Promoting Pollinators - Notes


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Promoting Pollinators - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Promoting Pollinators C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants July 3 & 6, 2010 Project SOUND - 2010 © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDDid you ever wonder why there are so many types of flowers? Sex and the single flower  Pollination is the act of transferring pollen grains from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013Sometimes physical So usually the pollinators are living organisms whoagents transfer the carry the pollen from flower to flowerpollenOnly about 20% of plants are wind pollinatedAnd <1% are water pollinated © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Why worry about living pollinators?  Pollinators are at risk:  Non-native pollinators are vulnerable to environmental factors  They play a key role in the normal - limited genetic variability functioning of our local ecosystems [Example: Honeybee Colony Collapse  > 200,000 plant species worldwide Disorder] depend on pollination  Imagine life without these plants  Native pollinators are at risk due to habitat loss, climate change and use  They are required for production of pesticides of many of our food, medicinal and Honeybee Colony Collapse Disorder  Crop production world-wide is other crops decreasing due to decreasing  ~80% of the world’s crop plants numbers of pollinators depend on pollination – 150 crops in the U.S. alone  So we all should be worried – and  A combined annual $20+ billion taking action industry in the U.S  The third week of June is  Without them, our gardens would designated National Pollinators not sustain themselves Week (The fourth annual National Pollinator Week was June 21-27, 2010)! © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 What can we do to promote our native Who are the living (biotic) pollinators? pollinators?  Plant the plants they need for food – at all stages ofMost common  Bees – of all sizes their lives.  Butterflies  Provide places where they  Moths can reproduce and provide  Flies & other fly-like insects for their young  Protect them by  Beetles practicing Integrated Pest  Hummingbirds Management – limited use  Ants of pesticides  Teach others – by word  Bats and example – about the  Even small reptiles & mammals importance of nativeLeast common pollinators © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Why are some plants pollinator magnets? Native Plants can be likened to theatrical settings. In its native home each plant species is the backdrop and producer of an age-old drama -- one with a well-rehearsed cast of actors, mostly insects. When an exotic plant or even a native but not locally indigenous species is moved to a new land or locale, the cast of actors is left behind, and there is no plot, no play, for an interested audience to witness and enjoy. Edward S. Ross from Butterfly Gardening, The Xerces Society and The Smithsonian © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013Plant families & genera that provide nectar & pollen Annual Phacelias are among our best general for a wide range of native pollinators nectar sources in spring  Many flowers per stalk  Polygonaceae – Buckwheat Family  Produce lots of high-quality nectar  Asteraceae – Sunflower family  Nectar is easy for many types Large-flowered Phacelia - Phacelia grandiflora of pollinators to get to  Lamiaceae – Mint familyEriogonum - Buckwheat  Open over a long period of time  Clematis – Virgin’s Bowers – open ‘up the stalk’  High flower to foliage ratio –  Phacelia - Fiddlenecks lots of energy put into floral production  Easy to grow – under many conditions - dependable Grindelia - Gumplant © Project SOUND Tansey-leaf Phacelia – Phacelia tanecetifolia © Project SOUND * Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia * Desert Bluebells – Phacelia campanularia  Mojave Desert & N. and W. Sonoran Desert of California  Open dry, sandy or gravelly places below 4000 ft.,4587,4601 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Gary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013Desert Bluebells – an annual desert wildflower Flowers are a bright,  Size: pure blue  1-2 ft tall  Blooms: in spring - usually Feb-Apr. in our  1-2+ ft wide area, but may be later  Growth form:  Flowers:  Annual wildflower  Small-medium size (to 1 inch)  Mounded to somewhat  Bell-shaped – typical for Phacelia sprawling shape - attractive  Bright, intense true blue – iridescent  Stems often red-purple in – difficult to photograph color  Seeds:  Foliage:  In dry capsules  Rounded, coarsely-toothed  Relatively easy – no pre-treatment; leaves – somewhat like just plant in place in fall/winter – Heuchera germinate in spring  Whole plant hairy/sticky – may  Serial sow for longer bloom season cause mild skin allergies, so wear gloves to handle  Will reseed – but not extensively – © Project SOUND usually must re-seed © Project SOUND  Soils: Annual ‘Pollenator Plants’Plant Requirements  Texture: any well-drained; sandy & gravelly soils great can be tucked in anywhere  pH: any local  Spilling out of pots & planters  Light:  Full sun (best) to light shade  Along garden paths – often short  Water:  Winter/spring: need plenty of  Massed for spring color – pair water during active growth with Tidy-tips or CA Poppy for a  Summer: occasional deep water real zing! extends blooming; taper off as flowering ends  Between native shrubs & sub- shrubs  Fertilizer: fine in poor soils, OK with light fertilizer (like any of our  Mixed with native desert annual wildflowers) grasses  Other: seeds need bare soil/light  In a rock or gravel garden gravel mulch to germinate; require light as germination cue.  Fine in hot places © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013Advantages of ‘Pollinator Plants’ for the Plants in the Mint family are among our best summer perennial ‘Pollinator Plants’ home garden  Many small flowers – and usually  They are often showy & pretty; usually long bloom period lots of blooms and attractive scents  High-quality nectar (remember, they have to attract their pollinators)  Due to shape, available to long- tongued pollinators (butterflies,  They will increase pollination of food moths, some bees, hummingbirds) plants, leading to better production Salvia species  They will attract wonderful insects to your garden – hours of entertainment for the whole family (or neighborhood)  They are ecologically sound – an important part of local ecosystems © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Stachys species* Nettle-leaf Giant Hyssop – Agastache urticifolia * Nettle-leaf Giant Hyssop – Agastache urticifolia  Foothills & lower mountain slopes of the west – British Columbia to CA – and east to CO (Rocky Mtns)  Locally in San Bernardino & Santa Barbara Mtns.  Common. Generally woodlands, but many habitats, including open slopes,4753,4755 Another common name is ‘Horsemint’, although several species are known by this name© 2004, Ben Legler © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 The genus Agastache – you’re going to Giant Hyssop: a herbaceous perennial see it more often….  Size:  ~ 30 species of aromatic perennials in  2-5 ft tall; shorter in full sun the Lamiaceae family.  2-5 ft wide, slightly spreading  Predominately found in dry hilly areas  Growth form: of the U.S., Mexico, Japan, and China.  Herbaceous perennial; mounded  Many have fragrant foliage, their with square stems scents ranging from anise to mint and  Dies back to ground in winter in citrus. The leaves are used to make most climates – you may need to herbal tea, for flavoring, and in J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database cut back (like other Mints) medicines  The ornamental flower spikes make a  Foliage: pretty addition to salads.  Large, toothed leaves – like a large Mint  Very suitable for herb gardens or  Scented – can be used for teas mixed borders.  Medium green – nice color  Are highly attractive to beneficial insects, including native pollinators.  Roots: fibrous; woody in mature © Project SOUND plants © Project SOUND Giant Hyssop has a long history as a Pretty, old-fashioned medicinal plant flowers aplenty  As a soothing tea (leaves and  Blooms: dried flowers), especially for  In summer, usually June-July upset stomach or colds in western L.A. Co.  Leaves are also used as a  Flowers: flavoring or in salads  On stalks above the foliage –  Mashed leaves were applied typical of the Mints; open up along the stem over several rvlet/Categories?category=Herbal+Pr oducts%3AHydrosols to swollen areas weeks  Even sold today as an herbal:  Many tiny flowers – like therapeutic properties said to miniature snapdragons include immune system  Color usually lavender-pink; stimulation, fluid level may be white to a darker balancing, respiratory system violet aid, and aiding skin problems. © 2004, Ben Legler  Delicately scented - sweet © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013 Giant Hyssop is  Soils: Propagation via  Texture: just about any well- easy to grow drained soil seed  pH: any local  Light:  Let capsules dry to papery brown on the plant  Full sun to part-shade  Will attract more pollinators in  Crush capsules – sift out sunny spot small seeds  Sow in place in fall/winter –  Water: or give 1 month cold-moist  Winter: needs water; winter treatment before planting flooding is fine in spring  Summer: likes a bit of summer  Can also propagate from tip water Zone 2 or 2-3 – good cuttings (summer) or under a birdbath division of young shoots (when about 4-6 inches  Fertilizer: not picky – fine with tall) in spring – fairly easy organic mulch to root  Other: spread slowly via rhizomes © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Giant Hyssop adds a pastel Providing homes for native pollinators element to the summer garden  Native bees don’t build the wax or  In mixed perennial beds – even paper structures we associate with mixed with non-natives honey bees or wasps, but they do need places to nest, which vary depending  In areas with overspray from lawns, on the species. near fountains  Wood-nesting bees are solitary, often  In the vegetable garden or home making individual nests in beetle tunnels in orchard – fine with morning sun standing dead trees.  Ground-nesting bees include solitary  Nice addition to a woodland garden species that construct nest tunnels under Learn about how you – plant in sunny patches the ground. can construct or  Great bee plant – produces a light, promote native  Cavity-nesting social species—bumble minty-flavored honey pollinator homes in bees—make use of small spaces, such as your garden abandoned rodent burrows, wherever they can find them.  One of the best additions to the butterfly garden © Project SOUND © Project SOUND l+Agastache+urticifolia+propag ation&cd=29&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 The Sunflower family * CA Broomsage – Lepidospartum squamatum (Asteraceae) provides important food in fall  Bloom in late summer/ fall Goldenbushes – Hazardia & Isocoma  Long bloom season  Nectar and pollen available to many types of pollinators (even ants, beetles)  Lots of small flowers © 2003 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Baccharis species * CA Broomsage – Lepidospartum squamatum Broomsages aren’t  Sierra Nevada Foothills, South Coast sages at all… Ranges and Deserts to Baja  Lepidospartum - a small genus  Sandy or gravelly washes, stream ledges, of three species of flowering coastal sage scrub, chaparral, joshua tree plant in the Sunflower family woodland In SM mtns  Known commonly as broomsages or scalebrooms.  Common on alluvial fans draining the San Gabriel Mtns.  Native to the southwestern United States and far northern Mexico.  Tall, woody shrubs with stiff twiggy branches that resemble brooms.  Have thin, narrow, needlelike or scalelike leaves and bear yellow daisy flowers. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 California Broomsage can be a bit homely in the wild Flowers are like Goldenbush or Goldenrod  Size:  3-5 ft tall  Blooms: in fall, Aug-Oct.  3-5 ft wide  Growth form:  Flowers:  Small, in sunflower heads  Woody sub-shrub; – no true ray flowers herbaceous stems from a woody base  Very similar to Goldenbush or Mock  Branches look like brooms (or Heather (Ericameria) like Ephedra, if you know that plant)  Plants just covered with flowering heads – very  Foliage: showy in bloom  Tiny, scale-like leaves are  Seeds: well adapted to hot dry climate  Small, with fluffy ‘hairs’  Eaten by seed-eating  Roots: deep; branched birds © 2004 Dr. Daniel L. Geiger © 2001 Thomas M. Elder, M.D. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2009 Stanley Spencer Broomsage takes a  Soils: Important fall habitat plant lot of abuse…  Texture: well-drained  pH: any local including alkali  Attracts a wide  Light: full sun; takes heat variety of Lepidoptera,  Water: Hymenoptera,  Winter: tolerates seasonal flooding Diptera, Coleoptera,  Summer: very drought and Orthoptera tolerant; best Zone 1-2 or 2  Bees  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Flies & beeflies  Butterflies & moths  Other:  Beetles  Remember, this is a rather  And many, many plain plant most of the year – plant accordinglyy&month=8&year=2004&day=29 more  Best if pruned back after flowering when looks scraggly © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 Broomsage is right at home in the desert garden Three simple things you can do to increase pollinators in your garden  Usually used in desert-themed  provide a range of gardens; but fine also locally native flowering for dry streambeds, plants that bloom rock gardens throughout the  Excellent choice for growing season fall color in hot, dry gardens (better than  create nest sites for Goldenbushes) native pollinators  Fine habitat plant –  avoid using pesticides nectar, seeds, and cover © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Butterfly flowers have certain characteristics due to Most of us know that butterflies can be their relationship with their butterfly pollinators important pollinators  Butterflies are very active during the day and visit a variety of wildflowers. Butterflies are less efficient than bees at moving pollen between plants. Highly perched on their long thin legs, they do not pick up much pollen on their bodies and lack specialized structures for collecting it. Butterflies have good vision but a weak  Butterflies probe for nectar, sense of smell. Unlike their flight fuel, and typically favor the flat, clustered bees, butterflies can flowers that provide a landing see red. pad and abundant rewards. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013Butterfly flowers have certain characteristics due to Pollination syndromes: a partial answer to the their relationship with their butterfly pollinators question ‘why all those types of flowers?’  Butterfly Flowers often are:  Pollination syndromes are suites of flower  In clusters and provide landing traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different platforms pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees,  Brightly colored (red, yellow, flies, and so forth. orange)  These traits include flower shape, size,  Open during the day colour, odor, reward type and amount, nectar composition, timing of flowering,  Ample nectar producers, with etc. nectar deeply hidden  For example, tubular red flowers with copious nectar often attract hummingbirds;  Nectar guides present foul smelling flowers attract carrion flies or beetles, etc.  May be clusters of small flowers  Pollination syndromes are excellent (goldenrods, Buckwheats) examples of convergent evolution. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND*Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei *Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei  Coastal S. California across portions of the Mohave Desert southward into Mexico and northeast to Arizona.  Locally, ssp. intermedia occurs in the Santa Monica Mtns & ssp. parishii occurs along the coastal slopes of the San Gabriel & San Bernardino Mtns.  Ssp. intermedia - coastal sage scrub and chaparral, 0-2000 ft. Usually in areas transitional between maritime and continental influences. Ssp. parishii on foothill slopes © 2003 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 *Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei Yuccas are interesting succulents  Size:  2-3 ft tall; flower stalk to 10-12 ft  2-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Perennial succulent – evergreen to almost so  Spp. intermedia forms clonal clumps  Foliage:  Foliage in basal rosette  Leaves green to blue-green, bayonet-like with strong, sharp spine on tips © 2005 BonTerra Consulting  Very decorative – long used in Ssp. intermedia – coastal Ssp. parishii – transverse ranges Glenn and Martha Vargas © California Academy of Sciences gardens © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Sub-species are adapted Yucca are useful to local conditions  Leaves:  Subspecies are distinguished  Fibers used for rope, mats, by growth form (caespitose or sandals, baskets, nets solitary) and color, size, and shape of leaves and flowers.  Roots:  Source of saponins for soap  The five subspecies also © 2009 Stanley Spencer differ in phenological  Flowers/Flowering stalk: development (timing), fruit set, and growth habit. The  Young blossoms were eaten life history of each subspecies raw, roasted, or cooked with is distinct wild onions  Flowering stem - raw or  Local coastal ssp. intermedia cooked. Very young stalks (from Santa Monica mtns.) sends out pups before it dies, used to make syrup so it forms clonal clumps  Seeds were ground & eaten © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013 Flowers are spectacular – Yucca seeds are but rare also distinctive  Each plant blooms only once, usually at 8-12 years age,  Form inside a hard, leathery before dying capsule – ripe when capsule becomes dry & starts to open  Blooms: in spring, usually Apr-May in coastal areas, a bit later J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences  Flat black seeds in densely- further inland; 2-7 week bloom packed columns period (shortest on dry sites)  Variable germination rates. To  Flowers: enhance:  On a stout flowering stem, 8- 12 ft tall  Store in moist sand or  Color ranges from white (ssp. perlite in refrigerator for intermedia) to cream-colored several months (ssp. parishii)  Flowers bell-shaped, large (1+  Pre-soak seeds for 24 hrs in inch) unlike any others warm water G.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND Yuccas make unique Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: not particular, but specimen plants usually well-drained in nature  pH: any local  In community-themed gardens: Coastal Sage Scrub, Chaparral,  Light: Desert  Full sun to light shade  In rock gardens and other  Can take heat, reflected heat water-wise gardens  Water:  On dry hillsides, slopes  Winter: adequate  Summer: looks best with  As a habitat plant: occasional summer water  The flowers, fruits used by a (Zone 1-2 to 2) number of small birds and mammals; provides cover for  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils small animals like lizards  Other: older leaves may die;  Larval food for the California these can be removed to improve yucca moth (Tegeticula appearance. maculata) G.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14