1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden                                                                             ...
1/6/2013  Are CA native plants and edibles                           Ways in which ‘conventional’ edibles     gardens real...
1/6/2013                                                                                                                  ...
1/6/2013        Guide to S. CA Vegetable Crops                                           How about some native cool-season...
1/6/2013                                                            Growing Miner’s Lettuce                               ...
1/6/2013                        Red Maids are spreading annuals                                           Flowers are an  ...
1/6/2013         Many uses for Red Maids in the garden                                                                    ...
1/6/2013                         Bull clover/ Sour Clover –                Trifolium fucatum                           Bul...
1/6/2013             Clovers – not hard to grow once you know                                              the trick      ...
1/6/2013     Attracting pollinators to the veggie garden                                                                  ...
1/6/2013                                       The Plumbaginaceae                                                         ...
1/6/2013         Available as plants: easy also from seed                                                                 ...
1/6/2013        Many annual wildflowers are great for        attracting pollinators – and fit easily into                 ...
1/6/2013       * Southern Umbrellawort – Tauschia arguta                                                 * Southern Umbrel...
1/6/2013                                                                                    Easy to grow                  ...
1/6/2013                                                                                      Genetically modified foods a...
Native Plants in Vegetable Garden - Notes
Native Plants in Vegetable Garden - Notes
Native Plants in Vegetable Garden - Notes
Native Plants in Vegetable Garden - Notes
Native Plants in Vegetable Garden - Notes
Native Plants in Vegetable Garden - Notes
Native Plants in Vegetable Garden - Notes
Native Plants in Vegetable Garden - Notes
Native Plants in Vegetable Garden - Notes
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Native Plants in Vegetable Garden - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Into the Vegetable Garden: Using CA Native Plants in the Edibles Garden C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants June 2 & 5, 2012 Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Many of us grow edibles in our home Benefits of growing your own fruits & gardens (or are thinking of starting) vegetables  Fun  Educational  Good exercise  Interesting looking plants  Saves money  Tasty, fresh ingredients http://bloomtown.typepad.com/bloomtown/bloomtown_my_garden/  Opportunity to grow heirloom varieties – and to grow foods that are not genetically modified  Chance to grow & use ‘exotic’ ingredients – including CA native plants http://www.denverpost.com/grow/ci_20587823/big-flavors-from-small-fruits © Project SOUND http://vegetablegardenathome.com/ © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 Are CA native plants and edibles Ways in which ‘conventional’ edibles gardens really compatible? may differ from native plants  Water requirements: many conventional edible plants require more water than many CA native plants  Nutrient requirements: many conventional edibles require more nutrients than most CA native plants like/need © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDOf course you can plan for different water needs – You can also get around the other that’s what Water Zone Gardening is all about differences – with a little planning © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 We look on-line for some inspiration Summer’s a good time to re-evaluate What works well? What needs changing? http://efnep.ucdavis.edu/?blogpost=4501&blogasset=17351 http://pcnatthegreenshow.wordpress.com/2010/04/18/california-spring-trials-day-3-along-the-central-coast/ http://blog.gardenerd.com/2007/10/13/raised-beds--part-1-materials.aspx http://www.thriftyfun.com/tf16684008.tip.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://timberglade.typepad.com/outside/vegetables/ Your resolutions:  Minor changes to most of the You’ve got the whole summer to get ready raised beds – a few repairs summer 2012 for fall planting – time to get cracking!  Convert the back beds to narrow beds for specialty crops – more space between them & back fence  Better use of the back fence area: ?? New vines  Add a few more beds – allow you to ‘rest’ some beds each year for plant healthhttp://blog.gardenerd.com/2007/10/13/raised-beds--part-1-materials.aspx  Use the large pots more Incorporate native plants into  Create some open areas the edible garden; use more surrounding garden for heirloom varieties pollinator plants/ plants to attract beneficial insects http://www.mastergardeners.org/projects/gilroy.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013 Guide to S. CA Vegetable Crops How about some native cool-season crops? Warm-season Vegetables Cool-season Vegetables  Plant: Plant:  From seed: Aug-Oct in shaded  From seed: Mar-May; depends pots; Sep-Oct in ground on how cold the spring is  From starts: Oct-Dec  From starts: Apr-June (even July for late crops)  Ripen:  Early crops: Oct-Nov Ripen:  Late crops: Dec-Feb  Early crops: June-July (Aug) Late crops: Aug-Sept  Examples: Examples:  Early crops: broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale,  Early crops: beans, cucumbers, kohlrabi, mustard, lettuce and summer squash, tomatoes, other greens  Late crops: corn, melons,  Late crops: peas, cabbage, winter squash celery, http://www.amillionlives.net/vegetable-gardening-tips-easy-ideas-for-great-produces.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Miner’s Lettuce – Claytonia perfoliata Planning our cool-season garden ssp. perfoliata & mexicana Traditional vegetables CA native greens  Lettuce  Allium haematochiton  Spinach  Calandrinia ciliata  Camissonia species  Peas  Claytonia perfoliata  Broccoli  Mimulus cardinalis  Oenothera elata  Phacelia species  Plantago species  Trifolium species © 2001 Steven Thorsted http://nativeplantsocietyca.tribe.net/photos/cfd27d18-6ba7-4365-b1d9-c1c7c67b9cbe © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013 Growing Miner’s Lettuce Placement in our garden from seed  Annual plant: dies to nothing in summer Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Extremely easy  Any soil: amended or not  Sow in prepared soil in fall (best) through spring © by Gena Zolotar  Light: any (full sun to full shade)  Germinates with:  Damp soil/fall rains  Water: can take some  Short days extra water  Re-seeds  Want to be able to pick  May want to remove plants if it for winter salads too prolific – will depend on sitehttp://www.pacifichorticulture.org/phv66n3.editorial.html Fringed Redmaids – Calandrinia ciliata var menziesii Fringed Redmaids – Calandrinia ciliata var menziesii  Wide distribution:  Western United States , Central America, and northern South America.  In CA: California Floristic Province, some areas E. of Sierras  Usually in grassy areas, woodland openings or disturbed areas  Name:  Calandrinia: named for Jean Louis Calandrini (1703-1758), a professor of mathematics and philosophy, and a botanical Question to ponder: does the author in Switzerland distribution of this plant suggest a  ciliata: indicates the slight human role? fringing of the petals like an eyelash © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013 Red Maids are spreading annuals Flowers are an  Spring-blooming – as early as added bonus Feb. to May  Size:  Long bloom period with adequate  < 2 ft tall; tips of stems water – flowers open sequentially upcurviing along the stems  2-3 ft wide – side stems are spreading; plants will grow  Flowers are: together  Tiny - < ½ inch across  An unusual shade of hot  Growth form: sprawling/spreading pink/magenta – hard to herbaceous annual from a basal photograph rosette. Robert Potts © California Academy of Sciences  Open only during sunniest part of the day – flowers ‘disappear’ into  Foliage: their calyces at other times  Attractive light green  Seeds are:  Slightly succulent leaves; spatula  Tiny & shiny – but numerous; wind shaped spread  Roots: taproot; grow in place  Very tasty – were prized food for Native Californians (parched & ground to make pinole) © 2006 Chris Wagner © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Jo-Ann Ordano © California Academy of Sciences Red Maids is well suited to the vegetable Redmaids make  Use only young leaves – best piquant greens before flowering; Arugala-like garden…  Soils:  Leaves contain oxalic acid, so it should only be used in moderation.  Texture: any well-drained soil; does super in sandy or rocky soils,  Oxalic acid can lock up certain of the nutrients in food - can lead to but typical vegetable gardens nutritional deficiencies if eaten in soils would be great excess.  pH: just about any local  It is, however, perfectly safe in  Light: full sun; great in regular small amounts and its acid taste adds a nice flavor to salads. vegetable garden  Water:  Cooking the plant will reduce the quantity of oxalic acid.  Winter: needs good winter/ spring rains  People with a tendency to  Summer: regular water (Zone 2-3 rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney or 3) will extend blooms slightly; stones and hyperacidity should take especial caution if including no water for seed set this plant in their diet since it can  Fertilizer: fine with light fertilizer aggravate their conditionPlants re-seed very well – but it’s easyto weed out unwanted plants © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 Many uses for Red Maids in the garden Planning our cool-season garden  Very nice in pots – very green Traditional CA native greens and attractive; helps control vegetables them to an extent  Allium haematochiton  In the vegetable garden –  Lettuce  Calandrinia ciliata  Edible greens and seeds  Camissonia species  Spinach  Flowers really perk up a  Claytonia perfoliata vegetable garden  Peas  Mimulus cardinalis  In the fronts of mixed beds  Broccoli  Oenothera elata  Among native bunchgrasses;  Phacelia species needs bare ground to reseed  Plantago species  Trifolium species  In the ‘Children’s Garden’ – easy  For bird habitat – many birds &  See Mother Nature’s Backyard insects relish the seeds blog for more-http://mother- natures-backyard.blogspot.com/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Your resolutions:  Minor changes to some raised beds – a few repairs Clovers are often used as cover crops summer 2012  Convert the back beds to narrow beds for specialty  Quick growing crops – more space between  Suppress weed growth them & back fence  Prevent soil erosion  Better use of the back fence  Increase soil organic matter area: ?? New vines (humus) – good for vegetable crops  Add a few more beds – allow  Can be eaten (by humans or you to ‘rest’ some beds each livestock) year for plant/soil healthhttp://blog.gardenerd.com/2007/10/13/raised-beds--part-1-materials.aspx  Improve soil Nitrogen:  Create open areas surrounding  Interact with nodule-forming garden for pollinator nitrogen fixing bacteria Incorporate native plants into plants/plants to attract  Nitrogen is converted to a the edible garden beneficial insects form that can be used by plants – including your veggies © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013 Bull clover/ Sour Clover – Trifolium fucatum Bull clover – Trifolium fucatum  West coast of N. America from OR to Baja  In CA either:  Foothills of Sierras and other ranges  Coastally-influenced areas < 3000 ft. elevation  Locally abundant. Moist, open grassland, ditches, marshes, roadsides, sometimes saline or serpentine soils  fucatum: painted, dyed © 2004 Carol W. Witham © 2005 George W. Hartwell © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Bull Clover is a fairly typical native annual clover Flowers are among the prettier clover flowers  Size:  < 1 ft tall  Blooms:  1-3 ft wide; slightly spreading  Usually Apr-June in S. CA ; after weather warms up  Growth form:  Long bloom period with  Mounded; low-lying supplemental water  Typical for clovers  Flowers:  Foliage:  Typical for clover; small pea-type  Leaves typical ‘clover-leaf’ – often flowers in a ball-like head white-patterned  Cream-colored tinged with  Stems robust, hollow pink/mauve  Edible  Roots:  Have symbiotic relationship with  Seeds: nitrogen-fixing bacteria  SmallRobert Potts © California Academy of Sciences  Leave roots in soil to improve soil  Edible fresh fertility (just harvest the tops) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 Clovers – not hard to grow once you know the trick Most parts of clovers are edible in spring  Soils:  Fresh greens  Texture: any well-drained  Raw or cooked  pH: any, including alkali  Limit intake of uncooked clover –  Even takes salty soils causes gas  Light: full sun to part-shade; good  Use cooked clover like spinach under deciduous trees  Flowers  Water:  Make nice addition to a salad  Winter: needs moist soils  Leave some for the pollinators –  Summer: needs regular water great pollinator plants until flowering ceases – then cut  Seeds back  Native Californians ate them fresh  Fertilizer: not needed, but  Many animals & birds also like probably won’t hurt clover seeds  Other: to start seeds give them a Native Californians look forward to fresh© 2007 Aaron Schusteff hot-water treatment clover in the spring! © Project SOUND © 2007 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND Use any CA native clover as food, Your resolutions:  Minor changes to some raised beds – a few repairs improve your soil & attract pollinators summer 2012  Convert the back beds to narrow beds for specialty crops – more space between them & back fence  Better use of the back fence area: ?? New vines  Add a few more beds – allow you to ‘rest’ some beds each year for plant health http://blog.gardenerd.com/2007/10/13/raised-beds--part-1-materials.aspx  Create open areas surrounding garden for pollinator Incorporate native plants into plants/plants to attract the edible garden; use more beneficial insects heirloom varieties © 2004 Carol W. Witham © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 Attracting pollinators to the veggie garden One reason to grow native annuals & perennials in/near the edibles garden  Bees  Flies and fly-like insects (next month’s topic) http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/nov08/d1275-1.htm  Butterflies  Moths  Beetles http://www.laspilitas.com/garden/august-native-garden-flowers-pictures.htm  Many othershttp://www.ehow.com/how_8036705_do-flowers-blossomed-summer-squash.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Where might we plants some perennials? CA Sea Thrift – Armeria maritima ssp. californica © 2007 Neal Kramer http://blog.gardenerd.com/2007/10/13/raised-beds--part-1-materials.aspx © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 The Plumbaginaceae CA Sea Thrift – Armeria maritima ssp. californica  Possibly S. Coast; definitely Santa  Sometimes referred to as the Rosa Isl., San Luis Obispo Co (Cambria; leadwort family or the plumbago Santa Lucia Mtns near San Simeon) family. Flowers in parts of 5.  North to British Columbia  Most species in this family are perennial herbaceous plants, but a  Near the beach: prairies, cliffs, bluffs few grow as vines or shrubs. & dunes < 1000 ft elevation  The plants have perfect flowers http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5645,5646,0,5647 (have male & female parts) and are pollinated by insects.  Found in many different climatic regions, from arctic to tropicalhttp://www.hear.org/starr/images/image/?q=031108-0160&o=plants conditions, but are particularly associated with salt-rich steppes, Cape Plumbago – planted along freeways marshes, and sea coasts. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2011 Chris Winchell Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences Sea Thrift – dainty but tough Flowers: lovely color  Size:  Blooms:  1-2 ft tall (foliage < 1 ft)  Spring/summer – usually  ~ 1 – 1 ½ ft wide May-Aug in our area  Long-blooming with regular  Growth form: water and dead-heading  mounded perennial  evergreen  Flowers:  Small; in dense ball-like  Foliage: clusters (somewhat like the  Narrow, stiff leaves – fancy onions) somewhat grass-like  Color: magenta or pink  Foliage in basal rosette  Very pretty in bloom – make good cut flowers  Roots: tough & woody; part is  Attract native bees, above-ground butterflies & other insects© 2011 Chris Winchell © 2007 Neal Kramer © 2004, Ben Legler © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2007 Neal Kramer 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013 Available as plants: easy also from seed Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any from sandy loam or divisions to clay – good for clays  pH: any local  From seed:  Light: full sun right along coast; part-sun (morning sun) elsewhere  Use fresh seed  No pre-treatment  Water:  Quite easy, good  Winter: adequate – supplement germination in fall/spring if needed  Summer: moderate to regular  From divisions: water – Zones 2-3 to 3  Divide with a shovel or  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils – uproot and cut but probably wouldn’t kill it  Re-plant the divisions  Other: if using an organic mulch,  Reliable http://www.hazmac.biz/051128/051128AmeriaMaritimaCalifornica.html make it thin; no mulch or inorganic mulches fine © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2008 John Dittes Loved by gardeners as: Bring it into the vegetable garden  Sea-side ground cover  Rock garden plant  Attractive pot/planter species  Lining walkways http://www.imagejuicy.com/images/plants/a/armeria/10/ http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Armeria_maritima,_Tower_Hill_Botanic_Garden.JPG http://www.pacifichorticulture.org/web- extras/70/3/sea-ranch-gardens-most- successful-plants/ You’ll also have a source of cut flowers http://www.thienemans.com/ph http://www.elkhornnursery.com/default.aspx?pid=2989aedb otos/index.php/Succulents- http://www.cnps.org/cnps/grownative/tips -2f5a-41ec-9c05-61c5ebfda0e9&PlantId=1115 Rock-Garden/IMG_0132 /lawn_alternatives.php © Project SOUND © Project SOUND© 2004, Ben Legler http://www.calfloranursery.com/plants/armeria- maritima-ssp-californica 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 Many annual wildflowers are great for attracting pollinators – and fit easily into Attracting other beneficial insects an edibles garden  Predatory insects – eat the bad guys  Clarkias  Gilias  Insects that attract insect-eating birds  Anything in Sunflower family  Insects that provide  Lotus species other beneficial  Phacelias services in the garden  Annual Salivas  Many more (see pollinator lists: Project SOUND/ Mother Nature’s http://trishsgarden.blogspot.com/2008/03/very-late-march-1-garden-newsletter.html http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Phacelia+tanacetifolia Backyard Blog Some native plants have a well-deserved reputation for Tansy-leaf Phacelia © Project SOUND attracting the ‘good guys’ © Project SOUND Attract Attract these By planting these By planting beneficial these species beneficial these species insects insects Bigeyed bug Native grasses Minute Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Polygonum sp. (Silver Lace Vine) pirate bug Baccharis sp. (Coyote brush, Mulefat)Copyright © 2007 Ron Hemberger Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Hoverflies Achillea sp. (Yarrow) http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/NE/minute_pirate_bug.html Asclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Milkweed) Minute Pirate Bug Baccharis sp. (Coyote brush, Mulefat) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac) Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Prunis ilicifolia (Hollyleaf Cherry) Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Parasitic & Aesclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Predatory Milkweed) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac) Wasps Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Lacewings Prunus ilicifolia (Hollyleaf Cherry) Lady beetles Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Asclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Milkweed) Tachnid flies Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Atriplex sp. (Quailbush, Saltbush) Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac) Heteromeles arbutifolia (Toyon) Native grasses Rhamnus californica (Coffeeberry) Rhamnus californica (Coffeeberry) Salix sp. (Willow) http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/NE/tachinid_flies.html http://www.stopwaste.org/home/index.asp?page=402http://www.kunafin.com/lacewings.htm © Project SOUND Tachnid Fly http://www.stopwaste.org/home/index.asp?page=402 © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013 * Southern Umbrellawort – Tauschia arguta * Southern Umbrellawort – Tauschia arguta  Outer coastal ranges, S. CA and Baja  Locally in Santa Monica Mtns, Hollywood Hills, San Gabriels  Dry fans and slopes below 6000, coastal sage, scrub, chaparral, woodlands, inland to desert edge http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?TAAR2 © 2006 Michelle Cloud-Hughes © Project SOUND © 2003 Brent Miller http://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/species/Tauschia_arguta.htm © Project SOUND Southern Umbrellawort: Carrot family Flowers attract beneficial insects  Size:  1-2 ft tall  Blooms: mid- to late spring (April  1-3 ft wide to June)  Growth form:  Flowers:  Herbaceous perennial  Small and yellow  Low but erect form  In compound umbels typical of  Evergreen © 2006 Michelle Cloud-Hughes Carrot family; smells ‘carroty’  Many pollinator (and other)  Foliage: insects  Very green  Large-lobed & coarsely  Seeds: toothed – like flat parsley or  Flat, ribbed seeds typical of celery the family  Larval food for Anise  To start from seed, use fresh Swallowtail seed and rinse in several rinses of water to remove inhibiting© 2006 Michelle Cloud-Hughes  Roots: stout hormones. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 1/6/2013 Easy to grow Umbrellawort in the garden  Usually included in butterfly gardens  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  Unusual pot plant; in rock gardens  pH: any local – including  Good choice for margins of the vegetable garden vegetable garden  Light:  Full sun to light shade © 2010 Gary A. Monroe  Water:  Winter: plenty of water; soils moist  Summer: dry out to Zone 1-2 or 2 in summer  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Little to no mulch – inorganic mulch fine http://mamba.bio.uci.edu/~pjbryant/biodiv/lepidopt/papilio/anise.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/southerntauschia.html Michelle Cloud-Hughes © 2006http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/tauschia-arguta Heirloom edibles and native plants: a Others perennials for garden edges good combination  Open-pollinated  Achillea millefolia  Asclepias species (Milkweeds)  Long relationship between heirloom varieties, ‘wild  Clematus species (Virgin’s Bowers) plants’ and insects  Eriogonum species (Buckwheats)  Unusual and tasty flavors  Lomatium utriculatum – combine well with native  Solidago species (Goldenrods) seasonings  Native grasses  Are less likely to be genetically modified food plants http://www.byexample.com/homestead/gardens/heirloom_seeds.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  16. 16. 1/6/2013 Genetically modified foods are here What are genetically modified plants  Experts say 60% to 70% of processed foods on U.S. grocery shelves have genetically modified ingredients.  The most common genetically modified foods are soybeans, maize, cotton, and rapeseed oil. That means many foods made in the U.S. containing field corn or high-fructose corn syrup; foods made with soybeans and foods made with cottonseed and canola oils could likely have genetically modified ingredients.  These ingredients appear frequently in animal feed as well. http://www.precisionnutrition.com/all-about-gm-foods © Project SOUND Keeping old varieties alive is another reason to Which view is correct? plant heirloom seeds: biodiversity is important in  The U.S. governments position: Genetically agriculture as well as in nature engineered crops are safe, resist disease better, and can provide much-needed food in starving nations.  The EU position: Keep it out. We prefer organic, which is much healthier. The risk of genetically modified foods to health and the environment outweigh the benefits. Only the multinational biotech companies will benefit, dominating the world food http://www.heirloomseeds.com/ supply and squeezing out traditional farmers.We’ll discuss this topic in greater depth in our Julyclass © Project SOUND 16