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Content
1. Introduction - A WEED
- Characteristics of weeds
2. The impact of weeds
- on agriculture
- on livestock
- on hu...
Introduction - A WEED
Worldwide, there are approximately 250,000 species of plants, of those, about 3% or 8000
species beh...
 Seed dormancy
Weed seed dormancy can be identified as another type of dispersal—dispersal through
time instead of space....
The impact of weeds
Weeds reduce farm and forest productivity, they invade crops, smother pastures and in some
cases can h...
BENEFITS OF WEEDS
Weeds can provide ecological benefits such as,
 Helping to conserve soil moisture and prevent erosion. ...
CLASSIFICATION OF WEEDS
The classification of weeds is helpful for adopting weed management methods for particular
group o...
B. Classification of Weeds according to the number of cotyledons which seed have:
Monocot plants have only one Cotyledon i...
E. Classification, based on woodiness.
 Woody weeds
 Non woody weeds
F. Classification based on habitat.
 Terrestrial
...
Control method of weed
Identification of weed plant life cycle and reproduction mode of problem weed species is
essential ...
c. Mowing Naturalized and Low Maintenance Areas
Mowing is a common weed management tool in natural areas and lower mainten...
Pros and Cons of Mechanical Method
Pros: Mechanical methods can be quick, inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and effec...
Cons: Possibly more expensive and time-consuming; control may be slow.
3. Biological Methods
Biological methods include th...
Some desired crops germinating from seeds may also be killed. For example, do not apply
pre-emergent herbicides prior to s...
Common weedicides used in Agriculture
Selective, contact, foliar applicant
Dinitro phenol H2SO4
KCN Propanial 3,4 Dichloro...
Collection of Common weeds in Sri lanka
1. Broad leaves
1. Ambul Ambiliya
2. Andanahiriya
3. Aswenna
4. Balu naguta
5. Bim...
45. Iluk
46. Kangaroo grass
47. Love grass
48. Mayura thana
49. Rila thana
50. Roughstalk blue grass
51. Sevana thana
52. ...
Introduction to Weed Album
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Introduction to Weed Album

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Introduction to Weed Album

  1. 1. Content 1. Introduction - A WEED - Characteristics of weeds 2. The impact of weeds - on agriculture - on livestock - on human health 3. Benefits of weeds 4. Classification of weeds 5. Propagation method of weeds 6. Control of weeds 7. Weed management techniques - Mechanical weeding - Cultural method - Biological Methods - Chemical weed control (herbicides) - Integrated Weed Management (IWM)
  2. 2. Introduction - A WEED Worldwide, there are approximately 250,000 species of plants, of those, about 3% or 8000 species behave as weeds. Weeds can be defined in a variety of ways: a plant growing where it isn’t wanted, a plant that interferes with farming or grazing, a plant that was not intentionally sown, a plant that is persistent and detrimental to the plants around it, among others. Basically, what it comes down to is that weeds are plants that humans don’t want to have around for one reason or another. some weeds are simply plants that are not wanted in the place where they are growing, but are useful at other times. For instance, a wild raspberry plant smothering a crop of strawberries planted by a farmer. In other areas, a weed might be an invasive species of plant which threatens a country’s natural flora. An example of this is broom, or Cytisus scoparius, which grows abundantly in Scotland and is used in ornamental landscaping, sand dune stabilization and wasteland reclamation. It was even used as a symbol of the Plantagenet kings. However, in Australia, New Zealand, and parts of North America, it is considered a pest species and often eradicated. Therefore no plant is a "weed" in nature. Human activities create weed problem and try to control. Weeds are naturally strong competitors and those weeds that can best compete always tend to dominate. Typically, weeds possess certain characteristics that make them particularly interfering with the human activities and facilitate the survival. CHARACTERISTICS OF WEEDS  Efficient reproduction Although weeds potentially produce many propagules per plant, but actual productivity is much lower in competition with the crop or at high weed densities. The crop-weed interaction can reduce potential weed seed production dramatically, as much as 50 percent.  Adaptation for spread; Weeds possess different dispersal mechanisms and adaptations which are varied as the number of weed species. Dispersal can be as a result of human activity (irrigation) or as a result of natural activity (wind). Weed seed dispersed by wind (e.g. dandelion, thistles) usually has structural modifications making them very lightweight in the air. Flooding and irrigation are good dispersal mechanisms as most seeds can float and can live in the water for some time. Birds and animals can move seed great distances. Seed contamination via weed mimicry (e.g. clover in alfalfa) is also a source of dispersing weed seeds to new sites. Agricultural activities like planting contaminated crop seed, using unclean harvest equipment and tillage equipment, and moving machinery between fields are significant weed seed dispersal procedures. However,
  3. 3.  Seed dormancy Weed seed dormancy can be identified as another type of dispersal—dispersal through time instead of space. When seed is dispersed, most does not immediately germinate. It remains dormant in a sort of sleeping stage until conditions are right. The factors that break dormancy are unpredictable and dependent on the species, the weather conditions, even physiological factors within the seed itself. Over time seeds that do not germinate go from dormant to non-viable (dead).  Rapid population establishment For seeds that do germinate and live, weed seedling survival after emergence and population establishment is very high. Rates of natural mortality due to disease, herbivory and drought are low for established weeds in annual crops. So, if a weed makes it to seedling stage, its rate of survival to maturity is 25-75 percent, up to even 90 percent. Mortality also decreases with increasing plant size and age.Despite starting small, weed seedlings quickly catch up with crop seedlings—they like the same growing conditions as the crop seed does. Weed seedlings have a very high relative growth rate (amount of growth/biomass) and quickly establish a fine root network for nutrient uptake. Smaller seeds have small reserves compared to crops, making them more dependent on soil nutrients.  Ability to occupy sites disturbed by human activities.  Ability to compete well.
  4. 4. The impact of weeds Weeds reduce farm and forest productivity, they invade crops, smother pastures and in some cases can harm livestock. The effects of weeds on agriculture,  Weeds reduce crop yield by competing for water, light, soil nutrients, and space.  Weeds contaminate crops, reducing crop quality  Interference with harvest  Serve as hosts for crop diseases or provide shelter for insects to overwinter  Limit the choice of crop rotation sequences and cultural practices  Production of chemical substances which are toxic to crop plants (allelopathy), animals, or humans. Effects of weeds on livestock  Burrs in wool contaminate fleeces.  Grain milled with weeds like Saffron Thistle or Amsinckia results in discoloured flour.  Animals that eat specific weeds, such as wild garlic, produce tainted milk and meat.  Spines on fruit of Caltrop and Spiny Emex can damage the feet of stock animals.  Paterson's Curse irritates the udders of dairy cows and can kill horses.  Poisonous weeds like Hemlock can be lethal to both stock and people. The impact of weeds on human health  Weeds can also cause human health problems. Many common weeds such as Ragweed, Rye Grass and Privet cause asthma and other respiratory problems, especially in children.  Some weeds can also cause skin irritation and some are poisonous.  Some water weeds such as Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana) can affect the quality of our drinking water if infestations are not managed within water supply dams. In 1907, 700 cattle that were killed overnight by a poisonous weed
  5. 5. BENEFITS OF WEEDS Weeds can provide ecological benefits such as,  Helping to conserve soil moisture and prevent erosion. A ground cover of weeds will reduce the amount of bare soil exposed helping to conserve nutrients, particularly nitrogen which could otherwise be leached away, especially on light soils.  Food and shelter can be provided for natural enemies of pests and even alternative food sources for crop pests. The actual presence of weed cover may be a factor in increasing effectiveness of biological control of pests and reducing pest damage.  Weeds can also be valuable indicators of growing conditions in a field, for example of water levels, compaction and pH.  Weeds can be an important source of food for wildlife, especially birds. Bird populations have been declining on farmland over the last few decades and leaving weeds as a resource has been shown to help revive bird populations.  Fix nitrogen (if weed is a legume)  Add organic matter  Contribute forage  Increase biodiversity  Provide nectar for bees  aesthetic qualities
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF WEEDS The classification of weeds is helpful for adopting weed management methods for particular group of weeds instead of against an individual weed species. It is always economical and practically feasible to manage the group of weeds as compared to manage the individual weed species. Weeds can be classified on different basis. A. Classification of Weeds According to Life Cycle: Depending upon their life cycle weeds can be classified as 1.) Annual weeds They complete their life cycle within one year or one season. a) Kharif Annuals / Kharif Weeds: They appear with the onset of monsoon (June, July) and complete their life cycle when rainy season is over (Oct or Nov) E.g Cock’s comb, dudhi, math, chimanchara , parthenium etc. b) Rabi Annuals / Rabi Weeds: They complete their life cycle during winter season ( Oct/Nov to Feb) E.g Vasanvel ( Chenopodium album) , Ghol ( Portulaca oleracea), wild oat etc. c) Summer Annuals / Summer Weeds: They complete their life cycle during summer season ( Feb to May), Majority of the Kharif seaosn weeds grow during summer season in irrigated farming E. g Parthenium , Amaranthus spp. Euphorbia Spp. ( Dudhi) etc. d) Ephemerals: The short- lived annual weeds are called ephemerals E. g Niruri ( Phyllanthus niruri). These weed completes its life cycle within a very short period of 2 to 4 weeks. 2.) Biennial Weeds: They take at least two years or two seasons to complete their life cycle. They complete their vegetative growth in first year or season and produce flowers and seeds in the next year or season. E.g Wild carrot- ( Daucas carota), wild onion – ( Asphodelus spp) , Jangli gobhi- (Launea spp). 3.) Perennial Weeds: They continue or grow for more than two years or several years.
  7. 7. B. Classification of Weeds according to the number of cotyledons which seed have: Monocot plants have only one Cotyledon in seed. Dicot plants have 2 cotyledons in each seed. C. Classification of weeds based on morphology. 1. Grasses Stem - Cylindrical in shape Solid nodes Hollow internodes Normally called as "Culm" Leaf - Consist of two parts - leaf sheaths - leaf blade Inflorescence-panicle or raceme grasses are monocots and show more tillering ability. 2. Sedges Stem - solid no nodes or internodes present cross section is angular shape. 3. Broad leaves Stem - solid rounded in shape Leaves - broad, only this broad leaves has top root system most of broad leaves are decocts. D. Classification, based on growth habit.  Vine  Shrub  Tree weeds Monocot Grasses Sedges Dycot Broad leaves & other
  8. 8. E. Classification, based on woodiness.  Woody weeds  Non woody weeds F. Classification based on habitat.  Terrestrial  Epiphytic  Aquatic G. Classification based on harmfulness.  Soft weeds - not causing many problems to crop plants.  Hard weeds – Compete with crop plants & reduces the yield drastically. Propagation method of weeds Weeds have two main modes of reproduction, by seed or vegetatively. Most annuals and biennials weeds reproduce by seed and the seed production is often quite prolific. For example, redroot pigweed can produce over 100,000 seeds/plant. Perennials weeds can reproduce by seed as well as by vegetatively via rhizomes and stolons.
  9. 9. Control method of weed Identification of weed plant life cycle and reproduction mode of problem weed species is essential in determining control methods for weeds. For example, annuals can be contained through tillage or mowing prior to seed production. On the other hand, tillage can increase a perennial by breaking up the roots and creating new plants more quickly. 1. Prevention The best weed control is prevention. Prevention of entering of weeds to landscape can be ensured by, • Plant weed-free seed, sod, and nursery stock • Avoid using plant species known to be invasive • Use weed-free amendments, topdressing • Uses mulch where appropriate • Maintain healthy, competitive plants • Blocking the pathway of entering weeds to agricultural lands; (through irrigation channels)  Use clean equipment. 2. Eradication  Completely remove weeds from agricultural lands. 3. Weed management  Maintain weed population in certain level. ( Below the economical harmful level) Weed management techniques I. Mechanical weeding a. Tilling / Cultivating Tilling or cultivating effectively controls 90% of annual and biennial weeds if done before seed set. It also brings a new set of weed seeds to the soil surface ready to germinate. When tilling for weed control, use only shallow cultivation. Deep tilling can damage crop roots. Cultivating/tilling may actually propagate most perennial weeds. b. Hand Pulling Hand pulling is quick when pulled while the weeds are small, and it is effective for small infestations. A few minutes on a weekly basis to keep the garden weed free will be more effective than a long weed pulling session as the weeds get large. For many gardeners, pulling weeds is a great way to vent stress. With hand pulling, most weed species require that they be pulled out by the roots. The weed will readily regrow if just the tops are removed. It is essential that weeds are removed before they go to seed, filling the seed bank. Some weed species, like purslane, must be removed from the garden bed. It can reroot if left in the garden.
  10. 10. c. Mowing Naturalized and Low Maintenance Areas Mowing is a common weed management tool in natural areas and lower maintenance sections of a yard, reducing the unsightly appearance of the yard and fire hazard d. String Trimming (“Weed Whacking”) Use of a string trimmer is a form of weed management by mowing. It can be effective in preventing weeds from going to seed. However, it can sow seeds if done on weeds with seeds. e. Flame (Propane Torch) Flaming off weeds with a propane torch is a common practice in production agriculture and has limited application in landscape maintenance due to fire hazards. During the flaming process, heat from the flame is transferred to the plant tissues, increasing the thermal energy of the plant cells and resulting in coagulation of cell proteins if the temperature is above 50°C. Exposing plant tissue to a temperature of about 100°C for a split second (0.1 second) can result in cell membrane rupture, resulting in loss of water and plant death. Thus, the weeds do not need to be burned up, but rather just scorched. Flaming works best on very young weeds. It is rather expensive and many not be cost effective in some production agriculture situations. It presents a fire and explosion hazard; use with caution. Fire prevention measures prohibit the use of flaming in many communities. f. Burning Burning of fields and ditch banks is a weed management tool in production agriculture. Generally, a permit is required. Most communities prohibit burning of weeds inside city limits. g. Solarization Solarization is a method of heating the soil to kill roots, weed seeds, and soil borne insects and diseases near the soil surface. In regions with hot summer temperatures, it is effective in open areas will full sun. However, do not solarize the soil in the rooting area of trees, shrubs, and other desired plants. Steps include the following: 1. Remove vegetation and cultivate the soil to a six inch depth. 2. Sprinkle irrigate the area. 3. Cover the area with 4 mil clear plastic. Bury the edges of the plastic all the way around the plot. 4. Leave in place for three weeks during the summer heat of July and August. 5. After removing the plastic, avoid deep cultivation what would bring up weed seeds, insects, and disease pathogens from deeper soils.
  11. 11. Pros and Cons of Mechanical Method Pros: Mechanical methods can be quick, inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and effective on small weed seedlings. Cons: Mechanical methods have limited effectiveness on many established perennials, and could be detrimental at wrong time 2. Cultural method a) Irrigation Irrigation methods and frequency have a direct influence on weeds. Infrequent, deep irrigation droughts out many shallow rooted weeds. Sprinkler irrigation (wetting the entire soil surface) encourages weeds. Drip irrigation (keeping most of the soil surface dry) discourages weeds. Keep non-irrigated areas dry to help suppress weeds. b) Lawn Mowing Many common garden weeds will not survive the frequent mowing of a lawn. However, mowing the lawn too short (less than 2 inches for Kentucky bluegrass) encourage weeds as it reduces vigor of the grass. c) Mulching If maintained at adequate depths, mulching has many benefits including preventing weed seed germination. For wood/bark chips, a depth of three inches is best for weed control. Less is ineffective. Mulching may not effectively control established perennials growing from root. d) Landscape Fabrics In landscape management, landscape fabric with wood/bark chips or rock mulch above is common. However, it prevents soil improvement by organic breakdown, decreasing plant vigor. Weed seeds that germinate above the fabric layer will be difficult to pull and must be removed with herbicides. Use of landscape fabric should be considered as a deferred maintenance technique rather than a low maintenance technique. e) Crop Competition Competition with the crops and weeds for light, water, nutrients, and growing space is an effective weed management tool. For example, mowing a cool season lawn (like Kentucky bluegrass) gives the lawn a growth advantage, shading out many weeds like crabgrass. Block planting in the vegetable garden and close spacings in a flowerbed, with plants filling the bed space, helps suppress weeds. Pros and cons of Cultural Methods for Weed Management Pros: This is the best long-term control as the gardener increases the conditions for desired plants to grow at the same time decrease the conditions for weeds.
  12. 12. Cons: Possibly more expensive and time-consuming; control may be slow. 3. Biological Methods Biological methods include the use of carefully screened insects to attack portions of the weed (i.e., stems, seeds, flowers, etc.). Development of biological methods with insects is rather complex and must be used with caution. The introduced insects must survive and become established in the new ecosystem. The insects need to reduce the weed population, but cannot entirely eliminate it as the weeds as that would eliminate the insect’s food supply. The insects must not attach beneficial plants. The insects must not become insect pest. A great example of biological methods that failed is earwigs. They were intentionally introduced into the United States as a biological control agent and have since become a pest. Biological methods also include the grazing of sheep, cows, horses, or goats. The purposeful use of grazing animals to control weed patches can be extremely expensive. Pros and cons of Biological Methods for Weed Management Pros: Biological methods can be an inexpensive, long-term control solution. It can be environmentally friendly and require little labor. Cons: Biological methods are not always effective, may require a large population of weeds to maintain insect populations (will not work in backyard setting), and does not eradicate weeds. Insects can sometimes attack non-target plants. 4. Chemical weed control (herbicides) The use of herbicides is the use of chemicals that disrupt key physiological processes in plants, leading to plant death. Among the various herbicides, many different modes of action are found. Chemicals can be divided into many groups in according to the time of use, place of application and target plants. • Systemic or Translocated herbicides move internally in the plant. They must be applied during period of active growth with adequate water. Systemic herbicides are especially good for many perennials. Examples include glyphosate (Round-up), and 2,4-D. • Contact herbicides only desiccate the portion of the plant that is contacted. Contact herbicides are most effective on annuals. Examples include vinegar and diquat. • Pre-emergent herbicides are applied to soil prior to weed seed germination, killing germinating seeds. They will not kill growing weeds. Application timing is critical. For example, to control crabgrass in lawns, pre-emergent herbicides need to be applied late April to early May before the crabgrass germinates, about the time that common lilac blooms. Most require soil incorporation by irrigation.
  13. 13. Some desired crops germinating from seeds may also be killed. For example, do not apply pre-emergent herbicides prior to seeding or laying sod. Uniform application and strict adherence to application rate are essential for attaining good weed control and for preventing injury to landscape plants. • Post-emergent herbicides are applied to foliage of actively growing plants. Example include 2,4-D, and glyphosate (Round-up). • Selective herbicides control a limited group of plants, like monocots versus dicots. • Non-selective herbicides are effective on a broad range of plants. Pros and cons of chemical Methods for Weed Management Pros: Use of herbicides is generally effective (if the correct herbicide is used), cost-effective, and provides quick control. Cons: Use of herbicides can be environmentally problematic when incorrectly applied. Proper use includes proper selection of the specific herbicide for the weeds and for the growing crops in the area, timing of application, correct application rates, correct application procedures, and application safety measure to protect the application and non- target plants. Some require special licensing and may not be used in a home landscape or garden setting. Herbicides can be applied by followings ways,  Broadcast application refers to a uniform application over a treatment area.  Spot treat refers to application to a specific area, such as directly to individual weeds.  Foliar application refer to application to the leaves  Soil incorporation refers to tilling or watering the herbicide into the soil after application.
  14. 14. Common weedicides used in Agriculture Selective, contact, foliar applicant Dinitro phenol H2SO4 KCN Propanial 3,4 Dichloro propenaldehide. Selective, translocation, foliar applicant  2-4 dichlorophenoxiacetic acid  MCPA Selective, translocation, root applicant  2-4 D 2-4 T MCPA Non-selective, translocation, foliar applicant.  Amonium sulphate Chlorate compounds  Sodium arsenate Roundup Non-selective, translocation, Root applicant  S2O3 2- NCRC(Boron Compound) Non- selective, contact, foliar applicant  ClO- 3 Penta-borate Dinitrophenol  (NH4)2SO4 Arsenic compound Gramaxone 5. Integrated Weed Management (IWM) Tntegrated weed management (IWM) is the control of weeds through a long-term management approach, using combination of multiple management tools to reduce a weed population to an acceptable level while preserving the quality of existing environment, water, and other natural resources. Combinations of biological, mechanical, and chemical management practices are utilized in IWM programs to efficiently suppress a weed population at the most effective/desirable points during the weed lifecycle or growing season.
  15. 15. Collection of Common weeds in Sri lanka 1. Broad leaves 1. Ambul Ambiliya 2. Andanahiriya 3. Aswenna 4. Balu naguta 5. Bim pol 6. Bim thal 7. Epala 8. Eth adi 9. Gal kura 10. Gata thumba 11. Gatakola 12. Gira pala 13. Gotukola 14. Heen undupiyaliya 15. Hulanthala 16. Iramusu 17. Irisiyakatu 18. Kadu pahara 19. Kakilla 20. Kapum keeriya 21. Kata kaluwa 22. Kuppameniya 23. Kurunegala daisy 24. Maha Undupiyaliya 25. Meemana 26. Monarakudumbiya 27. Niyangala 28. Pethi thora 29. Podi singhomarang 30. Polpala 31. Sudana 32. Wal aba 33. Wal kollu 34. Wathupalu 35. Wel penela 36. Welkarambu 2. Grasses 37. Angili thana 38. Atora 39. Bajiri 40. Batadella 41. Bela thana 42. Carpet grass 43. Crow foot grass (Putu thana) 44. Gojara
  16. 16. 45. Iluk 46. Kangaroo grass 47. Love grass 48. Mayura thana 49. Rila thana 50. Roughstalk blue grass 51. Sevana thana 52. Signal grass 53. Thuththiri 54. Wal amu 55. Welmaruk 56. Mana / Wild napier 3. Sedges 57. Halpan 58. Heen kudamatta 59. Kalanduru 60. Kokmota 61. Maha kudamatta 62. Mottu thana 63. Thunessa 4. Aquatic weed plant 64. Diya habarala 65. Hydrilla

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