Pests 2009


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This lecture was given in March, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Pests 2009

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Pests, Pests, Pests C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve March 7 & 10, 2009 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. What is a pest?  An organism which has characteristics that are regarded by humans as injurious or unwanted  Eats a desired plant  Causes disease in a desired plant  Carries disease to a desired plant  May be:  A vertebrate (deer; rabbit)  An insect/mollusk (snail)  A bacterium, virus or fungus  A pest in one setting may be beneficial in another; like a weed, a pest may be an organism ‘in the wrong place’ © Project SOUND
  4. 4. Predator/prey relationships in nature © Project SOUND
  5. 5. In nature, plants fight back…  Native plants evolved with insects, other animals, microorganisms – ecosystems in balance  Some produce noxious chemicals or physical barriers to ‘ward off’ natural pests  Some attract ‘helper species’ – insects & even birds  Some simply tolerate normal levels of predation © Project SOUND
  6. 6. A recipe for disaster  Plant species not native to area; often ‘cultivars’  Planted in mono-culture  Heavily watered & fertilized – ‘plants on steroids’  Using overhead watering during warm summer days  Globalization of pests © Project SOUND
  7. 7. The ‘Old California Garden’ requires an arsenal of ammunition… Issues:  Improper use  Overuse  Storage © Project SOUND
  8. 8. And the consequences are not pretty…  Human/animal health risks  Contaminated soils & water (including street water runoff)  High cost of pesticides  Beneficial species killed  Effects on animals up the food chain  Pesticide resistance © Project SOUND
  9. 9. The ‘New California Garden’ is based on a better strategy Plant the plants that are ‘programmed’ to be successful in your area – these will:  Be less stressed – and therefore healthier  Be prepared to ‘fight’ the natural enemies  Attract natural ‘helpers’ in their fight against pests Plant a variety of species – more like a natural ecosystem (not a monoculture) Give the plants the appropriate gardening care:  Appropriate levels of water  Appropriate (often little to no) fertilizer  Protection from other stress & injury Have an appropriate strategy to deal with true pests © Project SOUND
  10. 10. Many of us have found that just including morenative species improves the ‘pest problems’ in the entire garden © Project SOUND
  11. 11. But you need to have a sound strategy to dealing with certain pests…even on native plants And that’s where the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) provides useful guidelines © Project SOUND
  12. 12. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) "Optimum combination of control methods including biological, cultural, mechanical, physical and/or chemical controls to reduce pest populations to an economical acceptable level with as few harmful effects as possible on the environment and nontarget organisms." R.L. Hix,CA Agric. Magazine, 55:4 (2001) © Project SOUND
  13. 13. What is Integrated Pest Management? IPM programs use current, comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment. This information, in combination with available pest control methods, is used to manage pest damage by the most economical means, and with the least possible hazard to people, property, and the environment.’ © Project SOUND
  14. 14. The IPM Pyramid – ‘first do no harm’  Use the least invasive – and often most effective - means first:  Prevention – cultural practices  Mechanical Controls  Naturally occurring biological controls (native predators)  Consider using non-native predators  Use chemical controls sparingly, as a last resort:  Naturally occurring elements  Biologics – chemicals made by Non-native predators and chemical plants that are toxic to controls have the important drawback of pests/diseases non-specificity – they kill the good pests  Non-biologic pesticides: with the bad.  Insecticides  Fungicides  Miticides © Project SOUND
  15. 15. Some of the benefits of an integratedapproach are as follows: Promotes natural controls; ‘ecosystem approach’. Protects human health. Minimizes negative impacts to non-target organisms. Enhances the general environment. Is most likely to produce long-term, beneficial results. Often is easily and efficiently implemented. Cost-effective in the short and long-term. © Project SOUND
  16. 16. An IPM system is designed around six basic components1. Set Action Thresholds  Before taking any pest control action, IPM first sets an action threshold, a point at which pest populations or environmental conditions indicate that pest control action must be taken. Sighting a single pest does not always mean control is needed. The level at which pests will either become an economic threat is critical to guide future pest control decisions.2. Monitor and Identify Pests  Not all insects, weeds, and other living organisms require control. Many organisms are innocuous, and some are even beneficial. IPM programs work to monitor for pests and identify them accurately, so that appropriate control decisions can be made in conjunction with action thresholds. This monitoring and identification removes the possibility that pesticides will be used when they are not really needed or that the wrong kind of pesticide will be used.3. Preventive Cultural Practices  As a first line of pest control, IPM programs work to manage the crop, lawn, or indoor space to prevent pests from becoming a threat. These control methods can be very effective and cost- efficient and present little to no risk to people or the environment. © Project SOUND
  17. 17. An IPM system is designed around six basic components4. Mechanical controls: Should a pest reach an unacceptable level, mechanical methods are the first options to consider. They include simple hand-picking, erecting insect barriers, using traps, vacuuming, and tillage to disrupt breeding.5. Biological controls: Natural biological processes and materials can provide control, with minimal environmental impact, and often at low cost. The main focus here is on promoting beneficial insects that eat target pests. Biological insecticides, derived from naturally occurring microorganisms (e.g.: Bt, entomopathogenic fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes), also fit in this category.6. Chemical controls: Synthetic pesticides are generally only used as required and often only at specific times in a pests life cycle. Many of the newer pesticide groups are derived from plants or naturally occurring substances (e.g.: nicotine, pyrethrum and insect juvenile hormone analogues), and further biology-based or ecological techniques are under evaluation. © Project SOUND
  18. 18. IPM plan for your garden – a work in progress  Requires observation & knowledge – specific for your garden  Will vary somewhat with:  Yearly weather conditions  Maturity of plants  New plants  Will be modified based on your previous experiences  Suggestion: keep a garden notebook/journal © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Many resources to help you  Books – check out your local library, or add to your own  On-line resources  County Master Gardeners  Other Governmental resources: (see list)  U.S.  State & Local © Project SOUND
  20. 20. University of CaliforniaStatewide IPM Project (UCIPM)  Goals of the IPM Project are to:  reduce the pesticide load in the environment,  increase the predictability and thereby the effectiveness of pest control techniques,  develop pest control programs that are economically, environmentally and socially acceptable,  marshal agencies and disciplines into integrated pest management program, and  increase the utilization of natural pest controls.  Educational component:  Print & on-line resources  UC IPM Pesticide Education Program © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Set Acceptable Pest Levels  Find out what pests/ diseases occur in your garden – observation  Learn more about the pests, their effects  What are their life-stages  What seasons/conditions are they associated with  What plant species are susceptible  Learn how to determine when action should be taken © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Monitor & Identify Pests  Base monitoring on garden conditions: temperature & humidity  Look for pests on vulnerable tissues  Shake out the pests, then view with magnifying glass  Decide if action is needed  Suggestion: keep a log of dates, conditions in your garden journal © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Prevention/Cultural Practices are the first line of defense against pests Cultural practices: just good old garden management practices  Providing alternate hosts for pests  No monoculture  Preventing over-wintering  Sanitation  Proper water & nutrient management  Correct watering  Physical barriers  Pruning to improve air circulation  Weeding  Mulching © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Criteria for selecting a treatment strategy are:1. Least hazardous to human health2. Least disruptive of natural controls3. Least toxic to non-target organisms4. Most likely to be permanent5. Easiest to carry out safely and effectively6. Most cost-effective7. Most site-appropriate © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Pest challenges vary with the season….  Warmer weather & new growth – spring/early summer  Sucking insects  Chewing insects  Gall & Blister Mites  Warm weather – summer/fall  Foliage fungal diseases  Borers (insects)  Root/stem rots (fungal/bacterial)  Cool, wet weather – winter/early spring  Mollusks  Anthracnose (fungal) © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Sticky (Bush) Monkey Flower - Mimulus/Diplacus aurantiacusScarlet Monkeyflower Musk Monkeyflower © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Sucking insects  Definition: Insects that insert their mouthparts into the sugary phloem (conducting tissue) & suck the ‘sap’  Examples:  Aphids  Mealy Bugs  Whiteflies  Psyllids  Scales  Leafhoppers  Damage:  Often confined to the young, succulent growth (leaves, shoot-tips and buds  Tissues appear puckered or crinkled  Monitoring: watch for:  Signs of the insects themselves –check particularly undersides of leaves, other protected areas  Ants – tend to be ‘nurse’ species  Abnormal plant growth © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Any perennial or shrub/tree with freshnew foliage can attract sucking insects © Project SOUND
  29. 29. Aphids: where there’s one there are many…..  Often called plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects.  They range in color from black to green to yellow.  Their numbers may greatly increase in a short time and crowding stimulates the production of winged forms.  They may cover the entire surface of a leaf or stem.  They (and other sucking pests) can be vectors of plant viruses (crop & ornamental plants).  They can also weaken plants, making them susceptible to other diseases © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Aphids – Ugly but not usually murderers...  Preventive cultural practices:  Control ants  Control weeds – http://pmo.umext.maine. edu/factsht/Suck.htm particularly Brassica species  Mechanical Controls:  Blast off with a stream of water  Use sticky strips around trunks to manage ants  Biological Controls:  Lady bugs; Lacewings  Chemical controls:  Insecticidal Soap is usually adequate © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Whiteflies  Monitoring:  By placing yellow sticky cards in greenhouse & other vulnerable environments  Periodic inspection of undersides of leaves of susceptible species  Preventive cultural practices:  Don’t purchase infested plants  Control ants  Encourage natural predators  Mechanical Controls:  Yellow sticky traps (early in infestation)  Blast off with stream of water  Hand-remove infested leaves  Vacuum them up with hand vacuum  Biological Controls:  Ladybugs, Lacewings, parasitic wasps & mites  Songbirds  Chemical controls:  Insecticidal Soap  Chemical pesticides usually not very helpful – resistance quickly develops © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Monitor particularly on citrus and vegetable crops (and plants near them) Ash Whitefly (Siphoninus phillyreae) can attack Toyon & other nativesnty.htm Wooly Whitefly on Citrus  Mechanical methods and encouraging natural enemies offer best chance for control © Project SOUND
  33. 33.  Females feed on plant sap, normally in roots orMealybugs other crevices. They secrete a powdery wax layer (therefore the name mealybug) used for protection while they suck the plant juices.  Monitoring:  Check stem axils & bottoms of plant stems for insects  Act immediately when you see them to control infestation  Preventive cultural practices:  Insect new plants – remove pests  Control ants (which protect Mealybugs)  Encourage natural predators  Mechanical Controls:  Remove by hand & destroy  Apply rubbing alcohol with a Q-tip or cotton ball; destroys insects & egg masses [note: try on small area first – may damage plant]  Biological Controls:  Lady Bug, Lacewings, parasitic wasps –all natural  Chemical controls:  Insecticidal Soap or horticultural oils © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Controlling aphids, whiteflies & Mealybugs is animportant ‘cultural practice’ for preventing other diseases  Mealybugs are similar to whiteflies and aphids: they produce large amounts of waste product (honeydew) which coats plants and surrounding surfaces.  This sticky layer is a perfect growth medium for a blackSooty Mold fungus commonly known as "sooty mold".  This mold damages plants by covering leaves and reducing light available for photosynthesis. © Project SOUND
  35. 35. True Bugs  Many are actually beneficial predators  Preventive cultural practices:  Encourage healthy plants  Chemical controls: not recommended in most cases Milkweed Bug © Project SOUND
  36. 36. Good natural enemies are there – just plant species that will attract them  Green Lacewing  Common generalist predator  Kills: mealybugs, psyllids, thrips, mites, whiteflies, aphids, small caterpillars, leafhoppers, and Green Lacewing insect eggs  Use common pesticides & you’ll kill this beneficial insectYou will need to learn aboutthe common beneficial  Plant species in the Rose &insects in order to recognize Buckthorn (Ceanothus) families toand attract them provide food for Lacewings © Project SOUND
  37. 37. Attract these By planting beneficial these species insects Bigeyed bug Native grasses Polygonum sp. (Silver Lace Vine)Copyright © 2007 Ron Hemberger Hoverflies Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Asclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Milkweed) Baccharis sp. (Coyote brush, Mulefat) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac) Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Prunis ilicifolia (Hollyleaf Cherry) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac) Lacewings Prunus ilicifolia (Hollyleaf Cherry) Lady beetles Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Asclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Milkweed) Atriplex sp. (Quailbush, Saltbush) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac) Native grasses Rhamnus californica (Coffeeberry) Salix sp. (Willow) © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Know all life phases of beneficial insects  Don’t use pesticides that will kill the beneficial insects  Larval stage – though ugly - is often the ‘eating’ stage  Look closely at the insects (use a magnifying glass) – what are they eating (plant or insect) © Project SOUND Lacewing Life Cycle
  39. 39. Attract these By planting beneficial these species insects Minute Achillea sp. (Yarrow) pirate bug Baccharis sp. (Coyote brush, Mulefat) Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Minute Pirate Bug Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Parasitic & Aesclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Predatory Milkweed) Wasps Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Tachnid flies Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Heteromeles arbutifolia (Toyon) Rhamnus californica (Coffeeberry) Tachnid Fly © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Western Yarrow – Achilla millefolia © Project SOUND J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  41. 41. Why Yarrow makes a good lawn substitute  Spreads quickly, giving good cover  Super for banks and other areas that can’t easily be mowed  Spreading habit inhibits weeds  Can be mowed – occasionally and on high setting w/ rotary mower  Companion plant – attracts beneficial insects, repels others  Does well on poor, dry, sandy soils where other plants grow poorly © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Levels of Control1. Cultural control is a preventative measure using fertilization, plant selection, and sanitation to exclude problematic pests and weeds.2. Physical control is another preventative strategy. It includes, pest exclusion; creating barriers; modifying conditions such as temperature, light and humidity; trapping; and manually weeding. Foods and beverages should be eaten and stored only in designated areas.3. Biological control makes use of a pests natural enemies. This strategy introduces beneficial insects or bacteria to the environment or, if they already exist, provides them with the necessary food and shelter and avoids using broad-spectrum chemicals that will inadvertently kill them.4. Chemical control is used after all other control strategies are deemed inappropriate or ineffective. Target-specific, low- toxicity pesticides should be applied in a manner that will maximize the effectiveness of pest management and minimize the exposure to humans and other non-target species. Spot treat if possible to reduce exposure. © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Smothering and suffocation agents - mild  Insecticidal Soap  It works on contact by breaking down the target pest’s cuticle (waxy covering) — promoting dehydration and, ultimately, death.  Short period of action (48 hours)  Non-targeted – kills both beneficial insects as well as pests  Best use: judicious, small-scale spot applications  Safer’s Insecticidal Soap (the most common brand), is used indoors or out, is effective on aphids, cabbageworms, earwigs, flea beetles, lace bugs, leafhoppers, mealybugs, psyllids, sawfly larvae, scale crawlers, squash bugs, thrips, spider mites, whiteflies, and more. © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Smothering and suffocation agents - mild  Horticultural Oil  Coating pests with horticultural oil blocks the passage of air through their spiracles (breathing holes), thus killing (suffocating) them.  Used on dormant plants (see label for specific product)  labeled for use against overwintering eggs of European red spider mites, scale insects, apple aphids (not rosy aphids), bud moths, leafrollers, red bugs, codling moth larvae, pear psylla (adults), blister mites, galls, whitefly nymphs, and mealybugs. © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Sucking insects of spring/summer: review Monitor  Periods of new foliage/rapid growth  Monitor at least weekly  Look particularly at undersides of leaves, young branch tips, flower buds – be sure to use a magnifying glass Cultural Practices  Blast affected area with water  Hand remove  Encourage natural predators  Control ants Biological Controls  Beneficial insects – your best line of defense Chemical controls  Not usually needed (except for very bad infestations – not often seen with native plants)  May kill beneficial insects – so use very sparingly  Try least toxic: Insecticidal soap © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Ah, Summer….. the time of dusty leaves & over-watering © Project SOUND
  47. 47. 10 years old. Almost no water other than a dust wash off every month or so.Arctostaphylos Carmel Sur’ in foreground, Toyon and Western Redbud behind. © Project SOUND
  48. 48. Challenges of the dry season  Dry, dusty foliage  Hot, muggy (or foggy) days  Appropriate watering:  How frequently  How much at any one time  How to water: overhead, drip/trickle  What time of day to waterThe stage is set for a differentcast of garden pests © Project SOUND
  49. 49. Toyon/California Christmas Berry – Heteromeles arbutifolia © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Natives in the Rose Family (Rosaceae)Shrubs  Chamise - Adenostoma fasciculatum  Mountain Mahogonies - Cercocarpus species  Toyon - Heteromeles arbutifolia  Creambush - Holodiscus discolor  Ironwoods - Lyonothamnus floribundus  Holly-Leafed & Catalina Cherries - Prunus ilicifolia  CA Wild Rose - Rosa californica  CA Blackberry - Rubus ursinusSmaller perennials  Pacific silverweed - Argentina egedii  Strawberries - Fragaria species  Wedgeleaf Horkelia - Horkelia cuneata © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Common pests of Rose Family (thinkgarden roses)  Pests of new foliage  Sucking insects  Pests of summer  Pests associated with dust (mostly insects)  Pests associated with warm, moist conditions (mostly fungal but some bacterial/viral)  Diseases associated with cool, wet conditions:  Fungal diseases (foliage & root)  Rosa CA vs. non-native roses  It is relatively pest and disease free, except if the plant is subject to overhead irrigation, poor air circulation and humid conditions in the shade.  Insect pests are usually not a problem with such a hardy plant and with so many “beneficials” around. © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Leafhoppers & Sharpshooters  Leafhoppers are small, green, wedgeshaped insects that attack many garden, forage and fruit crops. They suck out plant juices causing yellowing, leaf-curling and stunting.  Leafhoppers are often responsible for the spread of plant pathogens especially viruses and phytoplasmas  Preventive cultural practices:  Mechanical Controls:  blast of water from a garden hose  Removing infected lower leaves  Dusting plants lightly with diatomaceous earth © Project SOUND
  53. 53. Leafhoppers & Sharpshooters  Biological Controls:  Predatory insects such as mantids and dragonflies  Spiders, green lacewings (Chrysopa spp.), minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.), lady beetles (Hippodamia spp.), and predaceous mites.  Small parasitic wasps in the genus Gonatocerus  Chemical controls:  Narrow range oils, insecticidal soaps, or kaolin clay  rotenone, carbaryl, malathion or methoxychlor © Project SOUND
  54. 54. Glassy-winged Sharpshooter – reportable pest  Carry the bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, that causes Pierce’s Disease – a serious threat to CA grape industryAdults are about 1⁄2 inch long  X. fastidiosa also causes almond leaf scorch, phoney peach disease, alfalfa dwarf, oleander leaf scorch and citrus variegated chlorosis.  Report to County Ag. Service if found in new areas © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Pierce’s Disease: many native plants are alternate hosts  Aesculus californica  Artemisia douglasiana  Heteromeles arbutifolia  Juglans californica  Mimulus aurantiacus  Oenothera hookeri  Philadelphus lewisii  Populus fremontii  Quercus spp.  Rhammus californica  Rosa californica  Salix spp.  Sambucus spp.  Vitis californica Blue Elderberry © Project SOUND
  56. 56.  Tiny insects with fringed wings. They feed on Thrips pollen and tender plant tissue, rasping the tissue and sucking the exuding sap.  The leaves take on a silvery appearance after the thrips feed, and plants become stunted and deformed.  Thrips are usually a pest of seedling plants but may attack plants in any stage. They attack an extremely wide variety of woody plants.  Certain thrips species are beneficial predators that feed only on mites and other insects  Monitoring:  Thrips often feed within buds and furled leaves. Their damage is often observed before the thrips are seen.  Discolored or distorted plant tissue or black specks of feces around stippled leaf surfaces are clues that thrips are or were present.  Look carefully for the insects themselves before taking action. Severe infestation foliage looks silver-spotted  Thrips are poor fliers but can readily spread long distances by floating with the wind or being transported on infested plants. © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Thrips – mostly just ugly…  Healthy woody plants usually tolerate thrips damage; however, high infestations on certain herbaceous ornamentals and developing fruits or vegetables may justify control  Preventive cultural practices:  Practices to conserve natural predators; decrease dust, no pesticides  Pull weeds  Prune and destroy infected branches  Mechanical Controls:  Blast of water from a garden hose ort/images/thrips.jpg  Biological Controls:  Many natural predators  Chemical controls: thrips activity does not usually warrant the use of insecticide sprays  Narrow-range oil, neem oil, pyrethrins combined with piperonyl butoxide (Garden Safe Brand Multi-purpose Garden Insect Killer, Spectracide Garden Insect Killer)  Malathion or rotenone only for severe problems Toyon Thrips © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Gall & Blister Mites: ugly but not killers  Cause blistered leaves or galled twigs on many landscape plants including alder, aspen, baccharis, beech, elm, grape, linden, maple, and walnutLive oak erineum mites  Monitoring:  Misshapen leaves  Preventive cultural practices:  Remove damaged leaves  Mechanical Controls:  Remove damaged leaves Baccharis gall © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Spider Mites are tiny  Not insects, but closely related to ticks and chiggers. They suck out juices from leaves and stems, causing plants to become deformed or have a bronze or yellow appearance  Heavy infestations can cause leaf and bud drop, serious stress and death of the plant.  Damaged areas typically appear marked with many small, light flecks – over slightly cobwebby - giving the plant a somewhat speckled appearance.  Activity peaks during the warmer months; Dry, dusty conditions favor all spider mites  Monitoring:  Usually plant damage—stippling or yellowing of leaves  Look for webbing underneath leaves  Shake mites onto paper & observe with hand lens © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Spider Mites: prevention is best  Preventive cultural practices:  Wash dust off leaves in summer  Don’t use insecticides (carbaryl (Sevin); imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon) ) that kill natural predators; severe infestations often follow insecticide use!  Mechanical Controls:  blast of water from a garden hose  1:1 mixture of alcohol and water [test on small area]  Plant isolation  Biological Controls:  Small, dark-colored lady beetles known as the "spider mite destroyers"  Minute pirate bugs, big-eyed bugs (Geocoris species) and predatory thrips  Parasitic spider Mites  Chemical controls: not during hot weather or for water stressed plants – test first on a few leavesFew insecticides areeffective for spider  Insecticidal soapmites and many even  Horticultural oils (Sunspray)aggravate problems  Sulfur © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Chewing insects are also active in summer  Definition: Chewing insects eat plant tissue such as leaves, flowers, buds, and twigs.  Indications of damage: uneven orCabbage Looper broken margins on the leaves, skeletonization of the leaves, and leaf mining.  The damage they cause (leaf notching, leaf mining, leaf skeletonizing, etc.) will help in identifying the pest insect.  Examples:  beetle adults or larvae,  moth larvae (caterpillars)  many other groups of insects. © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Is it a sucking or a chewing pest?  Sucking pests, such as aphids, leafhoppers, scale insects and whiteflies, produce these symptoms: • Discoloration (yellow or brown) and necrotic (dead) spots on leaves or petals; • Wilted appearance of plant or plant parts; • Curled, malformed leaves and petals; and • Shiny, sticky “honeydew” or black-colored coating of sooty mold.  Chewing pests, such as caterpillars, beetles, grasshoppers and leaf-cutter bees, produce these symptoms: • Holes in foliage or stems; • Discolored areas on the surface or margins of leaves or petals; • Severed stems, leaves or buds or wilting of stem or cane (limb girdling); • Wilting of plant (root damage by white grubs or other root feeders); and • Semicircular holes in leaf margins (leaf- cutting bees). © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Botanical pesticides: natural but not harmless for control of chewing insects Pyrethrum is extracted from the flowers of a chrysanthemum grown in Kenya and Ecuador. It is one of the oldest and safest insecticides available.  Mode of action — Pyrethrum (and synthetic pyrethrum) paralyze insect’s nervous system.  Used for – aphids, scale insects, spider mites, thrips, caterpillars and many other leaf- feeding pests Rotenone or rotenoids are produced in the roots of two genera of the legume family: Derris and Lonchocarpus (also called cubé) grown in South America.  Mode of action: shuts down cellular metabolism  It is both a stomach and contact insecticide; toxic to many species of insects in many different insect orders (caterpillars, beetles, flies, etc.).  Mild human toxicity; ? Risk for Parkinson’s Disease Eugenol (Oil of Cloves) and Cinnamaldehyde (derived from Ceylon and Chinese cinnamon oils).  Mode of action – similar to Pyrethrum  Used for: chewing insects like beetles – but general insecticide Nicotine is extracted by several methods from tobacco  Mode of action – nervous system conduction; convulsions, death  effective against most all types of insect pests, but is used particularly for aphids and caterpillars--soft bodied insects. EcoSMART™ plant oil-based pesticides © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Neem Oil/ Azadiractin  Neem oil extracts are squeezed from the seeds of the neem tree and contain the active ingredient azadirachtin  Rather sensational insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal properties, including insect growth regulating qualities.  Mode of action--Azadirachtin disrupts molting by inhibiting biosynthesis or metabolism of ecdysone, the juvenile molting hormone.  Used for:  Azatin® is marketed as an insect growth regulator, and Align® and Nemix® as a stomach/contact insecticide for greenhouse and ornamentals.  Many leaf chewing insects including Gypsy moth larvae, imported cabbage worms, leafminer species’ larvae and pupae, various leafrollers, various loopers, grasshoppers, beetles, mealybug species’ immatures, sawfly larvae, sweet potato and silverleaf whitefly immatures, and webworms © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Read & follow directions  Mix pesticides according to label instructions. Don’t use more or less concentrate than the label recommends. Mix only as much material as you need for the application.  Wear protective clothing as specified on the label.  Label a set of mixing and measuring tools that are used only for insecticides and fungicides, and store them with the products. © Project SOUND
  66. 66. More pesticide safety tips  Keep pets and people away from the area where you store, mix, and apply pesticides. Stay away from a treated area for as long as the label directs.  Do not spray on a windy day or when air temperatures will be above 85°F before the spray solution dries. Clean equipment and mixing tools as soon as  you finish spraying.  Dispose of pesticides properly  After spraying, change your protective clothing and bathe. Wash the clothes you were wearing separately from your regular laundry.  Keep records of where and when you sprayed, what pesticide you used, and how much you used. Give the treatment time to work, then evaluate and record your results. © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Black Spot - Diplocarpon rosae fungus Occurs during warm, damp/humid weather; spores overwinter in infected canes & fallen leaves Preventive cultural practices:  Provide good air circulation, appropriate sunlight conditions  Don’t over-water; no overhead irrigation  Remove & dispose of infected leaves; don’t handle plants when foliage is wet  Cut back & dispose of infected canes; dispose of fallen leaves Chemical controls: fungicides – copper, sulfur & Neem Oil © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Currants & Gooseberries – Ribes sppPink-flowering Currant - Ribes sanguineum Chaparral Currant - Ribes malvaceumWhite-flowering Currant - Ribes indecorum Catalina Perfume - Ribes viburnifolium © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Common pests/diseases of Ribes species  Fungal Diseases  Leaf Spot or Anthracnose  Cane Blight  Powdery Mildew  Rusts  Virus and Virus-like Diseases  Insects & Mites  Sucking insects  Gall formers  Stem borers © Project SOUND
  70. 70. The ‘Disease Triangle’ – the key to understanding plant pests & diseases  Proper environment  Warm, wet conditions Currant  Overhead watering  Poor air circulation  Cultural (prevention) controls are mostly about making the environment inhospitableFungal species © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Powdery Mildew - Sphaerotheca pannosa fungus Susceptible: Rose family, Dogwoods, Honeysuckles, Sycamores, Willows, Sunflower Occurs during warm, damp/humid weather; spores overwinter in infected wood & fallen leaves Preventive cultural practices:  Provide good air circulation, appropriate sunlight conditions  Don’t over-water; no overhead irrigation  Remove & dispose of infected leaves  Cut back & dispose of infected branches; dispose of fallen leaves Chemical controls: fungicides – copper, sulfur, horticultural oils & Neem Oil © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Rusts – large group of foliage fungi attacking many plant species  Occur during warm, damp/humid weather; spores overwinter in infected wood & fallen leaves  Preventive cultural practices:  Provide good air circulation, appropriate sunlight conditions  Don’t over-water; no overhead irrigation  Remove & dispose of infected leaves  Cut back & dispose of infected branches; dispose of fallen leaves  Chemical controls: fungicides – copper, sulfur, horticultural oils & Neem Oil © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Natural Compounds as preventive measures: fungal diseases  Example: Copper-Sulfate  Copper-Sulfate Spray or Dust Copper Bordeaux substitute is an organic fungicide containing 7% copper sulfate (metallic)  Effective in preventing a wide range of various blights, spots, certain rots, downy and powdery mildew, leaf blister, anthracnose, scab, stem canker, Septoria spp. and Stemphylium spp. leaf molds and more.  No insecticidal qualities, and will not burn plants.  Must be applied early (when plants dormant)  Appropriate cultural practice for fungal prone species like Currants © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Fungal Canker Diseases  Cause: several types of fungi that invade bark injuries & infect connective tissues of trunk  Monitoring: a killed area or blister on the bark, a branch or the trunk of an infected tree. May ooze.  Preventive cultural practices:  Promote overall tree health; don’t over-fertilize  Prevent trunk/branch wounds  Proper pruning; dormant season  Call an experienced arborist or County Dept. of Ag.; early treatment can help © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Fireblight - Erwinia amylovora  Bacteria that infects the new spring growth in Rose family  During warm, wet weather the bacteria ooze in brown droplets from cankers and are spread by pollinators and splashing water to the flowers and then to twigs.  Verify the presence of fireblight by peeling back newly infected bark-the wood will have a reddish-brown discoloration.  Prune diseased wood back at least 6 inches into healthy tissue. Entire branches (even whole plants) may need to be removed.  Do not put prunings into a compost pile; dispose of them in the green waste.  Sterilization of the pruning instruments between each cut with a 10% bleach solution. © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Mature trees, when stressed, are susceptible to stem-boring insects  Drought stress can be avoided by supplemental winter watering when neededgoldspotted oak borer (GSOB) © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Stem Borers: Longhorned borers, bark & ambrosia beetles, clearwing moths, twig girdlers, flatheaded borers  Willows, Cottonwood/Poplar, Sycamore, Oak, Juniper, Pine, Ceanothus, currants  Monitoring: particularly for old or stressed trees/shrubs  Bark staining  Bore holes  Frass; pupal cases [Clearwing Moths]  Preventive cultural practices:  Encourage vigorous, healthy plants  Prevent stem/root injuryk-borer/  removing weakened, injured, dying, and dead trees  Mechanical Controls:  Biological Controls:  Parasitic nematodes  Chemical controls: © Project SOUND
  78. 78. Diseases that affect soils More common in areas previously used for agriculture, vegetable gardening, palm trees Caused by fungal or bacterial pathogens in the soils Enter plants via the roots Very difficult to control – require soil sterilization © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Blights & Branch Die-back Causes:  Verticillium wilt—Verticillium fungi  Fusarium wilt - Fusarium fungi  Root Rot fungi Susceptible:  Strawberries, caneberries  Vegetable crops (tomato)  Woody trees (many) Monitoring:  Symptoms: Decline in twig and leaf growth. Dieback in individual twigs and branches. Foliage becomes light green to chlorotic and then may scorch by midsummer. A discoloration of the inner bark may occur.  Leaves on one or more branches suddenly wilt, turn light tan, and die. Dead leaves generally remain on the tree throughout the growing season. © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Blights & Branch Die-back  Preventive cultural practices:  Keep plants healthy; don’t stress by over- or under watering  Remove Verticillium-susceptible weeds, such as lambs quarters, amaranth (pigweed), nightshade  Remove and dispose of affected plants, including roots Oak Twig Blight  Solarize affected soils  Chemical controls: consult a licensed arborist or County Agent © Project SOUND
  81. 81. Root, collar & crown rots  A large number of root rots are caused by members of the water mould genus Phytophthora.  Favored by high soil moisture and soil temperatures in poorly drained soils.  More common in soils with prior Azaleas, Avocado, Citrus Brown streaks on roots  Monitoring:  Plants wilt at midday and may recover at night (ultimately, plants yellow and die).  In trees, sparse growth and slow decline.  Feeder roots have blackened tips, brown streaks or appear to be rotting.  Mushrooms around tree base indicate final stages. © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Root/collar/crown rots  Preventive cultural practices:  Proper drainage and irrigation, particularly in clay soils; consider berming to increase drainage  Choose species that can tolerate poorly-drained soils  Never cover root collar with dirt or mulch  Don’t damage roots  Buy only healthy plants  Weed around the tree/shrub  Remove and destroy infected plants, roots  Chemical controls: Call experienced, licensed arborist for infected trees © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Sudden Oak Death Syndrome - Phytophthora ramorum  Kills CA native oaks and other trees/shrubs in N. CA & OR (for now)  Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia), Coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica), CA Buckeye and Honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula) and others are susceptible. Disease symptoms have not been well characterized on these hosts at this time.  Leaf lesions are characteristically round with a bulls-eye appearance of alternating light and dark rings © Project SOUND
  84. 84. A number of other native broad-leaf species harbor Phytophthora ramorum in California and Oregon (See the complete list in Part 1.). Little is known about the role of Evergreen huckleberry these species in the life cycle Vaccinium ovatumToyon Heteromeles and spread of the disease. Thearbutifolia pathogen is difficult to culture from many of these species, and is difficult to diagnose because of the presence of other foliar diseases. Bigleaf maple AcerCalifornia buckeye macrophyllumAesculus californicaCalifornia honeysuckle Pacific madrone Wood roseLonicera hispidula Arbutus menziesii Rosa gymnocarpa © Project SOUNDAll photos: Garbelotto Lab, UC Berkeley,8,Slide 8
  85. 85. And now we’re back to the rainy season… ….with it’s own unique set of pest challenges © Project SOUND
  86. 86. Snails & slugs  Preventive cultural practices:  Don’t over-water  Remove dead leaves from ground  Mechanical Controls:  Mechanical picking  Trapping: under boards or newspapers  Pans of beer or sugar water  Copper bands (for tree trunks)  Biological Controls:  Encourage birds, toads  Chemical controls:  ‘Non-toxic’ Iron phosphate snail bait – ‘Sluggo’ brand © Project SOUND