2/3/2013       Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden                                                                      ...
2/3/2013                                                                                                         Miner’s L...
2/3/2013Suggestions for growing native greens                                                                             ...
2/3/2013     Fringed Redmaids – Calandrinia ciliata var menziesii                                 Fringed Redmaids – Calan...
2/3/2013       Flowers are an                                   Spring-blooming – as early as                    Red Maid...
2/3/2013         Many uses for Red Maids in the garden                                                                    ...
2/3/2013          Cobwebby Thistle – Cirsium occidentale                                                                  ...
2/3/2013       Cobwebby Thistle is well suited to garden                                                                  ...
2/3/2013                                                                                                                  ...
2/3/2013                                                                                                                  ...
2/3/2013       Yes, you can have sweet peas in your CSS                                                                   ...
2/3/2013                                                                                                                  ...
Edible greens   Feb-2013-notes
Edible greens   Feb-2013-notes
Edible greens   Feb-2013-notes
Edible greens   Feb-2013-notes
Edible greens   Feb-2013-notes
Edible greens   Feb-2013-notes
Edible greens   Feb-2013-notes
Edible greens   Feb-2013-notes
Edible greens   Feb-2013-notes
Edible greens   Feb-2013-notes
Edible greens   Feb-2013-notes
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Edible greens Feb-2013-notes

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Edible greens Feb-2013-notes

  1. 1. 2/3/2013 Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gourmet Greens CA native plants for salads, snacks & cooked greens C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve/El Dorado Nature CenterGardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County February 2 & 5, 2013 Project SOUND – 2013 (our 9th year) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Growing your own food: on the upswing? Not your grandmother’s vegetable garden any more!  Fun  Educational  Good exercise  Interesting looking plants  Saves money  Tasty, fresh ingredients  Chance to grow & use ‘exotic’ ingredients –http://bloomtown.typepad.com/bloomtown/bloomtown_my_garden/ including CA native plants © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 2/3/2013 Miner’s Lettuce – Claytonia perfoliata Advantages of using native greens plants ssp. perfoliata & mexicana  Easy to grow  Water-wise (compared to non-native greens)  Add wonderful ‘exotic’ & healthy flavors to your diet  Good nutritional value Good for pollinators,  Add interest to butterflies, birds, etc. vegetable garden © 2001 Steven Thorsted http://nativeplantsocietyca.tribe.net/photos/cfd27d18-6ba7-4365-b1d9-c1c7c67b9cbe © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Miner’s lettuce is Characteristics of Miner’s Lettuce great for out of the way places  Herbaceous annual; makes a good annual groundcover  In the vegetable  Size: 6-12 in. high; to 12 in. wide garden  Growth period: fall to spring  In pots  Blooms:  Under deciduous trees  Small, white http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/minersl2.htm  Feb-May  Along a fencein English kitchen gardens, Miner’s  Foliage:  Along a seasonal  Attractive & unusualLettuce (called ‘Winter Purslane’) isesteemed as a pot-herb and a  Edible: usually raw in salads or as stream or pondsalad plant. mild cooked greens © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 2/3/2013Suggestions for growing native greens Claytonia perfoliata on the table  Give them a special space in your vegetable garden – or grow  Pick young leaves – them in pots for easy harvest best before it flowers  Locate them away from sources of pollution – streets, etc.  Refreshing raw – as a succulent snack or in a  Make sure they get adequate salad winter rain (or water them) – you want lots of young leaves  Nice with a vinaigrette dressing – gives it a  Use no pesticides/herbicides little spice  Grow plenty – you want to let some plants go to seed for next  Can also be used for year’s crop cooked greens – but quite bland flavor © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Seasoning marinades Use mild native greens in creative ways & vinegars  In sandwiches  Artemisia californica  As greens in tacos  Artemisia dracunculus  On party snacks  Bladderpod  In tabouleh – also use your Wild  Native onions (Allium) Mint (Mentha arvense)  Peppergrasses  Salvias  Even some of the berries/ fruits Experiment to find the best http://abouquetfrommendel.wordpress.com/2012/02/04/getting- nettled/#more-208 combinations. In general, stronger flavors are best with red wine or rice vinegars http://thecaptivatinglife.blogspot.com/2012/04/tabouleh.html http://hippojoy.wordpress.com/tag/event/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 2/3/2013 Fringed Redmaids – Calandrinia ciliata var menziesii Fringed Redmaids – Calandrinia ciliata var menziesii  Wide distribution:  Western United States , Central America, and northern South America.  In CA: California Floristic Province, some areas E. of Sierras  Usually in grassy areas, woodland openings or disturbed areas  Name derivation:  Calandrinia: named for Jean Louis Calandrini (1703-1758), a professor of mathematics and philosophy, and a botanical Question to ponder: does the author in Switzerland distribution of this plant suggest a human role?  ciliata: indicates the slight fringing of the petals like an eyelash © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDIn nature, Red Maids often occurs on sandy or Red Maids are spreading annuals rocky soils, after fires  Size:  < 2 ft tall; tips of stems upcurviing  2-3 ft wide – side stems are spreading; plants will grow together  Growth form: sprawling/spreading herbaceous annual from a basal rosette.  Foliage:  Attractive light green  Slightly succulent leaves; spatula shaped  Roots: taproot; grow in place Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences © 2006 Chris Wagner © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 2/3/2013 Flowers are an  Spring-blooming – as early as Red Maids is well suited to the vegetable added bonus Feb. to May garden…  Long bloom period with adequate  Soils: water – flowers open sequentially  Texture: any well-drained soil; along the stems does super in sandy or rocky soils, but typical vegetable gardens  Flowers are: soils would be great  Tiny - < ½ inch across  pH: just about any local  An unusual shade of hot pink/magenta – hard to  Light: full sun; great in regular photograph vegetable gardenRobert Potts © California Academy of Sciences  Open only during sunniest part of  Water: the day – flowers ‘disappear’ into  Winter: needs good winter/ their calyces at other times spring rains  Seeds are:  Summer: regular water (Zone 2-3  Tiny & shiny – but numerous; wind or 3) will extend blooms slightly; spread no water for seed set  Very tasty – were prized food  Fertilizer: fine with light fertilizer for Native Californians (parched Plants re-seed very well – but it’s easy & ground to make pinole) to weed out unwanted plants © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDJo-Ann Ordano © California Academy of Sciences Redmaids make  Use only young leaves – best Picking your native greens piquant greens before flowering; Arugala-like  Leaves contain oxalic acid, so  Be sure you know what you’re should be used in moderation. picking – this is certainly easier in  Oxalic acid can lock up certain of the garden than in the wilds the nutrients in food - can lead to nutritional deficiencies if eaten in  As with any new food, it’s best to excess. just try a little bit at first  They are, however, perfectly safe  Tastiest greens are young leaves in small amounts and their acid taste adds a nice flavor to salads. and shoots – before flowering  Cooking the plant will reduce the  Be sure to wash all greens quantity of oxalic acid. carefully before eating/preparing them  People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney  You may be able to just remove stones and hyperacidity should leaves from some plants – and take especial caution if including they’ll re-grow new greens this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 2/3/2013 Many uses for Red Maids in the garden Preparing native  Some young greens can be eaten greens raw – alone or in salads  Very nice in pots – very green and attractive; helps control  Some wild greens have strong them to an extent flavors – use them with other, milder-flavored greens  In the vegetable garden –  Older greens often taste better flowers really perk up a steamed or boiled vegetable garden  Taste a small bit raw – the more  In the fronts of mixed beds bitter the taste, the more likely it will taste better cooked  Along walkways  For bitter greens, change water  Among native bunchgrasses; several times – but use as few changes as possible to retain needs bare ground to reseed nutrients  In the ‘Children’s Garden’ – easy  Treat like you would spinach – often 5-10 min. cooking is all  For bird habitat – many birds & that’s needed insects relish the seeds © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Parching seeds Using parched seeds: limited only by your imagination  Use a heavy skillet (cast iron is great)  To add flavor to baked or cooked items  Heat a little oil in the skillet  Topping for bread http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/granado/images/basket.html over low heat; no oil needed for well-seasoned skillets  On bland cooked vegetables  On casseroles  Wipe out all but a thin layer of  As a salad topper the oil  Etc.  Pour in a thin layer of fully dry  Ground (alone or with other http://plants.usda.gov/culturalinfo.html seeds seeds/spices)  Keep seeds moving so theyhttp://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/Buffalo/images/pf021841.jpg don’t burn  Pinole  Mush  Remove from skillet when  Beverages golden brown – some may pop  Biscuits & pancakes  You can also parch seeds in  Etc. the oven http://www.allgauhotel.com/wiki/wiki_turkish_cuisine.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 2/3/2013 Cobwebby Thistle – Cirsium occidentale Cobwebby Thistle – Cirsium occidentale  Two varients:  var. californicum:  Sierra Nevada and coastal & var. californicum transverse ranges from central CA south into Baja  Disturbed places, woodland, open forest, as well as chaparral, coastal sage scrub  var. occidentale:  Coastal CA, coastal ranges from N. CA south  Stabilized dunes, roadsides  Grasslands, coastal scrub, var. occidentale chaparral, oak woodlands, http://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/2006/01/cirsium_occidentale_var_occidentale.php © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?609,963,987,991 Cobwebby Thistles are nice thistles Flowers make a bold statement  Size:  Blooms:  1-4 ft tall  usually April-July along coast  1-3 ft wide  Bloom period: 3-4 wks  Growth form:  Flowers:  Biennial or short-lived perennial  Super-showy thistle flowers  Basal rosette of leaves in first  Pollinated by bees, flies, year; flowers second year butterflies (American & Painted  Fast-growing; not invasive Ladies)  Foliage:  Seeds:  Foliage gray-green, very wooly  Will self-sow; rarely weedy  Spiny, coarsely toothed leaves –  Vegetative Reproduction: no – very showy not invasive G.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Databasehttp://plants.montara.com/ListPages/FamPages/Astera3.html#cirocc © Project SOUND http://plants.montara.com/ListPages/FamPages/Astera3.html#cirocc © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 2/3/2013 Cobwebby Thistle is well suited to garden Garden uses for Cobwebby Thistle conditions…  As an attractive pot plant  Soils:  In the annual wildflower garden or mixed  Texture: best with well- beds drained; sandy/rocky soils best  In the vegetable garden; stem may be  pH: any eaten raw or cooked  Light: full sun to light shade  Great addition to the wildlife garden:  Water: butterflies, bees, birds, hummingbirds, and more!  Summer: none to occasional; would do well with native annuals http://earthhomegarden.blogspot.com/search/label/native %20plant%20garden  Fertilizer: none – likes poor soils Remember: plant where the spiny leaves won’t be a hazardhttp://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_main/whatsnew.html © Project SOUND http://www.calfloranursery.com/pag © Project SOUND es_main/whatsnew.html Preparing Thistle stems for cooking Cooking with Cirsium stems  Pick young stems, after they’ve extended but before the flowering  Rub the raw shoots or roots heads are fully developed with lemon juice prior to cooking  Handle plants with protection – to keep them from darkening rose-pruning gloves  Steam or boil stems until just  Cut off the stalk (or just the top tender foot or so)  Rinse in cool water  Use cooked Cirsium in:  Remove leaves & top bud (which you http://www.foragingfoodie.net/stinging-nettle-quiche.html  Recipes calling for artichokes – can prepare like artichoke) Quiche with Stinging nettles taste is similar  Peel, scrape or rough-brush to  Recipes for dishes using remove fuzzy epidermis asparagus (quiche, etc.)  Cut stalk into appropriate sized  Traditional dishes that feature thistles pieces – eat raw or cook © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 2/3/2013 Thistles in Almond Sauce - Thistles are a delicacy in Mediterranean cardo con almendras countries, particularly in Spain  Boil thistle pieces until tender; drain  Variety of traditional Spanish dishes made from and keep some of the cooking water. thistles, which grow well in Spain.  In a frying pan heat olive oil, add  The Rioja region in the north of Spain is famous garlic and cook until golden. Add the for a number of dishes, including cardo con ground almonds and toast lightly, almendras ‘thistle with almonds’ (traditionally stirring continuously. http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/recipes/6391/thistles-in-almond-sauce eaten during Christmas fiestas).  Add ¾ cup of the cooking water and let  Thistles simmer for a couple of minutes. Stir inhttp://dietamediterraneasana.blogspot.com/2012/02/ 2 garlic clovesberenjenas-rellenas-de-nueces-y-reto.html   Other regions of Spain have their own traditional the boiled thistles and bubble to dishes:  Olive oil thicken a bit.  Basque Country: conejo con cardo ‘rabbit with  Almond, finely ground thistle’  Almond flakes  Place in a baking dish. Finish with  Aragón: cardo con nueces ‘thistle with walnuts’ and chopped parsley, grated parmesan  parsley, chopped cardo a la bechamel con piñones ‘thistle in bechamel cheese, almond flakes and freshly  parmesan cheese, grated sauce with pine nuts’. ground black pepper.  Galician coast with its great variety of seafood  black peppercorns, freshly ground  Bake for 15-20 minutes at 350º http://andosillagastronomica.blogspot.com/2012/11/fotof provides cardo con almejas ‘thistle with clams’ rafias-del-curso-de-cocina.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Prickly-pear cuisine Using Opuntia pads for cooked greens  Young pads: raw or cooked (nopales)  Gather the young pads when about half grown and before  Seeds: parched and eaten or ground the spines have hardened. into flour  Remove any spines with heavy knife, wash pad  Fruits: sweet & distinctive  Cut into narrow strips, boil  Raw until tender  Dried  Serve with a tasty dressing orhttp://www.ecnca.org/Plants/Photo_Pages/Opuntia_littoralis.htm  Stewed/steamed just salt and pepper - or use as  Made into jellies, juices & sauces you would a side of green beans  Cactus greens have always been much appreciated by desert dwellers whose craving for green food it is not always easy to satisfy. Care in handling Prickly-pear http://www.newportbay.org/plants/pricklypearleaf.html#Leaf3 © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 2/3/2013 Nopalitos – yum!  Many traditional dishes: Spanish, Native Southwestern and Central/South America  Consider swapping Cirsium forhttp://www.brittanypowell.com/food-i-make/preparing-nopales/ http://www.girlichef.com/2011/05/nopalitos-salad-cactus-paddle-salad.html Nopalitos for a Mediterranean taste Nopalitos salade with cilantro dressing http://queermaculture.blogspot.com/2009/06/tacos-de-nopales-y-verdolagas.html http://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/cactus_and_corn_salsa/ http://www.rivenrock.com/nopalessalad.htm http://chanfles.com/comida/nopalitos/index.html Nopalitos tacos Nopalitos and corn salsa © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/Recipes/Mexican-Taco-Recipes-670/Nopalitos-Tacos-Tacos-de-Nopalitos-1149.aspx Hillside/Pacific Pea - Lathyrus vestitus Canyon Pea - Lathyrus vestitus  Coasts & coastal ranges of CA, from OR to Baja  Coastal sage scrub, chaparral, oak woodland, coniferous or mixed forest  Common and widespread inhabitant of dry to shaded places below 5000‘  Lathyrus: from the Greek lathyros, an old name for "pea", vestitus: covered, clothed, usually with hairs http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/socal/peasd.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 2/3/2013 Yes, you can have sweet peas in your CSS Canyon Pea flowers are a joy to behold garden!  Flowers:  Size:  2-8 ft long (usually 1-3);  Spring: usually April-June spreading  Color:  usually light pink to white;  Growth form:  may be lavender;  Perennial vine with woody base  San Diego variant (var. alefeldii ) is magenta  Climbing, sprawling with twining green stems, with tendrils  Flowers look like wild sweetpeas (or  Quick-growing (each year) even slightly small horticultural varieties)  Foliage:  Sweetly scented  Gray-green leaves; slightly hairy  Good for native pollinators: bees, hummingbirds & butterflies  Leaves compound; 10-12 large, elongated opposite leaflets  Seed pod:  Drought-deciduous  Larval food for Marine Blue  pink-green & fuzzy, drying to brown butterfly http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/canyonsweetpea.html  Seeds of Pea family may be toxic if http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/canyonsweetpea.html eatenhttp://www.coepark.org/wildflowers/white/lathyrus-vestitus.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Garden conditions Use Canyon Pea like any  Soils: Sweetpea  Texture: any from sand to clay  pH: 5-8  In a fragrance garden  Light:  Usually occurs in part shade near  Climbing up fences, trellises or other oaks and other shrubs supports  Best in filtered sun or morning sun  Water:  On ‘natural’ hillsides  Winter: moist soils; rapid growth in  Great under oaks, Toyon, other winter/spring chaparral tree & shrubs http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/canyonsweetpea.html  Summer:  Fairly dry soils; fine with no summer  Probably even in large containers water  can be aggressive with regular water; its growth should be monitored so it doesnt escape into http://www.calflora.net/favoritephotos/images/sandiegopea7.jpg natural habitats. Locate Canyon Pea where you can enjoy  Fertilizer: none needed; organic San Diego Pea mulch is fine its flowers & fragrance Lathyrus vestitus var. alefeldii © Project SOUND http://www.redshift.com/~bigcreek/fire/fire5/index.html © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 2/3/2013 1. Preheat the oven to 375° F Creamed Greens Casserole 2. Melt the butter in the pot over medium Recipes calling for Nettles can be heat. Saute the onions and garlic until adapted for Canyon Pea Greens they are soft and translucent. Add the mushrooms and saute until they soften and glisten, about 3 minutes. Sprinkle the  Soups paprika over the vegetables and stir.  Sauces 3. Add greens a few handfuls at a time, stirring as you go. Once they have cooked  Pesto 3 tablespoons unsalted butter down a bit, season with a little salt and  Etc. 1 medium onion, minced pepper. Cover and continue cooking until 6 cloves garlic, minced the greens are tender, 20 to 30 minutes. 8 ounces (227 g) sliced mushrooms 4. Stir in the cream or half & half, and 1 teaspoon paprika, chili powder, or bring to a boil. Reduce to a simmer, cook Cajun seasoning 1 pound (454 g) fresh early greens, until thickened, about 5 minutes or so. washed, trimmed, and chopped 5. Pour into baking dish and sprinkle with sea salt, to taste grated cheese. fresh ground black pepper, to taste 6. Bake 5 to 10 minutes, until the cheese 16 ounces (473 mil) heavy cream orhttp://abouquetfrommendel.wordpress.com/2012/02/04/getting-nettled/#more-208 half & half is bubbly. Remove from the oven and allow 4 ounces (113 g) sharp cheddar to cool for a few minutes serving. Serves http://honest-food.net/veggie-recipes/greens-and-herbs/nettle-pesto/ cheese, grated 6 to 8. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://andreasrecipes.com/creamed-turnip-greens/ You can save native greens for later Fringed Willow Herb – Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum  Wash, cut as usual  Blanch (cook partially) for 2-3 minutes  Boiling water  Steam  Microwave (shorter time) http://www.theworldinmykitchen.com/2011/06/how-to-freeze-greens-spinach-kale-chard.html  Chill quickly in ice water/cold water  Freeze in freezer bags  Best used within 3-6 months http://minnesotaseasons.com/Plants/American_willowherb.html http://foodwhirl.com/techniques/how-to-freeze-greens © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12

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