Planning for Pollinators 2013


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Planning for Pollinators 2013

  1. 1. 5/20/20131© Project SOUNDOut of the Wilds and Into Your GardenGardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. CountyProject SOUND – 2013 (our 9th year)
  2. 2. 5/20/20132© Project SOUNDPlanning for Pollinators: how toturn your garden into a pollinatorhavenC.M. Vadheim and T. DrakeCSUDH & Madrona Marsh PreserveMadrona Marsh PreserveJune 1 & 4, 2013
  3. 3. 5/20/20133© Project SOUNDReview: sex and the single flower Pollination is the act of transferring pollen grains from themale anther of a flower to the female stigma. It’s necessaryfor seed and fruit production in most higher plants.
  4. 4. 5/20/20134© Project SOUNDSometimes physicalagents transfer thepollen about 20% of plants are wind pollinatedAnd <1% are water pollinated
  5. 5. 5/20/20135© Project SOUNDLiving creatures (pollinators) usually carry the pollenfrom flower to flower
  6. 6. 5/20/20136Colony Collapse Disorder – our wake-up call© Project SOUND
  7. 7. 5/20/20137© Project SOUNDWhy worry about living pollinators? They play a key role in the normalfunctioning of our local ecosystems > 200,000 plant species worldwidedepend on pollination Imagine life without these plants They are required for productionof many of our food, medicinal andother crops ~80% of the world’s crop plantsdepend on pollination – 150 crops inthe U.S. alone A combined annual $20+ billionindustry in the U.S Without them, our gardens wouldnot sustain themselves; manyflowering plants would eventuallybecome extinct.
  8. 8. 5/20/20138© Project SOUND Many pollinators at risk: Non-native pollinators arevulnerable to environmentalfactors - limited geneticvariability [Example: HoneybeeColony Collapse Disorder] Native pollinators are at riskdue to habitat loss, climatechange and use of pesticides Crop production world-wide isdecreasing due to decreasingnumbers of pollinators So we all should be worried The time to take action is NOW,in our schools, home gardens,places of work and anywhereelse that we can promote thewell-being of pollinatorsHoneybee Colony Collapse Disorder
  9. 9. 5/20/20139National Pollinator Week U.S. Senate designated the 3rd week in June as “NationalPollinator Week” . The U.S. Secretary of Agriculture signs theproclamation every year. Now an international celebration of the valuable ecosystemservices provided by bees, birds, butterflies, bats and beetles. “Pollinating animals are vital to our delicate ecosystem,supporting terrestrial wildlife, providing healthy watershed,and more. Pollinator Week is a week to get the importance of pollinators’message out to as many people as possible. “© Project SOUND
  10. 10. 5/20/201310Even before colony collapse disorder,some people were concerned… Depending on a single source– for anything – should makeus nervous Better to ‘diversify theportfolio’© Project SOUND Honey BeeApis mellifera
  11. 11. 5/20/201311Why worry about other pollinators? Can’tthe bees do the pollination work? Flies and bees are the two mostimportant insect pollinator groups. Depending on the region, the time ofthe day, the flowering phenology andweather conditions, flies may bethe main or exclusive pollinators,or share pollination services withbees and other pollinator groups. Native pollinators play an importantrole – not just in the wild, but ingardens and agricultural fields© Project SOUNDIt turns out that pollination isa lot more complex thanearly agricultural studies ledus to believe
  12. 12. 5/20/201312© Project SOUNDWho are the living (biotic) pollinators? Bees – of all sizes Butterflies Moths Flies & other fly-like insects Beetles Hummingbirds Ants Bats Even small reptiles & mammalsMost commonLeast common
  13. 13. 5/20/201313Mother Nature plays it safe with regards topollination Most insect pollinated flowers receive visitsfrom several different types of insects:bees, flies, beetles, bugs, etc. In a study of 2200 CA plant species: 71% of the out-crossing species were visitedby two potential pollinators 49% were visited by three or more potentialpollinators Redundancy in pollination systems isprobably the rule, rather than theexception.© Project SOUNDBy hedging her odds
  14. 14. 5/20/201314We too should hedge our bets and supportmany different types of pollinators…© Project SOUND…but how, particularly given our small urban gardens?
  15. 15. 5/20/201315Planning for pollinators: knowledge andmaking good choices© Project SOUND
  16. 16. 5/20/201316© Project SOUNDKnowledge is power: what we each can do topromote our native pollinators Plant the plants they needfor food – at all stages oftheir lives. Provide places where theycan reproduce and providefor their young Protect them by practicingIntegrated Pest Management– limited/no use ofpesticides Teach others – by word andexample – about the value ofnative pollinators
  17. 17. 5/20/201317Many butterfly larva require specific foodsources – more on that next month© Project SOUND
  18. 18. 5/20/201318Fortunately, many generalist pollinatorsare less picky than we once thought© Project SOUND are just five basic principles for planting tosupport a wide range of pollinators
  19. 19. 5/20/201319What makes a good pollinator landscape?5 elements according to the latest evidence S (size) - The larger the area coveredby flowers/plants the better A (abundance) - The greater thenumber of flowers the better L (length) - It’s important thatsomething is flowering from earlyspring through fall U (useful attributes) –The plants mustprovide quality pollen and/or nectar D (diversity) - Diversity of plants toattract both generalists and specialists© Project SOUNDSALUD! – To your health!
  20. 20. 5/20/201320Using these elements in our gardens…© Project SOUNDReally not so difficultonce we understandthe principles
  21. 21. 5/20/201321© Project SOUNDWhy are some plants pollinator magnets?
  22. 22. 5/20/201322Characteristics of ‘pollinator magnet’ plants Lots of little flowers Flowers have simple, openarchitecture – ‘accessible to all’ Flower color often white, pinkor yellow Often – but not always – longbloom season (or several) May be sweetly scented (but notnecessarily noticeable to us)© Project SOUND
  23. 23. 5/20/201323Lots of little flowers: many popular choices Apiaceae (Carrot family) Asteraceae – (Sunflower family) Baccharis Grindelia Hydrophyllaceae (Waterleaf family) Phacelia Lamiaceae (Mint family) Salvia (Sage) and others Polygonaceae (Backwheat family) Eriogonum – Buckwheats Rhamnaceae (Buckthorn family) Ceanothus, Rhamnus Rosaceae (Rose family)© Project SOUND
  24. 24. 5/20/201324Most people envision pollinator gardensas looking something like this© Project SOUNDSalvia speciesBuckwheatsCA FuschiaPenstemons
  25. 25. 5/20/201325© Project SOUNDCalifornia Buckwheat - Eriogonum fasciculatum
  26. 26. 5/20/201326© Project SOUNDCalifornia Buckwheat: sprawling sub-shrub Size: 2-5 ft tall 3-5 ft wide Growth form: Low mounded sub-shrub Semi-evergreen shrub Many-branched Foliage: Leave alternate, but denselyclustered at nodes Evergreen, narrow lanceolate(sometimes nearly needle-like) Roots: Net-like; hold soils well
  27. 27. 5/20/201327© Project SOUNDCA Buckwheat cultivars make good, life-friendly groundcovers ‘Dana Point’ - brighter green leaf,more mounding than species Bruce Dickinson – good forgroundcover; stays close to theground, spreads nicely, and holdsgood form throughout the year. ‘Theodore Payne – low groundcover(1 ft high; 1-3 ft spread) Warriner Lytle - A sprawling lowgrowing California buckwheat; cangrow to 2 feet tall but is often moreprostrate, hugging the ground like amat‘Dana Point’‘Warriner Lytle’
  28. 28. 5/20/201328© Project SOUNDCA Buckwheat: showy for months Great for summer color: May-Nov. possible As an alternative to the non-native Rosemary; far betterpollinator habitat plant In perennial beds On parking strips & borderingpaths and driveways For erosion control Larval foodsource for MormanMetalmark, Bramble Hairstreak,Common Hairstreak, Avalon Hairstreak
  29. 29. 5/20/201329Native plants: what’s their secret?© Project SOUND
  30. 30. 5/20/201330© Project SOUNDNative plants attract pollinators byproviding quality nectar and/or pollen
  31. 31. 5/20/201331What about non-native species? Herbs areoften your best bet  Mint family Basil Bee Balm (Monarda) Catnip Lavender Mints Monarda/Monardella Rosemary Sage Thyme Apiaceae (Carrot family) Parsley Dill Borage Chives© Project SOUND can be combined with natives;most attractive to bees
  32. 32. 5/20/201332Non-native flowering plants for pollinators– you may have to search to find them! Non-native flowers: look for Old-fashioned – open-pollinated/ ‘heirloom’ varieties Search on ‘butterflies’ forplants that may have broaderappeal to pollinators When buying bedding plants,look for plants with pollinatorinsects flying around them atthe nursery© Project SOUNDSome ‘modern’ floweringplants are specifically bred toNOT be attractive to beesand other pollinators
  33. 33. 5/20/201333© Project SOUNDBuckwheats, Salivas (Sages) and other local sub-shrubs are great pollinator plants…But they do need sun and space
  34. 34. 5/20/201334Achieving adequate floral coverage in eachseason: it takes some thought if space is limited Flower patches: at least 3 ft x 3 ftper species – the bigger the better A few well-chosen plant speciesmight be better than many Most bang for buck: shrubs vs. annualwildflowers (depends on situation) Likely will need to use vertical space Some shrubs and trees are quiteadaptable to small/narrow spaces Lots of ‘flowering area’ with a smallfootprint One yard can’t do it all - “it takes aneighborhood”© Project SOUND
  35. 35. 5/20/201335You can make any yard more pollinatorfriendly – no matter how small or shady© Project SOUND just have to garden ‘smart’
  36. 36. 5/20/201336How can I possibly supply lots of littleflowers year-round? Think outside the (horizontal)box – use your vertical space Shade trees Vines & climbers Espalier All other things being equal,choose the plant with greaterpollinator habitat value© Project SOUND
  37. 37. 5/20/201337Let’s see how Mother Nature’s Gardenbecame a ‘pollinator haven’© Project SOUND
  38. 38. 5/20/201338Map of site – rough draft© Project SOUNDWall with large condo building behind as view‘Uglywall’–12ft.tallcinderblock-north-facingback porchpaths
  39. 39. 5/20/201339Two walls to hide – potential for habitat?© Project SOUND
  40. 40. 5/20/201340© Project SOUNDhedgerowespalier
  41. 41. 5/20/201341Several good habitat choices: trees &large shrubs *Arctostaphylos spp – Manzanitas Baccharis salicifolia – Mulefat * Ceanothus spp. Cercocarpus spp. – MountainMahoganies *Chilopsis linearis – Desert Willow Comarostaphylis diversifolia –Summer Holly Sambucus nigra – Blue Elderberry© Project SOUNDDesert WillowBlue ElderberryNote: bold species are included in garden
  42. 42. 5/20/201342Several additional habitat choices: treesand large shrubs * Frangula/Rhamnus californica –Coffeeberry Heteromeles arbutifolia – Toyon Prunus spp. – native Cherries * Ptelea crenulata – Hoptree© Project SOUNDWanted one species that could be used both for hedgerowand espalier – to demonstrate the adaptability of some largenative shrubs.
  43. 43. 5/20/201343Toyon/California Christmas Berry –Heteromeles arbutifolia
  44. 44. 5/20/201344Toyon/California Christmas Berry –Heteromeles arbutifolia Member of the Rose Family(Rosaceae) Occurs from SW Oregon toBaja CA Occurs in several plantcommunities Chaparral – throughout CA Coastal Sage Scrub Oak woodlands Coastal prairie Var. macrocarpa found only onCatalina and San ClementeIslands,6731,6732
  45. 45. 5/20/201345Toyon is a joy of color year-round Evergreen large shrub/small tree w/ stiff foliage Usually 6-10 ft tall, can be20-30 ft. in right location 4-10 ft wide (to 25 ft) Spring – new growth islight green Plant takes anything fromfull sun to very shady Quite drought-tolerant
  46. 46. 5/20/201346Toyon is a mass of blooms in summer Blooms June-July Showy flowers in densebunches Flowers small – look like littlewhite rose blossoms (Rosefamily) Bee-pollinated – so goodplant for native bees Good nectar plant forbutterflies Even quite young plants(several years old) will bloom) Fall/winter – red berries
  47. 47. 5/20/201347Traditional uses forToyon Background/specimen plant Large shrub – anywhere thatyou would consider Pyracanthaor Holly Grows well with Coastal LiveOak & other dry trees Shady parts of the garden Slopes – good for erosioncontrol In a habitat garden featuringlocal native species
  48. 48. 5/20/201348But what if we don’t have room for alarge, free-standing shrub? Toyon is very adaptable Prune up: makes a veryacceptable (and life-friendly) shade tree Use in a hedge orhedgerow; can hedge-pruneor leave more natural Bonsai in a pot Even espalier it along a wall© Project SOUND
  49. 49. 5/20/201349Size of area and abundance: whatmatters is the shear number of flowers© Project SOUND hedge – several 100 flowers Toyon hedge – many 1000’s of flowers you were a pollinator (other than a hummingbird) whichwould you visit?
  50. 50. 5/20/201350When choosing a shade tree or otherlarge shrub, maximize habitat value Nesting places/cover Perching/sunning places Flowers for nectar/pollen Fruits Foliage useful as larvalfood source© Project SOUNDThe majority of our pollinators flew from April to Oct. last year.We’ll want to supply food throughout this period.
  51. 51. 5/20/201351Mother Nature’s mixed hedgerow (to cover theshort ugly wall) Size: 6 ft wide – 30+ ft long Large shrubs – all provide good,multispecies habitat value Big-berry Manzanita (winter) Lemonadeberry (early spring) Chaparral WhitethornCeanothus (spring) CA Coffeeberry (later spring) Toyon (summer) Understory/filler – Yarrow(summer) Pollen/nectar: winter to summer
  52. 52. 5/20/201352Toyon espalier: transforming the ugly wallat Mother Nature’s Backyard Young Toyon branches are veryflexible – simplicity itself toespalier Start shaping the first year Choose design – ‘informal fan’ Select branches appropriate fordesign Remove unwanted branches (thosegrowing in wrong direction;crowded branches) Tie branches to support lines withsoft ties (cut from old stockings) Continue to remove ‘inappropriate’branches
  53. 53. 5/20/201353Some non-native edibles attract pollinators© Project SOUND Fruit trees/canes Apples – ‘Anna Apple’ espalier inMother Nature’s Backyard Stone Fruits Citrus Nut trees Berries Vegetables Onions & Shallots Melon family: Cucumbers, Melons,Pumpkins, Squash, WatermelonsThe range of pollinators visitingfood crops can be surprising!
  54. 54. 5/20/201354© Project SOUNDCalifornia Hoptree – Ptelea crenulata©2009 Barry Breckling
  55. 55. 5/20/201355 Lower elevations of N. CA Banks of the Sacramento River;foothills of the Sierra Nevada &Cascade mountain ranges Foothill Woodland, Yellow PineForest between 0 and 2000 feet Often grows in part-shade Ptelea - small genus with only 15species of trees or shrubs nativeto North America and Mexico.© Project SOUNDCalifornia Hoptree – Ptelea crenulata
  56. 56. 5/20/201356© Project SOUNDHoptree: shrubby Size: 8-15 ft tall 10-15 ft wide Growth form: Large shrub to small tree Winter deciduous Variable growth form – canbe shaped to tree, espalier Foliage: Medium green, shiny leaves Citrus-like scent (samefamily) Contact dermatitis in somepeople; wear gloves whenhandling© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College©2011 Neal Kramer
  57. 57. 5/20/201357© Project SOUNDFlowers: pure citrus Blooms: in spring – usuallyApril-June in S. California Flowers: Many white flowers inclusters; showy likeElderberry Similar in form to orangeor lemon flowers Sweet scent attractstons of native pollinators– and the birds that eatthem Seedpods: Unique; papery wings©2009 Barry BrecklingCharles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  58. 58. 5/20/201358© Project SOUNDLikes its water! Soils: Texture: most pH: any local Light: Best in part-shade in ourclimate; fine for north-facingexposures Water: Winter: adequate Summer: likes regular water –Water Zone 2-3 or 3 Fertilizer: light fertilizer OK; leafmulch appreciated.©2005 Brian L. Anacker©2011 Neal Kramer
  59. 59. 5/20/201359© Project SOUNDHoptree = habitat Most often planted for itshabitat value – excellent value! Makes a nice lawn tree; OK ineven full sun if gets regularwater Background shrub; winterdeciduous©2011 Zoya Akulova
  60. 60. 5/20/201360California Coffeeberry is another pollinatormagnet shrub – in large or small size© Project SOUND
  61. 61. 5/20/201361© Project SOUNDCA Coffeeberry – Frangula (Rhamnus) californicaUSDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  62. 62. 5/20/201362© Project SOUNDCoffeeberry: another versatile, dense evergreen shrubGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS DatabaseJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Size: 6-12 ft tall (usually 8-10) 8-10 ft wide Growth form: Evergreen shrub/small tree Mounded form; ultimately atleast as wide as tall Bark red, becoming gray Moderate growth rate; long lived(several 100 yrs) Foliage: Attractive, medium green Leaves simple, attractive; smaller &thicker w/ less water Deer love it!; Pale Swallowtail larva
  63. 63. 5/20/201363© Project SOUNDPlant Requirements Soils: Texture: well-drained; sandy orrocky best pH: any local (5.0-8.0) Light: full sun to part-shade Water: very flexible Winter: needs good wintermoisture Summer: Best with occasional summerwater: Zone 2 to 2/3; don’t over-water in clays Very drought tolerant onceestablished Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Other: very undemanding (if you sodesire)USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  64. 64. 5/20/201364© Project SOUNDWith Coffeeberry, theberries are the show… Blooms: late spring; usually Apr-June in western L.A. Co. Flowers: Small and not very noticeable Hummingbirds and insectpollinators adore them (in MNBY) Fruits: Small – ¼ inch begin green, ripen to orange/redand finally black in August –October Eaten by many: Quail,Mockingbirds, Thrushes, Robins,Finches, Towhees, Thrashers andJays, etc., even humans!USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  65. 65. 5/20/201365© Project SOUNDCoffeeberry can be used in so many ways… For erosion control onslopes; great combinedwith other CSS orchaparral plants As an accent plant For backs of mixed beds Under oaks; great forsun/shade transition zones Particularly suited forhedging: Formal or informalhedges, screens As a partner in hedgerows
  66. 66. 5/20/201366© Project SOUNDPlenty of cultivars: most of them low-growingcompared to the species‘Eve Case’‘Mound San Bruno’‘Leatherleaf’‘Salt Point’
  67. 67. 5/20/201367Coffeeberry cultivars: habitatat ¼ the size ‘Little Sur’ Very compact; 3-4 or 5 ft. Best nearest the coast; someshade inland Makes good hedges; pot plant ‘Seaview Improved’ 2-3 ft tall; 3-6 ft wide Takes quite a bit of shade topart shade; sun on coast Good groundcover or small shrub© Project SOUND
  68. 68. 5/20/201368Length of bloom coverage: our goal - flowersfrom early spring through fall© Project SOUNDPictures can providea helpful reality check– take plenty!
  69. 69. 5/20/201369© Project SOUNDWinter-Spring transition
  70. 70. 5/20/201370Conclusions: winter-springGood (better in future) 2 ‘early/mid’ Ceanothus ‘Ray Hartman’ – tree ‘Yankee Point’ – groundcover Two ‘early’ Manzanita Arctostaphylos densifloraHoward McMinn‘ – shrub Arctostaphylos glauca – largeshrub CA Encelia (1) – shrub Miniature Lupine – annualConsider adding At least 1 more CA Encelia- ?? Where More Miniature Lupine –around the pruned shrubsto cover bare spots ?? Wall Flower - Erysimuminsulare Early bloomer Yellow color - ? Earlyspring is becoming yellow-blue color scheme; springsummer is pink-purple© Project SOUND
  71. 71. 5/20/201371© Project SOUNDTransition from Spring to Summer
  72. 72. 5/20/201372© Project SOUNDTransition from summer into fall
  73. 73. 5/20/201373Conclusions for summer-fallGood – better in future Still blooming Yarrow (Achillea millefolia) Buckwheats (E. cinereum; E.fasciculatum) Coming into season – fall-bloomingsunflowers Coastal Aster CA Goldenrod (Solidago californica) Sweet Scent – Pluchea odorataConsider adding ???? Any ideas© Project SOUND
  74. 74. 5/20/201374© Project SOUNDThe Sunflower family(Asteraceae) providesimportant food in fall Bloom in late summer/ fall Long bloom season Nectar and pollenavailable to many types ofpollinators (even ants,beetles) Lots of small flowersGoldenbushes – Hazardia & IsocomaBaccharis species
  75. 75. 5/20/201375Another possible ‘pollinator place’ is therain garden – yes, really!© Project SOUND
  76. 76. 5/20/201376© Project SOUNDSalt Marsh Baccharis – Baccharis douglasii
  77. 77. 5/20/201377 Lower elevations from OR toBaja Moist places: Coastal saltmarsh, coastal salt scrub,moist places near streams to2500‘ In Coastal Sage Scrub,Northern Coastal Scrub,Redwood Forest, FoothillWoodland, Yellow Pine Forest© Project SOUNDSalt Marsh Baccharis – Baccharis douglasii,781,783
  78. 78. 5/20/201378© Project SOUNDCharacteristics of Marsh Baccharis Size: 4-6 ft tall 6-8+ ft wide, spreading Growth form: Sub-shrub with part-woodystalks; evergreen with water Numerous stalks fromrhizomes; generally upright Foliage: Simple leaves – quite likeMulefat but not serrated Leaves sticky, resinous©2008 Keir Morse
  79. 79. 5/20/201379© Project SOUNDFlowers like Mulefat Blooms: blooms off and on inwarm weather – like Mulefat –usually June to fall. Flowers: Dioecious – separate male/female plants Flowering heads like Mule-fat, though mostly clusteredat tops of stems Very important nectarsource – summer to fall Seeds: Tiny, air-borne seeds withfluffy hairs
  80. 80. 5/20/201380© Project SOUNDWetland plant – buthardy once established Soils: Texture: any – sand to clay pH: any local, including alkali,salty Light: Full sun to afternoon shade Water: Winter: adequate Summer: very adaptable Pondside/bog Regular water (Zone 3) Little summer water (withp.m. shade) Fertilizer: not picky; likes leavemulch Other: consider containingMarsh Baccharis gets no water inHeritage Creek Preserve - CSUDH
  81. 81. 5/20/201381© Project SOUNDFabulous habitat plant Good pond-poolside plant – willneed to divide Attracts very wide range ofinsects (like Mulefat) Butterflies – includingAmerican Painted Lady,Buckeyes and Acmon Blue Bees & flies Many other weird & wonderfulinsects Makes an attractive pot plant Medicinal: Used as a disinfectant forwounds and sores Infusion or dried poweredfoliage
  82. 82. 5/20/201382Limit insecticide use – or use none at all Pesticides can kill more than thetarget pest – some kill pollinators forseveral days after the pesticide isapplied. Pesticides can also kill naturalpredators, which can lead to evenworse pest problems. Instead: Encourage native predators with adiverse garden habitat Expect and accept a little bit of pestactivity Try removing individual pests by hand ifpossible (wearing garden gloves) If you must use a pesticide, choose onethat is the least toxic to non-pestspecies© Project SOUNDUsing fewer pesticides is morelife-friendly for all species
  83. 83. 5/20/201383© Project SOUNDSaltmarsh Fleabane – Pluchea odorata
  84. 84. 5/20/201384© Project SOUNDSaltmarsh Fleabane –typical for genus© 2003 BonTerra Consulting Size: 2-4 ft. tall 2-3 ft. wide Growth form: sub-shrub Woody base; ends of stems areherbaceous Upright growth habit Annual in colder climates;perennial in ours Dies back in winter Foliage: Pretty color; like Arrow-shaped leaves Roots: fibrous; good soil-binding
  85. 85. 5/20/201385© Project SOUNDSaltmarsh Fleabane does well in gardens… Soils: Texture: any local – does very well infine-textured soils (clays) pH: any local, including alkali, salty Light: Best in full sun with some water Fine with partial shade; not tooparticular Water: Winter: likes it’s water; plant in moistareas of garden, rainswale, etc. Summer: quite flexible; looks betterwith some to regular summer water(Zone 2/3 probably optimal; takes 3) Fertilizer: fine with none; organic mulcheswork well (leaf mulch)© 2003 BonTerra Consulting
  86. 86. 5/20/201386© Project SOUNDVersatile in the garden Excellent choice for moistplaces in garden: Stream or pond banks/edges Rain gardens/swales Areas with sprinkler drift Fine with other nativesneeding similar waterrequirements – remember,dies back in winter Showy choice for fall habitat/butterfly garden; great withyellow fall-flowering plants Does great in pots; give it anoccasional dose of fertilizeror top-dress each spring
  87. 87. 5/20/201387Watch pollinators by the hour…seriously!© Project SOUND
  88. 88. 5/20/201388Lack room and/or water? Try a ‘wetland ina pot’ for a touch of wetland Guilt-free – saves space &water Can contain 1 plant or several –depending on size of container Choose a pretty container;locate in at least part-sun Requires some yearlymaintenance – dividing plants See May posting – MotherNature’s Backyard blog formore© Project SOUNDA ‘wetland in a pot’ serves severalfunctions when you include pollinatorplants like Marsh Baccharis
  89. 89. 5/20/201389Idea for small gardens: tuck small pollinatorplants into pots and around shrubs© Project SOUND
  90. 90. 5/20/201390Western Yarrow – Achilla millefoliaJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  91. 91. 5/20/201391Western Yarrow: the ultimate ‘tuck-in’ plant! Slopes, hillsides Mixtures Good garden plant for fresh or dryfloral arrangements Foliage is pleasantly fragrant whencrushed; medicinal Can be mowed to form a highlycompetitive ground cover tocontrol soil erosion. Flowers!!! Good butterfly/pollinator plant –one of the best in Mother Nature’sBackyardJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  92. 92. 5/20/201392© Project SOUNDCliff Aster – Malacothrix saxatilis
  93. 93. 5/20/201393© Project SOUNDCliff Aster – Malacothrix saxatilis var. tenuifolia Local distribution: common in the Transverse Ranges(Santa Monica, San Gabriel,and San Bernardino mountains) coastal areas in Los Angeles toSan Diego counties on Santa Catalina Island Found in several habitats: Coastal strand/coastal shrub Canyons, coastal-sage scrub Chaparral tenuifolia
  94. 94. 5/20/201394© Project SOUNDCliff Asters areversatile locals Herbaceous perennial Size: 3-5 ft tall & wide Open growth habit; sortof ‘unfurls’ as it blooms Lacy leaves – mostly basal Summer dormant with nowater Long bloom period: Mar-Dec. in good years Often many blooms; quiteshowy
  95. 95. 5/20/201395© Project SOUNDWonderful with itsnatural partners Welcome spot of white againstdarker foliage in a mixed bed On slopes, cliffs, hillsides Natural partners (mostlyZone 1/2): Salvia mellifera & leucophylla Diplacus aurantiacus Quercus agrifolia Native clovers Many spring-blooming annualwildflowers Charming plant – should beused more in local gardens
  96. 96. 5/20/201396Tuck-in plants: Annual wildflowers areenjoyed by all in Mother Nature’s Backyard© Project SOUND
  97. 97. 5/20/201397© Project SOUNDProviding homes for native pollinators Native bees don’t build the wax orpaper structures we associate withhoney bees or wasps, but they do needplaces to nest, which vary dependingon the species. Wood-nesting bees are solitary, oftenmaking individual nests in beetle tunnels instanding dead trees. Ground-nesting bees include solitaryspecies that construct nest tunnels underthe ground. Cavity-nesting social species—bumblebees—make use of small spaces, such asabandoned rodent burrows, wherever theycan find them.Learn about how youcan construct orpromote nativepollinator homes inyour garden
  98. 98. 5/20/201398© Project SOUNDIsland Buckwheat – Eriogonum grande
  99. 99. 5/20/201399© Project SOUNDIsland Buckwheat – Eriogonum grande Channel Island endemic: var. grande (Island Buckwheat) Channel Islands; Santa Cruz,Anacapa, Santa Catalina, SanClemente Islands Bluffs and cliffs, coastal sagescrub and chaparral var. rubescens (Red Buckwheat;San Miguel Island Buckwheat ) n Channel Islands; San Miguel,Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosaislands Cliffs and bluffs, coastalgrassland and scrub communities,5994,6063,6064var. rubescensvar. grande
  100. 100. 5/20/2013100© Project SOUNDSpecial features of Red Buckwheat Size: 1-2 ft tall 3-4 ft wide Growth form: Low-growing mounded form Spreads slowly Foliage: Attractive bright to gray-green withwooly white backs Medium-large ‘Buckwheat leaves’ Flowers: On stalks 2-3 ft tall Color range from light to dark pink One of the showiest CA nativebuckwheats
  101. 101. 5/20/2013101© Project SOUNDGarden uses for RedBuckwheat Super as a pot plant Lovely massed as a groundcover Makes a pretty smaller borderplant For a ‘silver’ (moonlight) garden In any sort of habitat garden As an unusual accent plant In narrow beds & planters Nice with dudleyas, purple sage,yarrow, sedums
  102. 102. 5/20/2013102Diversity of plants/flowers: food for adultsand juveniles of a range of pollinators© Project SOUND© Paul Mirocha 2004
  103. 103. 5/20/2013103© Project SOUNDMoths are important pollinators in western U.S. More prevalent in the Southwest than in otherregions due to warm evenings, hot daytimes,favorable climate Moths visit flowers in search of nutritiousrewards, usually nectar, and transfer pollen as aconsequence of their contact with floralstructures. Some night-blooming plant species, especially indesert grasslands and dune areas, appear to bespecialized for moth pollination However, most moth-pollinated plants employalternative reproductive strategies. These includeself-pollination, recruiting other (diurnal, or day-active) pollinators, or simply waiting for the nextflowering season. Moth pollination is a risky proposition, and moth-flower mutualisms are not very exclusive.
  104. 104. 5/20/2013104© Project SOUNDCharacteristics of flowers that attract largedusk-to-dawn flying moths Night-blooming Large size – often > 1 inch Light color – often white,but may be light yellow orpink Tubular shape – those thatattract the large moths Sweetly scented – may beoverpoweringly so
  105. 105. 5/20/2013105© Project SOUNDHookers Evening Primrose – Oenothera elata
  106. 106. 5/20/2013106© Project SOUNDFlowers are fantastic Blooms: Long summer bloom season;sequential blooms Usually July/Aug to Sept/Octwestern L.A. county Flowers: Good sized; ~ 1 inch diameter Lemon yellow; iridescent Really showy against green leaves Seeds: Bulky pods; split lengthwise Many tiny seeds Re-seeds very well, esp. in sandysoils. Usually not a problem topull up unwanted plant in spring
  107. 107. 5/20/2013107© Project SOUNDGarden uses forHooker’s primrose As a summer perennial in the mixedbed – nice w/ purple accents. Valuable addition to the habitatgarden: Nectar: moths, butterflies,hummingbirds, other pollinators(large bees) Finches and other seed eaters lovethe seeds In a dry garden In the vegetable garden: Root - boiled and eaten like parsnip. Young shoots - raw or cooked Young pods – cooked vegetable
  108. 108. 5/20/2013108© Project SOUNDCalifornia Primrose – Oenothera californica© 2005 Brent Miller
  109. 109. 5/20/2013109© Project SOUNDCalifornia Primrose – Oenothera californica Coastal, Sierra, Transverseand desert mountain rangesof CA to Baja – locally in SanGabriels In foothills (mostly) Sandy or gravelly areas,dunes, desert scrub topinyon/juniper or ponderosa-pine woodlands Same genus as Hooker’sEvening Primrose
  110. 110. 5/20/2013110© Project SOUNDFlowers are the reason toplant native primroses Blooms: In spring - usually Apr-May inour area Flowers open over long period –individual flowers short-lived Flowers: White, becoming more pink Fairly large (2 inch) anddefinitely showy Sweet, slightly musky fragrance Seeds: many tiny seeds in a capsule Vegetative reproduction:sprouting from roots© 2003 Lynn Watson
  111. 111. 5/20/2013111© Project SOUNDEvening Primrose has a specific cast ofpollinators who work at dusk or dawn Hawkmoths (White-lined sphinxmoth - Hyles ) Bees (specifically Lasioglossum,Centris, Xylocopa, Andrena)Hawk moth/White-linedSphinx Moth (Hyles lineata)SweatbeeLasioglossum oenotheraeOil-collecting BeeCentris speciesCarpenter BeeXylocopa spp.
  112. 112. 5/20/2013112© Project SOUNDCare and management: plant & ignore Soils: Texture: sandy/rocky best pH: any local to 8.5 (alkali) Light: Full sun – coastal Part-shade/morning sun inland Water: Winter: good winter rains Summer: drought tolerant buttakes anything from 2 to 3; bestto let dry out in late summer/fall Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Other: cut back as needed in fall.
  113. 113. 5/20/2013113© Project SOUNDNative primrosesin the garden Best planted with nativegrasses, perennials, annualwildflowers Excellent choice forwater-wise parking strip Lovely in pots on a sunnydeck Tucked in around otherplants – a ‘filler plant’ Attract a wild assortmentof insects
  114. 114. 5/20/2013114In summary: you can turn your garden into apollinator haven (and make a difference)© Project SOUND
  115. 115. 5/20/2013115Make your garden water-wise and Life-friendly Plant the right plants toattract and nourish nativepollinators Provide places for pollinatorsto hide and raise their young Provide a source of water –can be as simple as patch ofmoist earth or a saucer withstones Use pesticides sparingly Respect the pollinators andthe services they provide© Project SOUND
  116. 116. 5/20/2013116‘The growing concern for pollinators is a signof progress, but it is vital that we continue tomaximize our collective effort.’ Do something to make yourgarden more pollinator-friendly Celebrate National PollinatorWeek – check for local events(Gardena Willows) Learn more about a pollinatorthat interests you Take photos of pollinators inyour garden – they’re fascinating!© Project SOUND
  117. 117. 5/20/2013117Xerces Society Nonprofit organization that protectswildlife through the conservation ofinvertebrates and their habitat. Information, books, programs forschools, home gardens, etc.© Project SOUND
  118. 118. 5/20/2013118Other resources on pollinators UC Berkeley Urban Bee Gardens Site - Pollinator Partnership - U.S. Fish & Wildlife – Pollinators Page USDA Insects & Pollinators page -© Project SOUND
  119. 119. 5/20/2013119Past ‘Out of the Wilds’ talks – links onNative Plants at CSUDH blog Butterfly Garden talks – Most July talks Moth Pollinators – July, 2010 Bee pollinators – July 2011 Fly pollinators – July 2012 Hummingbirds – May, 2009© Project SOUND
  120. 120. 5/20/2013120Take the message to your friends andneighbors Talk to others – includingchildren – aboutpollinators Encourage your neighborsto plants pollinator-friendly plants Turn your neighborhoodinto ‘Pollinator Heaven’© Project SOUND