Glenn and Martha Vargas © California Academy of Sciences gardenshttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Yucca_whipplei.htm © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Sub-species are adapted to local conditions  Subspecies are distinguished by growth form (caespitose or solitary) and color, size, and shape of leaves and flowers.  The five subspecies also differ in phenological development (timing), fruit set, and growth habit. The life history of each subspecies is distinct  Local coastal ssp. intermedia (from Santa Monica mtns.) sends out pups before it dies, so it forms clonal clumpshttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Yucca_whipplei.htm © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Yucca are useful  Leaves:  Fibers used for rope, mats, sandals, baskets, nets  Roots:© 2009 Stanley Spencer  Source of saponins for soap  Flowers/Flowering stalk:  Young blossoms were eaten raw, roasted, or cooked with wild onions  Flowering stem - raw or cooked. Very young stalks used to make syrup  Seeds were ground & eatenhttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Yucca_whipplei.htm © Project SOUND
  53. 53. Flowers are spectacular – but rare  Each plant blooms only once, usually at 8-12 years age, before dying  Blooms: in spring, usually Apr-May in coastal areas, a bit later further inland; 2-7 week bloom period (shortest on dry sites)  Flowers:  On a stout flowering stem, 8- 12 ft tall  Color ranges from white (ssp. intermedia) to cream-colored (ssp. parishii)  Flowers bell-shaped, large (1+http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/chaparralyucca.html inch) unlike any others G.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  54. 54. Yucca seeds are also distinctive  Form inside a hard, leathery capsule – ripe when capsule becomes dry & starts to open J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences  Flat black seeds in densely- packed columns  Variable germination rates. To enhance:  Store in moist sand or perlite in refrigerator for several months  Pre-soak seeds for 24 hrs in warm waterSteve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: not particular, but usually well-drained in nature  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to light shade  Can take heat, reflected heat  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: looks best with occasional summer water (Zone 1-2 to 2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: older leaves may die; these can be removed to improve appearance.G.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Yuccas make unique specimen plants  In community-themed gardens: Coastal Sage Scrub, Chaparral, Desert  In rock gardens and other water-wise gardenshttp://www.baynatives.com/plants/Yucca-whipplei/  On dry hillsides, slopes  As a habitat plant:  The flowers, fruits used by a number of small birds and mammals; provides cover for small animals like lizards  Larval food for the California yucca moth (Tegeticula maculata)http://www.bennyskaktus.dk/images/others_pictures/Alexander_Heim/Yucca_whipplei_GR_Herbst_2008_383.jpg © Project SOUND
  57. 57. The CA Yucca Moth - Tegeticula maculata  Very specialized (and old) relationship between Tegeticula maculata and Hesperoyucca whippleii (likely 35-40 million years old)  Classic example of co-evolution:  Moth specialized for pollinating the yucca Northern type  Yucca provides food and environment for development of the larva  Phenotypic variation likely due to founder effect  Y. whippleii also hosts at least three species of non-pollinator "bogus yucca moths." http://plantecology.syr.edu/segraves/PDFs/Segraves%26Pellmyr01.pdfProject SOUND ©
  58. 58. Life cycle of the Yucca Moth  Spring nights  Larva pupate, adults emerge from sand- covered underground cocoon  Adults mate  Females collect pollen & form it into a pollen ball.  Female deposits eggs into stigma/ovary of a virgin flower  Pollen ball is then stuffed down the stigma of the virgin flower  Pollinate flowers  Provide food for the larva  Summer/early fall  Larva hatch & grow, eating pollen & seeds  Form a cocoon in the developing seed pod  Fall  Larva fall to ground for over-wintering © Project SOUND
  59. 59. The yucca plant and moth are absolutely dependent upon oneanother for reproductive success, yet the terms of their contractare usually complex.  First, the yucca plant must sacrifice a significant percentage of its seeds as food for the moth larvae, although limited feeding damage enhances seed germination. Only a few seeds are actually eaten  Second, if yucca moth females deposit too many eggs within a single flower, the plant can selectively abort that flower, effectively killing all larvae within it. Female moths leave a scent trace after pollination  Finally the yucca-moth mutualism (living together in such a way as to increase each other’s reproductive success) is vulnerable to exploitation by cheaters: other mothhttp://www.smmtc.org/plant_of_the_month_2006 species lay eggs within fertilized flowers but do not pollinate the flower.06_Yucca.htm Limited numbers and hybridization with pollinators © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Not all pollinators work during the day….© Paul Mirocha 2004 © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Moths are very common – though most people don’t know this  With over 142,000 described species worldwide, moths are a smashing evolutionary success, second among animals only to beetles in number of species.  Over 12,000 species, grouped into 65 families, are found in North America alone.  The moth fauna of the Southwest is particularly rich, as it includes the northern limit of distribution for many primarily Neotropical species.http://www.laspilitas.com/butterflylist_fil  Within the order Lepidoptera, moth specieses/Sphinx_moth-2.jpg outnumber butterflies and skippers nearly 15 to 1, with many species left to be described, especially among the numerous “microlepidopteran” families. © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Moths & Butterflies are in the same Order  Moths and Butterflies are very much alike, but there are several characteristics that Moths have that Butterflies dont:  Moths usually have less colorful wings.  Moths have furrier bodies.  The antennas of moths are feathery or threadlike.  Most moths fly at night. One exception to this rule is the Clearwing Hummingbird Moth.  Like Butterflies, Moths go through a metamorphosis where the young change completely before becoming adults. © Project SOUNDhttp://bscit.berkeley.edu/eme/lucidkeys/macromoths/Macromoth%20Key/Moths%20vs.%20butterflies.htm
  63. 63. Why are moths so successful? All moths undergo complete metamorphosis. Thus, the typical moth lives 2 ostensibly distinct lives; it is born as a terrestrial, vegetarian eating machine and is “reborn” as a winged creature of the night, hell-bent on completing its reproductive cycle. Yet this is not unusual for insects. Moths share a common body plan with other insects, including a head with large compound eyes and sensitive olfactory appendages (antennae). As in beetles, moths from different families vary widely in wing venation, shape and coloration, larval and adult feeding habits and behaviors, mating systems, population structures, thermal biology, and sizes, ranging from the minute clothes moth (Tineidae) with its ¼ to 3/8 inch (7-10 mm) wingspread, to the bat-sized hawkmoths (Sphingidae) and giant silkmoths (Saturniidae). Unlike beetles, the overwhelming majority of moth species are herbivorous as larvae and adults; there are far fewer examples of carnivores, fungivores, and detritivores among moth lineages. The complex relationships between moths and their host plants may hold keys to understanding why there are so many moths. © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Moths, like butterflies, can be ‘picky eaters’  The caterpillars of most moths are highly specialized - eat only one or a few plant species.  Unfortunately, moth caterpillars are infamous for the exceptional cases; the decimation of crop plants by extreme generalists such as the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni; Noctuidae), and the destruction of wool clothing and stored grains by moths in the family Tineidae.Humans owe a debt of  The repeated association of certain mothgratitude to moths and other and butterfly lineages with specific familiesinsects for such biochemicalplant wealth, which, quite of host plants worldwide suggests thatcoincidentally, provides us with these relationships are ancient.a pharmacopoeia of naturaldrugs, insecticides, flavors, and  A closer examination reveals complex suitesfragrances. of plant defenses, both chemical (terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolics, cyanide- generating compounds) and physical (hairs, spines, tough leaves, oozing resins, and latex), designed to keep caterpillars at bay. © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Moths, like butterflies, can be ‘picky eaters’  Caterpillars, in turn, have evolved numerous strategies to counteract these defenses, from detoxification or rapid excretion of plant toxins to avoidance of older, better defended leaves. Some specialized caterpillars co-opt the toxins from their host plants for their own defenses, and advertise their acquired distastefulness with bright, vivid colors.  There are additional, more subtle levels to the wars between caterpillars and their host plants. When caterpillars remain undaunted by chemical or physical deterrents, plants may use extrafloral nectaries or other foodstuffs to purchase the services of ants and wasps as caterpillar exterminators.It’s a war zone out there! © Project SOUND
  66. 66. Caterpillars (of both butterflies & moths) are vulnerable  The scents of wounded leaves and grass, the by- products of caterpillar foraging, are attractive to the parasitic wasps and flies  Caterpillars are also preyed upon by birds, wasps, and other visually foraging predators.  In order to survive, they defend themselves by being distasteful or covering themselves with stinging spines, or through bluff and deceit: they mimic leaves, twigs, galls, flower buds, bird droppings, and even snakes. © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Watching moths and their caterpillars can be great fun… © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Snowberry Clearwing - Hemaris diffinis  Life history: Adults fly swiftly during the day. Two broods, Mar-Aug.  Caterpillar hosts: Snowberry (Symphoricarpos), honeysuckle (Lonicera), dogbane (Apocynum)  Adult food: Nectar from flowers including milkweed, Monardella, some thistles, Snowberry, Honeysuckles, lantana, lilac, and others. Uses long proboscis, which is curledhttp://www.cirrusimage.com/Moths/Hemaris_diffinis_1.jpg under the head when not feeding, to siphon nectar.  Habitat: A wide variety of open habitats, streamsides, fields, gardens, and suburbs. http://www.butterfliesunlimited.net/Species/diffinis.htm © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Caterpillar is a ‘hornworm’  The caterpillar can be found in the leaf litter under host plants.  The caterpillar has yellow markings on both the base of the posterior black horn and across the head. There are also nine dark spiracles along each side.  It pupates in a black cocoon with a covering of leaves as its only protection.  When the moth emerges from the cocoon it has blue-black scales covering the wings. Throughout flight, these scales fall off the wings, leaving them transparent.http://bugguide.net/node/view/2639/bgimage © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Snowberry Clearwing is a mimic  Resembles a small hummingbird.  It is diurnal  It takes nectar while hovering.  The wingbeat is not as fast as the hummingbirds but the overall transparency of the wing makes it nearly invisible.  Mimics a bumblebee or wasp for protection.  The fuzzy yellow and black striped thorax and large eyes on the protruding head make this moth easy to mistake for a bee.  It also makes a buzzing sound as it flits from flower to flower, often hovering in mid-air.  With its 1 ¼ - 2 inch wingspan, it also gives the impression of being the size of a bee or wasp.http://home.centurytel.net/Arkcite/clrwing.htm © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Creeping Snowberry - Symphoricarpos mollis http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/snowbml.htm © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Creeping Snowberry is a ‘Honeysuckle’  Size:  2-4 ft high  2-6 ft wide  Winter deciduous – not long in S. Bay  Growth form: mounded or arching with trailing branches – good cover http://polyland.calpoly.edu/OVERVIEW/Archives/derome/woodlands.htmlLike others in the Honeysuckle family, for birds, small animalsyoung branches are attractive color  Slow-growing © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Flowers & berries: understated  Blooms: Mar-May/June  Flowers: small hanging, bell-shaped, pinkish- http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/snowbml.htm white flowers  Berries:  Summer  Snow-white  Fruit: edible but not great  Fruit-eating birds eat it: Mockingbirds, Finches, Towhees, etchttp://www.timetotrack.com/jay/snowbml3.htm © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Growing Creeping Snowberry is easy  Light: full sun to full shade – tolerates full sun near coast  Soils:  Any well-drained  Better in neutral to slightly acid pH: 5-7; can use pine- needle or bark mulches  Water: moderate to low summer water – quite adaptable  Nutrients: light fertilizerCan be pruned to the ground to (acid) for more blooms &encourage full new growth, more fruitsflowers & fruits © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Creeping Snowberry is versatile shrub  Wonderful for its ‘woodsy’ look  Good performer in shady parts of garden:  North-facing slopes and areas  Under trees (incl. oaks, pines)  Root characteristics bind soils – slopes  Nice with other shade-lovers: Ribes, Douglas Iris, Heucheras  Quite tolerant of urban/suburban conditions  As host plant for Snowberry Clearwing mothhttp://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/plants/magnoliophyta/magnoliophytina/magnoliopsida/caprifoliaceae/symphoricarpos/index.html © Project SOUND
  76. 76. The moths of dawn and twilight  While earliest fossil moths suggest that they shared the world with dinosaurs and flying reptiles, we probably can never know if or when moths or their ancestors abandoned daylight for a relatively predator-free night.  The main night predators of moths are the batsOenothera elata ssp. hookeriHooker’s Evening Primrose © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Moths have developed an array of strategies that enable them to avoid becoming evening snacks for a bat. Many night-flying moths have pairs of ears positioned on both sides of their abdomens that are tuned to exactly the sound frequencies emitted by hunting bats. These sensitive ears allow the moths to eavesdrop on the hunting cries of bats and to attempt to avoid them. Moths have two levels of escape behavior when they hear a bat:  If their bat-detecting ears inform them that a bat is on the way, but still distant, the moth turns away from the direction that the cries are coming from and leaves the area.  However, if the bat gets very close before it is detected, the moth suddenly executes a series of high-speed acrobatic maneuvers, usually ending in a dive for the ground or the shelter of bushes.  Some moths confuse bats by emitting sounds similar to those emitted by a bat closing in on prey. Some moths (which don’t have ‘bat-detecting ears’) are either too small or too large to be suitable bat prey Other moths, which forage at dusk & dawn, have colors and sounds which communicate ‘I’m Too Toxic to Eat’ © Project SOUND
  78. 78. Large, night-flying moths are among the most fascinating of creatures  Though moths possess visual systems especially adapted for night life, most species identification and sexual information in moths is communicated via air- borne chemical signals known as pheromones.  Moths and many other insects appear to have only a very limited chemical vocabulary, usually amounting to “Hey baby, I’m a fantastic guy,” and “OK, I’m ready to mate.”  In a large majority of the moth species so far studied, the female determines when mating will occur by releasing her sex-attractant pheromones.  In some moths, a male releases his own unique courtship pheromone and fans it over the female with his wings. The female moth uses the quantity or quality of the male’s pheromone to assess his “quality” as a potential mate. It is interesting that many of the chemical compounds identified from male pheromones are also common components of the scents of flowers. © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Ceanothus Silk Moth - Hyalophora euryalus  Life history: Females glue eggs singly or in clumps on leaves of the host plant. The eggs hatch in 9-14 days and the caterpillars eat leaves. The cocoon is spun in the outer part of the host plant and is attached to a twig by only one-half its length.  Wing span: 3.5 - 5 inches (8.9 - 12.7 cm).  Caterpillar hosts: A wide range of plants including buckbrush (Ceanothus), manzanitahttp://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/lepidopt/saturn/He/He.htm (Arctostaphylos), gooseberry (Ribes), willows (Salix), alder (Alnus), Laurel Sumac (Malosma laurina) and mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus betuloides)  Adult food: Adults do not feed.  Habitat: A wide variety of habitats including coastal areas, chaparral, and conifer forests. © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Ceanothus Silk Moth larva are fearsome!  Larva are voracious eaters!  Cocoon is a large oval structure, usually slightly pointed at one end.http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/lepidopt/saturn/He/He.htm © Project SOUND http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/lepidopt/saturn/He/He.htm
  81. 81. Giant Moths are more common than most people think  Ceanothus Silkmoth flies primarily late at night, its mating flight usually between 3:00 a.m. and dawn.  Since few people are awake at these hours, most giant moths are considered great rarities by the general public when, in fact, many of these moths, including the present species, may be locally abundant © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Hawk or Hummingbird Moths - Order Lepidoptera, Family Sphingidae  Moths in this family are easily identified because they are large and have a characteristic triangular wing shape.  Adults also have an unusually long Very long proboscis (tongue) proboscis that is used to suck nectar from long tube-shaped flowers.  The larvae of many species have a spine or horn at the back end and are called hornworms.http://www.arizonensis.org/sonoran/fieldguide/arthropoda/hyles_lineata.html © Project SOUND
  83. 83. White-lined Sphinx moth, Hiles lineata  The most common Sphingid in California. Especially common in desert areas.  Adults have a whitish stripe running the length of the forewing.  During years of heavy winter rains, when there is a wide variety of annual plants that are food for the larvae, this sporadic species may be very common and can occasionally http://people.uleth.ca/~dan.johnson/dj_IRF.htm occur in tremendous numbers.  Adult moths feed on nectar while hovering around blossoms. Because of this behavior, they have often been mistaken for hummingbirds. Adults fly only in late spring and summer.  White lined sphinx moths and other moths in this family are especially important pollinators of desert plants having large white, fragrant flowers. Two favorites are Jimson weed (Datura meteloides) and primrose (Oenothera sp.) which open their flowers at sunset.http://fireflyforest.net/firefly/2006/03/30/white-lined-sphinx-moths/ © Project SOUND
  84. 84. White-lined Sphinx Moth Hiles lineata  Larvae brightly colored and conspicuous, varying in color from yellow to black and sporting yellow lines down the length of the body.http://www.arizonensis.org/sonoran/fieldguide/arthropoda/hyles_lineata.html  From April to June can be seen feeding on low growing foliage of desert dandelion (Malacothrix), evening primrose (Oenothera sp.), buckwheat (Eriogonum), sand verbena (Abronia) and wishbone bush or wild four oclock (Mirabilis bigelovii).  Depending on the temperature, thesehttp://people.uleth.ca/~dan.johnson/dj_IRF.htm active crawlers move from the food plants to the ground freely and are easily spotted.  When populations are especially large, the caterpillars can move in great hordes, devouring entire plantshttp://www.silkmoths.bizland.com/hlinelin.htm © Project SOUND
  85. 85. Attracting White-lined Sphinx Moth to our gardens is quite easy  Adult food (nectar)  Salvia spp. - Sages  Oenothera spp – Four O’Clocks  Mirabilis multiflora  Sacred datura (Datura wrightii),  Other annual wildflowers  Larval food sources  California fuchsias  Oenothera species (O. hookeri; O. caespitosa)  Very wide host range that includes native Buckwheats, Sand Verbena and non-native portulaca, apple, grape, and others. © Project SOUNDhttp://www.arizonensis.org/sonoran/fieldguide/arthropoda/hyles_lineata.html
  86. 86. * White (Tufted) Evening Primrose – Oenothera caespitosa © Project SOUND

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