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Planning for Pollinators 2013

  1. 1. 5/20/2013 1 © Project SOUND Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2013 (our 9th year)
  2. 2. 5/20/2013 2 © Project SOUND Planning for Pollinators: how to turn your garden into a pollinator haven C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve June 1 & 4, 2013
  3. 3. 5/20/2013 3 © Project SOUND Review: sex and the single flower  Pollination is the act of transferring pollen grains from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma. It’s necessary for seed and fruit production in most higher plants.
  4. 4. 5/20/2013 4 © Project SOUND Sometimes physical agents transfer the pollen http://www.annerondepierre.com/wisdomarchive8.htm Only about 20% of plants are wind pollinated And <1% are water pollinated
  5. 5. 5/20/2013 5 © Project SOUND Living creatures (pollinators) usually carry the pollen from flower to flower
  6. 6. 5/20/2013 6 Colony Collapse Disorder – our wake-up call © Project SOUND http://bee-rapture.blogspot.com/2009/04/found-cause-of-colony- collapse-disorder.html
  7. 7. 5/20/2013 7 © Project SOUND Why worry about living pollinators?  They play a key role in the normal functioning of our local ecosystems  > 200,000 plant species worldwide depend on pollination  Imagine life without these plants  They are required for production of many of our food, medicinal and other crops  ~80% of the world’s crop plants depend on pollination – 150 crops in the U.S. alone  A combined annual $20+ billion industry in the U.S  Without them, our gardens would not sustain themselves; many flowering plants would eventually become extinct.
  8. 8. 5/20/2013 8 © Project SOUND  Many pollinators at risk:  Non-native pollinators are vulnerable to environmental factors - limited genetic variability [Example: Honeybee Colony Collapse Disorder]  Native pollinators are at risk due to habitat loss, climate change and use of pesticides  Crop production world-wide is decreasing due to decreasing numbers of pollinators  So we all should be worried  The time to take action is NOW, in our schools, home gardens, places of work and anywhere else that we can promote the well-being of pollinators Honeybee Colony Collapse Disorder
  9. 9. 5/20/2013 9 National Pollinator Week  U.S. Senate designated the 3rd week in June as “National Pollinator Week” . The U.S. Secretary of Agriculture signs the proclamation every year.  Now an international celebration of the valuable ecosystem services provided by bees, birds, butterflies, bats and beetles.  “Pollinating animals are vital to our delicate ecosystem, supporting terrestrial wildlife, providing healthy watershed, and more.  Pollinator Week is a week to get the importance of pollinators’ message out to as many people as possible. “ © Project SOUND
  10. 10. 5/20/2013 10 Even before colony collapse disorder, some people were concerned…  Depending on a single source – for anything – should make us nervous  Better to ‘diversify the portfolio’ © Project SOUND http://therealnewsjournal.com/?tag=colony-collapse-disorder http://urbangardencasual.com/2009/04/28/possible-cure- for-honey-bee-colony-collapse-disorder-discovered/ European Honey Bee Apis mellifera
  11. 11. 5/20/2013 11 Why worry about other pollinators? Can’t the bees do the pollination work?  Flies and bees are the two most important insect pollinator groups.  Depending on the region, the time of the day, the flowering phenology and weather conditions, flies may be the main or exclusive pollinators, or share pollination services with bees and other pollinator groups.  Native pollinators play an important role – not just in the wild, but in gardens and agricultural fields © Project SOUND It turns out that pollination is a lot more complex than early agricultural studies led us to believe
  12. 12. 5/20/2013 12 © Project SOUND Who are the living (biotic) pollinators?  Bees – of all sizes  Butterflies  Moths  Flies & other fly-like insects  Beetles  Hummingbirds  Ants  Bats  Even small reptiles & mammals Most common Least common
  13. 13. 5/20/2013 13 Mother Nature plays it safe with regards to pollination  Most insect pollinated flowers receive visits from several different types of insects: bees, flies, beetles, bugs, etc.  In a study of 2200 CA plant species:  71% of the out-crossing species were visited by two potential pollinators  49% were visited by three or more potential pollinators  Redundancy in pollination systems is probably the rule, rather than the exception. © Project SOUND By hedging her odds
  14. 14. 5/20/2013 14 We too should hedge our bets and support many different types of pollinators… © Project SOUND …but how, particularly given our small urban gardens? http://non-secateur.blogspot.com/2011/05/southern- californias-best-garden-blog.html
  15. 15. 5/20/2013 15 Planning for pollinators: knowledge and making good choices © Project SOUND
  16. 16. 5/20/2013 16 © Project SOUND Knowledge is power: what we each can do to promote our native pollinators  Plant the plants they need for food – at all stages of their lives.  Provide places where they can reproduce and provide for their young  Protect them by practicing Integrated Pest Management – limited/no use of pesticides  Teach others – by word and example – about the value of native pollinators
  17. 17. 5/20/2013 17 Many butterfly larva require specific food sources – more on that next month © Project SOUND
  18. 18. 5/20/2013 18 Fortunately, many generalist pollinators are less picky than we once thought © Project SOUND http://mommyculture.com/?p=678 There are just five basic principles for planting to support a wide range of pollinators
  19. 19. 5/20/2013 19 What makes a good pollinator landscape? 5 elements according to the latest evidence  S (size) - The larger the area covered by flowers/plants the better  A (abundance) - The greater the number of flowers the better  L (length) - It’s important that something is flowering from early spring through fall  U (useful attributes) –The plants must provide quality pollen and/or nectar  D (diversity) - Diversity of plants to attract both generalists and specialists © Project SOUND SALUD! – To your health! http://picturesforcoloring.com/2012/05/bee-coloring-pages-for-honey-lovers/
  20. 20. 5/20/2013 20 Using these elements in our gardens… © Project SOUND Really not so difficult once we understand the principles http://non-secateur.blogspot.com/2011/05/southern-californias-best-garden-blog.html
  21. 21. 5/20/2013 21 © Project SOUND Why are some plants pollinator magnets?
  22. 22. 5/20/2013 22 Characteristics of ‘pollinator magnet’ plants  Lots of little flowers  Flowers have simple, open architecture – ‘accessible to all’  Flower color often white, pink or yellow  Often – but not always – long bloom season (or several)  May be sweetly scented (but not necessarily noticeable to us) © Project SOUND
  23. 23. 5/20/2013 23 Lots of little flowers: many popular choices  Apiaceae (Carrot family)  Asteraceae – (Sunflower family)  Baccharis  Grindelia  Hydrophyllaceae (Waterleaf family)  Phacelia  Lamiaceae (Mint family)  Salvia (Sage) and others  Polygonaceae (Backwheat family)  Eriogonum – Buckwheats  Rhamnaceae (Buckthorn family)  Ceanothus, Rhamnus  Rosaceae (Rose family) © Project SOUND
  24. 24. 5/20/2013 24 Most people envision pollinator gardens as looking something like this © Project SOUND Salvia species Buckwheats CA Fuschia Penstemons
  25. 25. 5/20/2013 25 © Project SOUND California Buckwheat - Eriogonum fasciculatum
  26. 26. 5/20/2013 26 © Project SOUND California Buckwheat: sprawling sub-shrub  Size:  2-5 ft tall  3-5 ft wide  Growth form:  Low mounded sub-shrub  Semi-evergreen shrub  Many-branched  Foliage:  Leave alternate, but densely clustered at nodes  Evergreen, narrow lanceolate (sometimes nearly needle-like)  Roots:  Net-like; hold soils well http://www.newportbay.org/plants/index.html
  27. 27. 5/20/2013 27 © Project SOUND CA Buckwheat cultivars make good, life- friendly groundcovers  ‘Dana Point’ - brighter green leaf, more mounding than species  'Bruce Dickinson' – good for groundcover; stays close to the ground, spreads nicely, and holds good form throughout the year.  ‘Theodore Payne' – low groundcover (1 ft high; 1-3 ft spread)  'Warriner Lytle' - A sprawling low growing California buckwheat; can grow to 2 feet tall but is often more prostrate, hugging the ground like a mat ‘Dana Point’ ‘Warriner Lytle’
  28. 28. 5/20/2013 28 © Project SOUND CA Buckwheat: showy for months  Great for summer color: May- Nov. possible  As an alternative to the non- native Rosemary; far better pollinator habitat plant  In perennial beds  On parking strips & bordering paths and driveways  For erosion control  Larval foodsource for Morman Metalmark, Bramble Hairstreak, Common Hairstreak, Avalon Hairstreak
  29. 29. 5/20/2013 29 Native plants: what’s their secret? © Project SOUND
  30. 30. 5/20/2013 30 © Project SOUND Native plants attract pollinators by providing quality nectar and/or pollen
  31. 31. 5/20/2013 31 What about non-native species? Herbs are often your best bet  Mint family  Basil  Bee Balm (Monarda)  Catnip  Lavender  Mints  Monarda/Monardella  Rosemary  Sage  Thyme  Apiaceae (Carrot family)  Parsley  Dill  Borage  Chives © Project SOUND http://jimlongsgarden.blogspot.com/2010/05/bees-arrive-at-long-creek-herb-farm.html Many can be combined with natives; most attractive to bees
  32. 32. 5/20/2013 32 Non-native flowering plants for pollinators – you may have to search to find them!  Non-native flowers: look for  Old-fashioned – open-pollinated / ‘heirloom’ varieties  Search on ‘butterflies’ for plants that may have broader appeal to pollinators  When buying bedding plants, look for plants with pollinator insects flying around them at the nursery © Project SOUND Some ‘modern’ flowering plants are specifically bred to NOT be attractive to bees and other pollinators
  33. 33. 5/20/2013 33 © Project SOUND Buckwheats, Salivas (Sages) and other local sub- shrubs are great pollinator plants… But they do need sun and space
  34. 34. 5/20/2013 34 Achieving adequate floral coverage in each season: it takes some thought if space is limited  Flower patches: at least 3 ft x 3 ft per species – the bigger the better  A few well-chosen plant species might be better than many  Most bang for buck: shrubs vs. annual wildflowers (depends on situation)  Likely will need to use vertical space  Some shrubs and trees are quite adaptable to small/narrow spaces  Lots of ‘flowering area’ with a small footprint  One yard can’t do it all - “it takes a neighborhood” © Project SOUND http://www.northwestbotanicals.com/portfolio_chcraftsman.htm
  35. 35. 5/20/2013 35 You can make any yard more pollinator friendly – no matter how small or shady © Project SOUNDhttp://www.northwestbotanicals.com/portfolio_chcraftsman.htm http://bammorgan.blogspot.com/2008/04/payne-foundation-garden-tour.html You just have to garden ‘smart’
  36. 36. 5/20/2013 36 How can I possibly supply lots of little flowers year-round?  Think outside the (horizontal) box – use your vertical space  Shade trees  Vines & climbers  Espalier  All other things being equal, choose the plant with greater pollinator habitat value © Project SOUND http://www.the-philosopher.co.uk/
  37. 37. 5/20/2013 37 Let’s see how Mother Nature’s Garden became a ‘pollinator haven’ © Project SOUND
  38. 38. 5/20/2013 38 Map of site – rough draft © Project SOUND Wall with large condo building behind as view ‘Uglywall’–12ft.tallcinderblock-north-facing back porch paths
  39. 39. 5/20/2013 39 Two walls to hide – potential for habitat? © Project SOUND
  40. 40. 5/20/2013 40 © Project SOUND hedgerow espalier
  41. 41. 5/20/2013 41 Several good habitat choices: trees & large shrubs  *Arctostaphylos spp – Manzanitas  Baccharis salicifolia – Mulefat  * Ceanothus spp.  Cercocarpus spp. – Mountain Mahoganies  *Chilopsis linearis – Desert Willow  Comarostaphylis diversifolia – Summer Holly  Sambucus nigra – Blue Elderberry © Project SOUND Desert Willow Blue Elderberry Note: bold species are included in garden
  42. 42. 5/20/2013 42 Several additional habitat choices: trees and large shrubs  * Frangula/Rhamnus californica – Coffeeberry  Heteromeles arbutifolia – Toyon  Prunus spp. – native Cherries  * Ptelea crenulata – Hoptree © Project SOUND Wanted one species that could be used both for hedgerow and espalier – to demonstrate the adaptability of some large native shrubs.
  43. 43. 5/20/2013 43 Toyon/California Christmas Berry – Heteromeles arbutifolia
  44. 44. 5/20/2013 44 Toyon/California Christmas Berry – Heteromeles arbutifolia  Member of the Rose Family (Rosaceae)  Occurs from SW Oregon to Baja CA  Occurs in several plant communities  Chaparral – throughout CA  Coastal Sage Scrub  Oak woodlands  Coastal prairie  Var. macrocarpa found only on Catalina and San Clemente Islands http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6677,6731,6732
  45. 45. 5/20/2013 45 Toyon is a joy of color year-round  Evergreen large shrub/ small tree w/ stiff foliage  Usually 6-10 ft tall, can be 20-30 ft. in right location  4-10 ft wide (to 25 ft)  Spring – new growth is light green  Plant takes anything from full sun to very shady  Quite drought-tolerant
  46. 46. 5/20/2013 46 Toyon is a mass of blooms in summer  Blooms June-July  Showy flowers in dense bunches  Flowers small – look like little white rose blossoms (Rose family)  Bee-pollinated – so good plant for native bees  Good nectar plant for butterflies  Even quite young plants (several years old) will bloom)  Fall/winter – red berries
  47. 47. 5/20/2013 47 Traditional uses for Toyon  Background/specimen plant  Large shrub – anywhere that you would consider Pyracantha or Holly  Grows well with Coastal Live Oak & other dry trees  Shady parts of the garden  Slopes – good for erosion control  In a habitat garden featuring local native species
  48. 48. 5/20/2013 48 But what if we don’t have room for a large, free-standing shrub?  Toyon is very adaptable  Prune up: makes a very acceptable (and life- friendly) shade tree  Use in a hedge or hedgerow; can hedge-prune or leave more natural  Bonsai in a pot  Even espalier it along a wall © Project SOUND
  49. 49. 5/20/2013 49 Size of area and abundance: what matters is the shear number of flowers © Project SOUND http://www.flickr.com/photos/mechanoid_dolly/5895279617/ Hibiscus hedge – several 100 flowers Toyon hedge – many 1000’s of flowers http://www.flickr.com/photos/just_jane/938744081/ If you were a pollinator (other than a hummingbird) which would you visit?
  50. 50. 5/20/2013 50 When choosing a shade tree or other large shrub, maximize habitat value  Nesting places/cover  Perching/sunning places  Flowers for nectar/ pollen  Fruits  Foliage useful as larval food source © Project SOUND The majority of our pollinators flew from April to Oct. last year. We’ll want to supply food throughout this period.
  51. 51. 5/20/2013 51 Mother Nature’s mixed hedgerow (to cover the short ugly wall)  Size: 6 ft wide – 30+ ft long  Large shrubs – all provide good, multispecies habitat value  Big-berry Manzanita (winter)  Lemonadeberry (early spring)  Chaparral Whitethorn Ceanothus (spring)  CA Coffeeberry (later spring)  Toyon (summer)  Understory/filler – Yarrow (summer)  Pollen/nectar: winter to summer
  52. 52. 5/20/2013 52 Toyon espalier: transforming the ugly wall at Mother Nature’s Backyard  Young Toyon branches are very flexible – simplicity itself to espalier  Start shaping the first year  Choose design – ‘informal fan’  Select branches appropriate for design  Remove unwanted branches (those growing in wrong direction; crowded branches)  Tie branches to support lines with soft ties (cut from old stockings)  Continue to remove ‘inappropriate’ branches
  53. 53. 5/20/2013 53 Some non-native edibles attract pollinators © Project SOUND  Fruit trees/canes  Apples – ‘Anna Apple’ espalier in Mother Nature’s Backyard  Stone Fruits  Citrus  Nut trees  Berries  Vegetables  Onions & Shallots  Melon family: Cucumbers, Melons, Pumpkins, Squash, Watermelons The range of pollinators visiting food crops can be surprising!
  54. 54. 5/20/2013 54 © Project SOUND California Hoptree – Ptelea crenulata ©2009 Barry Breckling
  55. 55. 5/20/2013 55  Lower elevations of N. CA  Banks of the Sacramento River; foothills of the Sierra Nevada & Cascade mountain ranges  Foothill Woodland, Yellow Pine Forest between 0 and 2000 feet  Often grows in part-shade  Ptelea - small genus with only 15 species of trees or shrubs native to North America and Mexico. © Project SOUND California Hoptree – Ptelea crenulata http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptelea_crenulata http://byrdiebotany.livejournal.com/199457.html
  56. 56. 5/20/2013 56 © Project SOUND Hoptree: shrubby  Size:  8-15 ft tall  10-15 ft wide  Growth form:  Large shrub to small tree  Winter deciduous  Variable growth form – can be shaped to tree, espalier  Foliage:  Medium green, shiny leaves  Citrus-like scent (same family)  Contact dermatitis in some people; wear gloves when handling © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College ©2011 Neal Kramer http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/ptelea-crenulata
  57. 57. 5/20/2013 57 © Project SOUND Flowers: pure citrus  Blooms: in spring – usually April-June in S. California  Flowers:  Many white flowers in clusters; showy like Elderberry  Similar in form to orange or lemon flowers  Sweet scent attracts tons of native pollinators – and the birds that eat them  Seedpods:  Unique; papery wings ©2009 Barry Breckling Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  58. 58. 5/20/2013 58 © Project SOUND Likes its water!  Soils:  Texture: most  pH: any local  Light:  Best in part-shade in our climate; fine for north-facing exposures  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: likes regular water – Water Zone 2-3 or 3  Fertilizer: light fertilizer OK; leaf mulch appreciated. ©2005 Brian L. Anacker ©2011 Neal Kramer
  59. 59. 5/20/2013 59 © Project SOUND Hoptree = habitat  Most often planted for its habitat value – excellent value!  Makes a nice lawn tree; OK in even full sun if gets regular water  Background shrub; winter deciduous ©2011 Zoya Akulova http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ptelea_trifoliata_MN_2007.JPG http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Ptelea-crenulata/
  60. 60. 5/20/2013 60 California Coffeeberry is another pollinator magnet shrub – in large or small size © Project SOUND http://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=1850
  61. 61. 5/20/2013 61 © Project SOUND CA Coffeeberry – Frangula (Rhamnus) californica USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  62. 62. 5/20/2013 62 © Project SOUND Coffeeberry: another versatile, dense evergreen shrub Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Size:  6-12 ft tall (usually 8-10)  8-10 ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen shrub/small tree  Mounded form; ultimately at least as wide as tall  Bark red, becoming gray  Moderate growth rate; long lived (several 100 yrs)  Foliage:  Attractive, medium green  Leaves simple, attractive; smaller & thicker w/ less water  Deer love it!; Pale Swallowtail larva
  63. 63. 5/20/2013 63 © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained; sandy or rocky best  pH: any local (5.0-8.0)  Light: full sun to part-shade  Water: very flexible  Winter: needs good winter moisture  Summer:  Best with occasional summer water: Zone 2 to 2/3; don’t over- water in clays  Very drought tolerant once established  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: very undemanding (if you so desire) USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  64. 64. 5/20/2013 64 © Project SOUND With Coffeeberry, the berries are the show…  Blooms: late spring; usually Apr- June in western L.A. Co.  Flowers:  Small and not very noticeable  Hummingbirds and insect pollinators adore them (in MNBY)  Fruits:  Small – ¼ inch  begin green, ripen to orange/red and finally black in August – October  Eaten by many: Quail, Mockingbirds, Thrushes, Robins, Finches, Towhees, Thrashers and Jays, etc., even humans! USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  65. 65. 5/20/2013 65 © Project SOUND Coffeeberry can be used in so many ways…  For erosion control on slopes; great combined with other CSS or chaparral plants  As an accent plant  For backs of mixed beds  Under oaks; great for sun/shade transition zones  Particularly suited for hedging:  Formal or informal hedges, screens  As a partner in hedgerows http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/rhamnus-californica
  66. 66. 5/20/2013 66 © Project SOUND Plenty of cultivars: most of them low-growing compared to the species ‘Eve Case’ http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of- california/plants/rhamnus-californica-eve-case ‘Mound San Bruno’ http://www.smgrowers.com/products/pla nts/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=1850 ‘Leatherleaf’ http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=0521 ‘Salt Point’ http://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_r/rhacalsalpoi.htmlhttp://www.agikehoe.com/mcgregor-garden.html
  67. 67. 5/20/2013 67 Coffeeberry cultivars: habitat at ¼ the size  ‘Little Sur’  Very compact; 3-4 or 5 ft.  Best nearest the coast; some shade inland  Makes good hedges; pot plant  ‘Seaview Improved’  2-3 ft tall; 3-6 ft wide  Takes quite a bit of shade to part shade; sun on coast  Good groundcover or small shrub © Project SOUND http://www.horticopia.net/media.details.php?mediaID=OTg4MTI2ZWMxZThiZDk2
  68. 68. 5/20/2013 68 Length of bloom coverage: our goal - flowers from early spring through fall © Project SOUND Pictures can provide a helpful reality check – take plenty!
  69. 69. 5/20/2013 69 © Project SOUND Winter-Spring transition
  70. 70. 5/20/2013 70 Conclusions: winter-spring Good (better in future)  2 ‘early/mid’ Ceanothus  ‘Ray Hartman’ – tree  ‘Yankee Point’ – groundcover  Two ‘early’ Manzanita  Arctostaphylos densiflora 'Howard McMinn‘ – shrub  Arctostaphylos glauca – large shrub  CA Encelia (1) – shrub  Miniature Lupine – annual Consider adding  At least 1 more CA Encelia - ?? Where  More Miniature Lupine – around the pruned shrubs to cover bare spots  ?? Wall Flower - Erysimum insulare  Early bloomer  Yellow color - ? Early spring is becoming yellow- blue color scheme; spring summer is pink-purple © Project SOUND
  71. 71. 5/20/2013 71 © Project SOUND Transition from Spring to Summer
  72. 72. 5/20/2013 72 © Project SOUND Transition from summer into fall
  73. 73. 5/20/2013 73 Conclusions for summer-fall Good – better in future  Still blooming  Yarrow (Achillea millefolia)  Buckwheats (E. cinereum; E. fasciculatum)  Coming into season – fall-blooming sunflowers  Coastal Aster  CA Goldenrod (Solidago californica)  Sweet Scent – Pluchea odorata Consider adding  ???? Any ideas © Project SOUND
  74. 74. 5/20/2013 74 © Project SOUND The Sunflower family (Asteraceae) provides important food in fall  Bloom in late summer/ fall  Long bloom season  Nectar and pollen available to many types of pollinators (even ants, beetles)  Lots of small flowers Goldenbushes – Hazardia & Isocoma Baccharis species
  75. 75. 5/20/2013 75 Another possible ‘pollinator place’ is the rain garden – yes, really! © Project SOUND
  76. 76. 5/20/2013 76 © Project SOUND Salt Marsh Baccharis – Baccharis douglasii
  77. 77. 5/20/2013 77  Lower elevations from OR to Baja  Moist places: Coastal salt marsh, coastal salt scrub, moist places near streams to 2500‘  In Coastal Sage Scrub, Northern Coastal Scrub, Redwood Forest, Foothill Woodland, Yellow Pine Forest © Project SOUND Salt Marsh Baccharis – Baccharis douglasii http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,781,783
  78. 78. 5/20/2013 78 © Project SOUND Characteristics of Marsh Baccharis  Size:  4-6 ft tall  6-8+ ft wide, spreading  Growth form:  Sub-shrub with part-woody stalks; evergreen with water  Numerous stalks from rhizomes; generally upright  Foliage:  Simple leaves – quite like Mulefat but not serrated  Leaves sticky, resinous ©2008 Keir Morse
  79. 79. 5/20/2013 79 © Project SOUND Flowers like Mulefat  Blooms: blooms off and on in warm weather – like Mulefat – usually June to fall.  Flowers:  Dioecious – separate male/ female plants  Flowering heads like Mule- fat, though mostly clustered at tops of stems  Very important nectar source – summer to fall  Seeds:  Tiny, air-borne seeds with fluffy hairs
  80. 80. 5/20/2013 80 © Project SOUND Wetland plant – but hardy once established  Soils:  Texture: any – sand to clay  pH: any local, including alkali, salty  Light:  Full sun to afternoon shade  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: very adaptable  Pondside/bog  Regular water (Zone 3)  Little summer water (with p.m. shade)  Fertilizer: not picky; likes leave mulch  Other: consider containingMarsh Baccharis gets no water in Heritage Creek Preserve - CSUDH
  81. 81. 5/20/2013 81 © Project SOUND Fabulous habitat plant  Good pond-poolside plant – will need to divide  Attracts very wide range of insects (like Mulefat)  Butterflies – including American Painted Lady, Buckeyes and Acmon Blue  Bees & flies  Many other weird & wonderful insects  Makes an attractive pot plant  Medicinal:  Used as a disinfectant for wounds and sores  Infusion or dried powered foliage http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/baccharis-douglasii
  82. 82. 5/20/2013 82 Limit insecticide use – or use none at all  Pesticides can kill more than the target pest – some kill pollinators for several days after the pesticide is applied.  Pesticides can also kill natural predators, which can lead to even worse pest problems. Instead:  Encourage native predators with a diverse garden habitat  Expect and accept a little bit of pest activity  Try removing individual pests by hand if possible (wearing garden gloves)  If you must use a pesticide, choose one that is the least toxic to non-pest species © Project SOUND Using fewer pesticides is more life-friendly for all species
  83. 83. 5/20/2013 83 © Project SOUND Saltmarsh Fleabane – Pluchea odorata http://www.kenbowles.net/SDWildflowers/FamilyIndexes/AsteraceaeDisciform/AsteraceaeDisciformKey.htm
  84. 84. 5/20/2013 84 © Project SOUND Saltmarsh Fleabane – typical for genus © 2003 BonTerra Consulting  Size:  2-4 ft. tall  2-3 ft. wide  Growth form: sub-shrub  Woody base; ends of stems are herbaceous  Upright growth habit  Annual in colder climates; perennial in ours  Dies back in winter  Foliage:  Pretty color; like  Arrow-shaped leaves  Roots: fibrous; good soil-binding http://www.kenbowles.net/SDWildflowers/FamilyIndexes/AsteraceaeDisciform/Aste raceaeDisciformKey.htm
  85. 85. 5/20/2013 85 © Project SOUND Saltmarsh Fleabane does well in gardens…  Soils:  Texture: any local – does very well in fine-textured soils (clays)  pH: any local, including alkali, salty  Light:  Best in full sun with some water  Fine with partial shade; not too particular  Water:  Winter: likes it’s water; plant in moist areas of garden, rainswale, etc.  Summer: quite flexible; looks better with some to regular summer water (Zone 2/3 probably optimal; takes 3)  Fertilizer: fine with none; organic mulches work well (leaf mulch) © 2003 BonTerra Consulting
  86. 86. 5/20/2013 86 © Project SOUND Versatile in the garden  Excellent choice for moist places in garden:  Stream or pond banks/edges  Rain gardens/swales  Areas with sprinkler drift  Fine with other natives needing similar water requirements – remember, dies back in winter  Showy choice for fall habitat/ butterfly garden; great with yellow fall-flowering plants  Does great in pots; give it an occasional dose of fertilizer or top-dress each spring http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=13929 http://www.sibleynaturecenter.org/daytrips/naturetrail0709/index.html
  87. 87. 5/20/2013 87 Watch pollinators by the hour…seriously! © Project SOUND
  88. 88. 5/20/2013 88 Lack room and/or water? Try a ‘wetland in a pot’ for a touch of wetland  Guilt-free – saves space & water  Can contain 1 plant or several – depending on size of container  Choose a pretty container; locate in at least part-sun  Requires some yearly maintenance – dividing plants  See May posting – Mother Nature’s Backyard blog for more © Project SOUND A ‘wetland in a pot’ serves several functions when you include pollinator plants like Marsh Baccharis
  89. 89. 5/20/2013 89 Idea for small gardens: tuck small pollinator plants into pots and around shrubs © Project SOUND
  90. 90. 5/20/2013 90 Western Yarrow – Achilla millefolia J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  91. 91. 5/20/2013 91 Western Yarrow: the ultimate ‘tuck-in’ plant!  Slopes, hillsides  Mixtures  Good garden plant for fresh or dry floral arrangements  Foliage is pleasantly fragrant when crushed; medicinal  Can be mowed to form a highly competitive ground cover to control soil erosion.  Flowers!!!  Good butterfly/pollinator plant – one of the best in Mother Nature’s Backyard J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  92. 92. 5/20/2013 92 © Project SOUND Cliff Aster – Malacothrix saxatilis
  93. 93. 5/20/2013 93 © Project SOUND Cliff Aster – Malacothrix saxatilis var. tenuifolia  Local distribution: common  in the Transverse Ranges (Santa Monica, San Gabriel, and San Bernardino mountains)  coastal areas in Los Angeles to San Diego counties  on Santa Catalina Island  Found in several habitats:  Coastal strand/coastal shrub  Canyons, coastal-sage scrub  Chaparral http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Malacothrix+saxatilis+var.+tenuifolia var. tenuifolia
  94. 94. 5/20/2013 94 © Project SOUND Cliff Asters are versatile locals  Herbaceous perennial  Size: 3-5 ft tall & wide  Open growth habit; sort of ‘unfurls’ as it blooms  Lacy leaves – mostly basal  Summer dormant with no water  Long bloom period:  Mar-Dec. in good years  Often many blooms; quite showy http://www.newportbay.org/plants/cliffaster.html
  95. 95. 5/20/2013 95 © Project SOUND Wonderful with its natural partners  Welcome spot of white against darker foliage in a mixed bed  On slopes, cliffs, hillsides  Natural partners (mostly Zone 1/2):  Salvia mellifera & leucophylla  Diplacus aurantiacus  Quercus agrifolia  Native clovers  Many spring-blooming annual wildflowers  Charming plant – should be used more in local gardens
  96. 96. 5/20/2013 96 Tuck-in plants: Annual wildflowers are enjoyed by all in Mother Nature’s Backyard © Project SOUND
  97. 97. 5/20/2013 97 © Project SOUND Providing homes for native pollinators  Native bees don’t build the wax or paper structures we associate with honey bees or wasps, but they do need places to nest, which vary depending on the species.  Wood-nesting bees are solitary, often making individual nests in beetle tunnels in standing dead trees.  Ground-nesting bees include solitary species that construct nest tunnels under the ground.  Cavity-nesting social species—bumble bees—make use of small spaces, such as abandoned rodent burrows, wherever they can find them. Learn about how you can construct or promote native pollinator homes in your garden
  98. 98. 5/20/2013 98 © Project SOUND Island Buckwheat – Eriogonum grande
  99. 99. 5/20/2013 99 © Project SOUND Island Buckwheat – Eriogonum grande  Channel Island endemic:  var. grande (Island Buckwheat)  Channel Islands; Santa Cruz, Anacapa, Santa Catalina, San Clemente Islands  Bluffs and cliffs, coastal sage scrub and chaparral  var. rubescens (Red Buckwheat; San Miguel Island Buckwheat )  n Channel Islands; San Miguel, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa islands  Cliffs and bluffs, coastal grassland and scrub communities http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi- bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5936,5994,6063,6 064 var. rubescens var. grande
  100. 100. 5/20/2013 100 © Project SOUND Special features of Red Buckwheat  Size:  1-2 ft tall  3-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Low-growing mounded form  Spreads slowly  Foliage:  Attractive bright to gray-green with wooly white backs  Medium-large ‘Buckwheat leaves’  Flowers:  On stalks 2-3 ft tall  Color range from light to dark pink  One of the showiest CA native buckwheats http://www.soquelnursery.com/shrubs_correa_fuchsia.html
  101. 101. 5/20/2013 101 © Project SOUND Garden uses for Red Buckwheat  Super as a pot plant  Lovely massed as a ground cover  Makes a pretty smaller border plant  For a ‘silver’ (moonlight) garden  In any sort of habitat garden  As an unusual accent plant  In narrow beds & planters  Nice with dudleyas, purple sage, yarrow, sedums
  102. 102. 5/20/2013 102 Diversity of plants/flowers: food for adults and juveniles of a range of pollinators © Project SOUND © Paul Mirocha 2004
  103. 103. 5/20/2013 103 © Project SOUND Moths are important pollinators in western U.S.  More prevalent in the Southwest than in other regions due to warm evenings, hot daytimes, favorable climate  Moths visit flowers in search of nutritious rewards, usually nectar, and transfer pollen as a consequence of their contact with floral structures.  Some night-blooming plant species, especially in desert grasslands and dune areas, appear to be specialized for moth pollination  However, most moth-pollinated plants employ alternative reproductive strategies. These include self-pollination, recruiting other (diurnal, or day- active) pollinators, or simply waiting for the next flowering season.  Moth pollination is a risky proposition, and moth- flower mutualisms are not very exclusive.
  104. 104. 5/20/2013 104 © Project SOUND Characteristics of flowers that attract large dusk-to-dawn flying moths  Night-blooming  Large size – often > 1 inch  Light color – often white, but may be light yellow or pink  Tubular shape – those that attract the large moths  Sweetly scented – may be overpoweringly so
  105. 105. 5/20/2013 105 © Project SOUND Hooker's Evening Primrose – Oenothera elata
  106. 106. 5/20/2013 106 © Project SOUND Flowers are fantastic  Blooms:  Long summer bloom season; sequential blooms  Usually July/Aug to Sept/Oct western L.A. county  Flowers:  Good sized; ~ 1 inch diameter  Lemon yellow; iridescent  Really showy against green leaves  Seeds:  Bulky pods; split lengthwise  Many tiny seeds  Re-seeds very well, esp. in sandy soils. Usually not a problem to pull up unwanted plant in spring
  107. 107. 5/20/2013 107 © Project SOUND Garden uses for Hooker’s primrose  As a summer perennial in the mixed bed – nice w/ purple accents.  Valuable addition to the habitat garden:  Nectar: moths, butterflies, hummingbirds, other pollinators (large bees)  Finches and other seed eaters love the seeds  In a dry garden  In the vegetable garden:  Root - boiled and eaten like parsnip.  Young shoots - raw or cooked  Young pods – cooked vegetable
  108. 108. 5/20/2013 108 © Project SOUND California Primrose – Oenothera californica © 2005 Brent Miller
  109. 109. 5/20/2013 109 © Project SOUND California Primrose – Oenothera californica  Coastal, Sierra, Transverse and desert mountain ranges of CA to Baja – locally in San Gabriels  In foothills (mostly)  Sandy or gravelly areas, dunes, desert scrub to pinyon/juniper or ponderosa- pine woodlands  Same genus as Hooker’s Evening Primrose http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Oenothera+californica
  110. 110. 5/20/2013 110 © Project SOUND Flowers are the reason to plant native primroses  Blooms:  In spring - usually Apr-May in our area  Flowers open over long period – individual flowers short-lived  Flowers:  White, becoming more pink  Fairly large (2 inch) and definitely showy  Sweet, slightly musky fragrance  Seeds: many tiny seeds in a capsule  Vegetative reproduction: sprouting from roots © 2003 Lynn Watson http://botany.si.edu/onagraceae/taxalist.cfm?genus=Oenothera
  111. 111. 5/20/2013 111 © Project SOUND Evening Primrose has a specific cast of pollinators who work at dusk or dawn  Hawkmoths (White-lined sphinx moth - Hyles )  Bees (specifically Lasioglossum, Centris, Xylocopa, Andrena) Hawk moth/White-lined Sphinx Moth (Hyles lineata) Sweatbee Lasioglossum oenotherae Oil-collecting Bee Centris species Carpenter Bee Xylocopa spp.
  112. 112. 5/20/2013 112 © Project SOUND Care and management: plant & ignore  Soils:  Texture: sandy/rocky best  pH: any local to 8.5 (alkali)  Light:  Full sun – coastal  Part-shade/morning sun inland  Water:  Winter: good winter rains  Summer: drought tolerant but takes anything from 2 to 3; best to let dry out in late summer/fall  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: cut back as needed in fall.http://botany.si.edu/onagraceae/taxalist.cfm?genus=Oenothera
  113. 113. 5/20/2013 113 © Project SOUND Native primroses in the garden  Best planted with native grasses, perennials, annual wildflowers  Excellent choice for water-wise parking strip  Lovely in pots on a sunny deck  Tucked in around other plants – a ‘filler plant’  Attract a wild assortment of insects http://botany.si.edu/onagraceae/taxalist.cfm?genus=Oenothera
  114. 114. 5/20/2013 114 In summary: you can turn your garden into a pollinator haven (and make a difference) © Project SOUND
  115. 115. 5/20/2013 115 Make your garden water-wise and Life-friendly  Plant the right plants to attract and nourish native pollinators  Provide places for pollinators to hide and raise their young  Provide a source of water – can be as simple as patch of moist earth or a saucer with stones  Use pesticides sparingly  Respect the pollinators and the services they provide © Project SOUND
  116. 116. 5/20/2013 116 ‘The growing concern for pollinators is a sign of progress, but it is vital that we continue to maximize our collective effort.’  Do something to make your garden more pollinator-friendly  Celebrate National Pollinator Week – check for local events (Gardena Willows)  Learn more about a pollinator that interests you  Take photos of pollinators in your garden – they’re fascinating! © Project SOUND http://textileranger.com/2012/08/11/pollinator-quilt/
  117. 117. 5/20/2013 117 Xerces Society  Nonprofit organization that protects wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat.  Information, books, programs for schools, home gardens, etc. © Project SOUND http://www.xerces.org/bringbackthepollinators/ http://www.dadant.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=1392
  118. 118. 5/20/2013 118 Other resources on pollinators  UC Berkeley Urban Bee Gardens Site - http://nature.berkeley.edu/urbanbeegardens/  Pollinator Partnership - http://www.pollinator.org/pollination.htm  U.S. Fish & Wildlife – Pollinators Page http://www.fws.gov/pollinators/  USDA Insects & Pollinators page - http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/mai n/national/plantsanimals/pollinate/ © Project SOUND http://resonatingbodies.wordpress.com/ resources/recommended-books- downloadable-files-links/
  119. 119. 5/20/2013 119 Past ‘Out of the Wilds’ talks – links on Native Plants at CSUDH blog  Butterfly Garden talks – Most July talks  Moth Pollinators – July, 2010  Bee pollinators – July 2011  Fly pollinators – July 2012  Hummingbirds – May, 2009 © Project SOUND
  120. 120. 5/20/2013 120 Take the message to your friends and neighbors  Talk to others – including children – about pollinators  Encourage your neighbors to plants pollinator- friendly plants  Turn your neighborhood into ‘Pollinator Heaven’ © Project SOUND http://eastcountymagazine.org/images/logo-guidelines.jpg

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