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Actions in the Garden and Backyard: Working with Nature - New Zealand


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Actions in the Garden and Backyard: Working with Nature - New Zealand

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Actions in the Garden and Backyard: Working with Nature - New Zealand

  1. 1. Living Programme NZ important on the east of the North Island from Gisborne to Wairarapa, There are also moderately drought-2009 Edition and the east of the South Island from tolerant green (and coloured) Picton down to Timaru. On the wetter alternatives to grass, such as west of New Zealand, water- Acaena microphylla (bidibidi), and tolerance is often a more important Chamaemelum (chamomile) but theyActions in the garden feature when selecting plants. can not cope with much trampling, so perhaps plant them around pavingand backyard: working The New Zealand Plant stones? Conservation Network website atwith nature has information If you have a clothes-drying area, it about all native plants and how to could perhaps have gravel below it TM grow them and their suitable instead of a potentially muddy lawn?These notes cover several aspects of water supply companies. For web users, habitats. This has the advantage of remaininggarden management. We focus on there is similar information in the accessible all winter, reducing thepractical information and advice to Gardening With Water section of Landcare Research’s Plant-finder temptation to use a tumble dryersupport your action. (A second Waitakere City Sustainable Home database, available at the NZERN (and that’s a money-saver too).document covers organic veg-growing.) Guidelines (go to website at includes eco-city pages); and on the Christchurch NZ native plant lists to suit differentOther materials used in the study groups City Council website: regions and soils, and has notes oncover compost-making, backyard each plant including likely droughtorganic food production, pests, seed tolerance. It may be less accuratechoice and sowing techniques, etc. 1. Know about the water demand of than the NZPC website, however? different plants, so that they canThe four main headings below are: be grouped together. Whether you 2. Reduce the area of thirsty lawn. If• Water efficient gardening have a permanent irrigation system, you want a permanently green lawn,• Shade and shelter or simply walk around with a trigger rather than one that browns over the• Biodiversity hose or watering-can, you can plan summer, having a smaller area of• Weed management to reduce the frequency of watering grass saves precious water for other---------------------------------------------- to certain plants if you know they are uses, such as fruit and veggies! IfWater efficient gardening: ways to drought-tolerant. Use reference you use a sprinkler, limit the lawnreduce water demand books to investigate best locations, shape and area to suit neat multiples when you buy a plant or accept one of the typical water-coverage patternIn the Sustainable Households Water from a gardening friend. For of your sprinkler equipment andsession and materials we learn about example, the Mediterranean scented therefore avoid wasting water onuse of tank-stored rainwater (and also herbs such as thyme, oregano, sage paths and fences? When mowing grass you can either let thethe option of re-using ‘grey water’ from and lavender, need less water than clippings fall as lawn-feed (for earthworms towashing machines or baths immediately the northern European herbs such as Different grass types have different gather), or remove them for compost-making.onto trees and shrubs, but not vegetable mint, fennel, basil and parsley. thirsts – you can select a ready- Using a push-mower is great exercise, and grown turf or a seed mixture for this avoids the fumes and noise pollution from agardens and not stored). These are Among food crops, established deep- feature, noting that the more drought petrol-fuelled mower! (Photo: Rhys Taylor)supplementary sources of garden watersupply, to replace some expensively- rooted perennials such as asparagus tolerant such as rye grass (Lolium), will be more drought tolerant than the New Zealand browntop and 3. Water the plant roots, not thetreated and pumped tap- water. There shallow-rooted annuals such as Kentucky bluegrass, tend to be leaves (or paths). How often do youare a variety of ways to reduce water cabbage. Decorative plants that are coarser-bladed grasses. These see surplus water from sprinklersdemand in the garden, however, which drought tolerant include both some grasses also need less feeding, and running off the foliage of flower-bedswe explore here. ‘exotic’ introductions to New Zealand can be allowed to grow a little longer or across a saturated lawn and then (typically they have leaves coloured in the summer. They can be cut down a sloping driveway towards theTake your pick from this set of 10 ways grey or silver, sometimes hairy) and successfully with the less-expensive road stormwater drain? It’s not only ato reduce garden water needs over time. some ‘New Zealand native plants’. rotary mowers, compared to the fine- waste of hard-won water, it pollutesAdvice in detail is available from books Examples are listed in the gardening bladed grasses of the bowling green the streams with chemicals such assuch as Kevin Walsh and Geoff Bryant’s books above and, for Canterbury, variety (such as Festuca and moss/weed-killers from the lawn.Water Saving Gardening in NZ 1995published by Reed; and from free also in leaflets from DoC Motukarara Agrostis) which demand greaterbooklets issued by local authorities or Native Plant Nursery. Being drought- attention, more feeding and cylinder prepared in your planting is most mowing.SH8_Gardening3_Actions 1 (Includes DoC input) SH8_Gardening3_Actions 2 (Includes DoC input)
  2. 2. More complex electronic controllers with the natural help of earthworms, even wait until plants have wilted a are available if a larger permanent increase the proportion of organic little, which is nature’s defence garden system with ‘zones’ is matter distributed in the soil and help against water shortage. You can tell required. If you install a rain-detector soil particles to form a ‘crumb’ when a lawn needs water in the device it can ‘over-ride’ time-clock structure. Heavy clays also respond summer: it’s when the leaves do not controlled watering systems and to addition of sand/grit and lawn spring back after you walk on them. save your plants from damaging surfaces absorb water better after W aiting before watering encourages over-watering, too. Check the NZ aeration with spikes and raking to deep rooting, while more-frequent(Above) It wastes water when sprinklers Consumer Home and Garden reduce the ‘thatch’ layer of dry grass. watering encourages shallowerovershoot onto paths: use drip emitters or magazine (in public libraries, or from rooting and hence vulnerability toporous hoses instead, and a hose timer. Institute members) for independent 7. Keep water in the soil for longer drought when you can’t water often reviews of garden watering systems. using surface mulch. Mulch is a (e.g. in your summer holiday-time, or permeable layer of 5-10cm organic during a water supply crisis). material laid onto a previously wet soil surface. It can be pea straw, cut 9. Use glazed flower-pots or recycled grass, and around shrubs also plastic pots rather than the plain untreated sawdust or tree bark (but terracotta (which are heavy, brick-red not around vegetables as these draw and not shiny) as the terracotta Gadgets for the gardener who likes some nitrogen from the soil as they looses water from the pot sides as assistance with managing watering: from the decompose). You can also use fine well as the soil surface. If youSprinkers in the mid-day sunshine - left, a clockwork tap ‘turn off’ timer, a soil pebbles or gravel. The mulch will already have lots of terracotta potswetting the air and leaves, losing large moisture-detector and a rain sensor. allow water to flow in but reduce the available, try waterproofing them onamounts of the water to the air! (Photos (Pictures from Nylex Gardena) sun’s midday heating of the shaded the inside with a non-toxic paint or aRT) soil and reduce the rate of water silicone water-proofer. Only drought- 5. Avoid watering in the heat of the evaporation loss to moving air. tolerant patio plants such as Watering the leaves increases day or in windy weather. A larger geranium, stonecrop and cacti will fungus problems (such as powdery proportion of irrigation water is lost Mulch can save 70% of the water thrive in full-sun conditions in mildew) for some plants, so aim straight back to the air at midday or otherwise lost to air by bare soil. It unglazed terracotta pots. Some instead for the roots. in windy conditions, so the plants also suppresses weeds and grasses growers add water-retaining granules Use a permanent dripper system, or gain more benefit from watering in that would compete with crops or to the potting mix, and then put a a moveable leaky hose, rather than the calm and cool of early morning or shrubs for water and light. mulch such as gravel onto the soil a sprinkler. When a drive or path early evening. Mid-day watering of surface. needs a clean, use a stiff broom leaves under a cloud-less sky can Natural material is preferable to instead of the hose or leaf-blower increase sun scorch damage, too. synthetics such as old carpet 10. If drought is common, and combined and save the swept-up plant debris Windbreaks reduce water loss from underlay, because of the chemicals with hot winds, consider the fire for the compost heap, not the bin. the plants they shelter. which may leach from the synthetics. resistance of plants up to 30m Black polythene sheeting should be upwind of the house (and more if4. If you install an irrigation system, 6. Improve the soil’s capacity to take avoided for most crops as it home is on a hill-slope, in dense control it with a timer. Save your up and retain water. Some soil overheats the soil and traps stale air. bush). Information on flammability of own effort on hand-hose watering structures are fast draining and Woven plastic weed mat may work NZ native trees and shrubs in with a permanent irrigation system of consequently have little water better, but cover its black surface. wildfires is available in a free leaflet branching polyethylene pipes available to plant roots (e.g. sand, on reducing fire hazards around your (preferably buried, once you have the gravel) which means either more Extensive use of bark from conifers home, from your local fire authority. locations right, as they degrade in frequent watering is required or can make the soil more acidic. Keep sunlight). But remember that the drought-tolerant plant choices, while the mulch away from contact with See our Sustainable Living water topic least efficient water delivery system, at the other extreme, clays tend to stems or tree trunks in case it notes for further information on rainwater a sprinkler, can waste 900 litres of seal at the surface and puddle the prompts decay. As it decomposes, collection and storage. water per hour. Drip emitters provide rain (add some gypsum to reduce mulch also adds organic matter to from 1 litre an hour to 10 litres per this, but go easy, as it also alters the soil, encouraging microbial life -------------------------------------------------- hour at each dripper, and can be nutrient balances in the soil). and earthworms. fixed or variable output. Timers installed in the hose line (from Hardie Both extremes can be improved into 8. Check the soil moisture before Pope, Nylex Gardena or others) let a more productive ‘loam’ by adding you water. If you use mulch, check you set up to 2 hours of irrigation garden compost, rotted manure, the soil underneath - to see if it’s time before they cut off the flow. seaweeds or surface mulches that, really dry - before watering. You canSH8_Gardening3_Actions 3 (Includes DoC input) SH8_Gardening3_Actions 4 (Includes DoC input)
  3. 3. north-west or west facing rooms tend by. These natural predators include to overheat in the summer? If there is 4. Is hay fever or another plant ladybirds, lacewings and hoverflies. garden outside the windows you may allergy driving you out of the be able to provide some summer garden? Consider making a low- There are many handbooks and shade with plants. Shade options allergen garden close to the house. wesbites available to help you include deciduous trees and shrubs, This involves patios, decking and identify New Zealand native plants which will lose leaves in the autumn gravel to replace a lawn (less pollen that have both flowers and to allow in winter light, or a pergola or and less mowing dust), avoiding interesting foliage to suit garden use. similar structure, up which seasonal dusty or mouldy/mushroom mulches, Some well-known authors include deciduous climbers such as runner and having preference for insect- Crowe, Bishop, Sykes and Adams. beans or grapes could be grown. pollinated rather than wind-pollinated Take one with you for reference Another idea is a window box plus a plants as they have heavier pollen when visiting plant nurseries. See wooden lattice to form a ‘living blind’ that is less likely to be airborne. Do also the website of the New Zealand of summer flowers. Keep an air gap not plant silver birch! Allergy New Plant Conservation Network – between shrubs and house walls, Zealand can advise: 0800 34 0800 or the ‘Plantfinder’Shade and shelter from large trees: especially if they are timber, or you email: database, in item 5 below.provides summer green air-conditioning. will encourage damp air and decay. • Attract New Zealand native 3. Plant a winter windbreak. Do you --------------------------------------------------- insect-eating birds includingShade and shelter: using garden Bio-diversity: giving the garden aplants to improve living spaces have chill winds blowing from the fantail, grey warbler, silvereye, and south or east in winter? An natural strength shining cuckoo. Native birds alsoThe house is affected by its close evergreen windbreak hedge of tough include fruit and nectar-feeders mixed native shrubs may be ‘Variety is the spice of life’ for people and (bellbird, tui) which will visit citysurroundings, which allow in or shade possible, even if there is not space to it is also a good guideline for gardening gardens within flying distance ofout sun and winds. You can’t do much grow full size trees. The more cold success. In nature, a diversity of plants their home in the bush if theirabout other buildings (except at the air you deflect, the warmer the house co-exist, each making use of the special favourite native plants are available,Resource Consent application stage), will be. Your regional council may circumstances it finds, in light and and they’ll eat insects while theybut you can influence location and size have free leaflets about windbreak shade, in levels of water and food, and in are there. To identify them, consult:of plants, to your advantage: design using native plants. pest pressures. When you reduce and there is diversity, such as in selecting a single extra information at1. Plan a garden to provide outdoor grass variety for a lawn, you run against shade as well as sunny areas. this natural state and have to work hard Growing incidence of skin cancers in New Zealand means that outdoor to maintain the ‘monoculture’. Farmers Attract them with, for example: activity demands shade as well as face similar challenges when they grow • Phormium tenax (flax/harakeke), paddocks of a single crop, which are sun, so if you do not have shade • Sophora microphylla (kowhai), vulnerable to pressure from climate and trees already, select a spot for a tree • Pseudowintera colorata (pepper at the north of your mid-day sitting pests. Here is our advice to increase tree/horopito), garden diversity and resilience: spot or children’s play space. If you • Griselina littoralis want sunlight to come through the (broadleaf/kapuka), • Aim for a wide variety of branches during the winter, chose a plants, even in small urban • Lophomyrtus obcordata (New deciduous tree (these are mostly Zealand myrtle/rohutu) exotic species although there are a gardens. This is for a good ecological reason. Insect and viral and many others, including these few deciduous native species such Australian plants: as tree fuchsia and species of plant pests thrive and do most damage when there are many plants Callistemon (bottlebrush), lacebark). New Zealand native Eucalyptus leucoxylon ‘Rosea’ evergreens may be ideal if year- of the same species grouped close together. Keep numbers of any one (which is useful for winter-flowers). round shade is acceptable. Anticipate the height of the mature food-plant placed together as low as tree when you plant – shading of you can and the variety or ‘diversity’ house windows in winter would add high, to minimise the chance of pests Care for small garden trees to give them getting established. Meanwhile, try to to your heating bill. chance to grow large! When the tree is maximise the useful effect of natural planted, tie it initially to a pair of stakes, predators of insect-pests attracted by2. Use plantings strategically to and (as here) fit a guard net on the bark flowers such as Phacelia, grown close shade your home. Do any of your to keep off cats, rabbits and machinery.SH8_Gardening3_Actions 5 (Includes DoC input) SH8_Gardening3_Actions 6 (Includes DoC input)
  4. 4. snails, for example. Blackbirds will well as native wildlife, see: Pets or damage soft fruit and dig up seed- Pests (Alpha Series booklet no. beds when foraging, but they also 101), 1999, The Royal Society of play a part in pest control. To keep NZ, PO Box 598, Wellington; or up native bird numbers visiting the garden, you may wish to supplement .htm and an article in The Listener: their food and water during the winter (try adding honey to fresh mnists/10000/ water in a pot for the nectar-feeders m and for impacts of cats on such as Bellbird and Tui) and then Kereru: reduce your feeding in spring once insects and nectar are more • Attract native wildlife to your plentiful. You would have to net fruit garden, such as lizards. Lizards trees and bushes to protect your are legally protected from being berry crops, however. caught or transported in New Zealand – but try explaining that to • Keep cats indoors at night as a cat. Without a cat you may have they tend to be lizard eaters and a to use other methods such as traps An illustrated Bush Birds pamphlet bird deterrent, and even if they or poison bait to keep mice and from Christchurch City Council, don’t often kill, they will disturb birds rats under control, or they too willAn attractive flower for NZ nectar-sipping Parks and Waterways Unit, PO Box and prevent successful nesting in reduce the useful lizard and wetabirds and also bees: harakeke (NZ flax, 237, Christchurch (based on the garden. Bells on cat collars population. Of the two NZ lizardPhormium tenax) Photo: Rhys Taylor research by Anthony Crossland and often do not work, as birds use types, skinks (with smooth skins) Colin Burrows), includes a table visual cues. If you keep a cat but are the most common in towns and listing 33 native plants and trees, wish to winter-feed birds or provide geckos (with rough skins and showing their seasons for nectar and fresh water year-round, ensure that sucker feet) in the forest. There fruit. You could potentially use it to the bird table and their water is are 70 different New Zealand plan for year-round nectar and fruit either hung from a tree or placed up species, some very rare. You can bird-food in your garden. It contains on a post at least 1.5 metres above encourage lizards by: planting useful information about all of the the ground. Some organic patches of dense wiry native birds mentioned above, and also gardeners decide to be cat-free ground cover, allowing leaf litter to includes the kereru (native pigeon), because they need lots of pest- build up under trees or using which likes the fruits and distributes control help from birds and lizards. chunky mulch layers. Rock piles seeds of larger trees such as They may then need to set traps for and woodpiles full of crevices are Dacrycarpus dacrydioides mice and rats, however! appealing to lizards, as are juicy (kahikatea), Prumnopitys taxifolia small berries on ground-cover (matai) and Podocarpus totara • Encourage cat lovers to take plants such as coprosma and (totara) – but its diet may include a responsibility for their pets and muehlenbeckia. share of your garden fruit crops! keep them out of other people’s gardens, where they scratch up Hedgehogs (another introduction from A similar Christchurch pamphlet newly planted seedlings when Europe) are good garden slug and snail covers Wetland birds. Hutt City toileting and also toilet in sandpits, controllers, although in native bush Council produced a leaflet Selecting potentially spreading diseases to areas DoC has evidence that they are Trees which Attract Birds in their children. Even well-fed cats will also a predator of wetas and bird eggs.Lisa is planting native flax and shrubs to ‘Home Gardening in the Hutt’ series. catch birds, wetas and skinks, and Be aware that they may choose warmencourage wildlife in her small backyard, worry hens. To introduce people to places like a compost heap or woodpileand Margaret (above right) has native Other councils or your local the idea of cat enclosures, here is as their winter hibernation place, so youflax or harakeke already flowering in her Department of Conservation office in one website to consider: may accidentally disturb them.larger garden, along with fruit trees. other areas in the country may publish similar information. enclosures.htm You also wish to encourage some butterflies in the garden and can Several of the introduced European • To consider the arguments grow plants especially to feed the garden birds are useful pest- concerning feral and pet cats as caterpillars of desired species, such controllers too. Starlings and destroyers of unwanted pests, as as nettle (Urtica incise or the more Thrushes like eating slugs and poisonous Urtica ferox) for red andSH8_Gardening3_Actions 7 (Includes DoC input) SH8_Gardening3_Actions 8 (Includes DoC input)
  5. 5. yellow admirals, clover for the Collins; and Scratching for a Living, available for $2.50 from common blue and swan plant for 1997, by Ruud Kleinpaste, Random Wellington Regional Council. ml and consult useful reading from monarch (avoid getting garden House NZ. • In Nelson a checklist of suitable bookshops or libraries, such as: The centre stock if it has been pesticide native plants lists for various Native Garden: Design themes from sprayed). Nectar-rich flowers attract Try to obtain New Zealand native shrubs types of site or habitat is wild New Zealand by Isobel Gabites the adult butterflies, but buddleia and trees that would naturally occur in available from DoC, who also and Rob Lucas, 1998, Godwit Press. (sold by some plant nurseries as a your climatic region and soil type (known published in 2003, with the City The Propagation of New Zealand ‘butterfly bush’) can become a as ‘eco-sourcing’ or ‘using local Council, Living Heritage: growing Native Plants by Lawrie Metcalf, serious weed, invading neighbouring provenance’) as they are plant species native plants in Nelson. 1995, Godwit Press. bush areas, so do please consider and varieties most likely to thrive. They • In Hamilton City see the Gully using flowering native plants instead, will encourage the associated local Restoration Guide from the City such as hebes. wildlife, which in some cases is adapted Council. Website: For information on controlling white to live only on those plant species. butterfly caterpillars on brassicas, • In Waitakere, The Whau – Our see our organic gardening notes. This choice is made easier when streams, our river, our backyards, commercial plant nurseries use a special is available from Friends of the label for ‘Eco-sourced’ plants (e.g. in Whau Catchment, or Auckland or Waitakere City). In Canterbury, the Waitakere City Councils. Department of Conservation nursery at Contains advice on native Motukarara has a catalogue of plants for plantings for community projects public sale, grown from known seed as well as backyards. locations in the region, and they produce • Environment Canterbury, leaflets to advise on suitable plants for Environment Waikato and others different locations. produce booklets and website pages on using New Zealand The DoC practical guide Protecting and native plants for shelterbelts, Restoring our Natural Heritage 2001 by stream -sides and bush Jorge Santos, Mark Davis and Colin restoration. Environment Waikato Meurk, builds on the nursery’s also distributes a Wetland experience. It can be seen in full on the Planting Guide. web at or purchased in • To see NZ plants labeled, a printed version from DoC, PO Box Auckland Regional Botanic 47195, Christchurch. gardens has an excellent native plants collection and supporting • Within Christchurch, four area information at their visitor centre;‘The Bugman’ Ruud Kleinpaste (with a weta ‘biodiversity’ handbooks and street as does Wellington Otari Nativewalking on his right hand) enthusing aboutinsects. He was speaking at a Department of map sets by Di Lucas and Garden, and smaller collectionsConservation event in Canterbury. Endemic colleagues called Indigenous (less labelled) at Timaru,NZ insects live only on their host NZ plants, Ecosystems of Otautahi Christchurch and other cities’ NZ native plants in flower providehaving evolved here in isolation from the rest Christchurch, describe the native Botanic Gardens attractive alternatives to garden ‘exotics’.of the world. We thus need to protect the plants and other wildlife associated For example: rewarewa (NZ honeysuckle)associated plants’ or they too face extinction. historically with local types of soil. There are no DoC plant nurseries in above, and a native clematis below.(Photo: Rhys Taylor) Another has been produced for the North Island but many private Lyttelton Harbour. They are nurseries (such as the award winning The biggest and most comprehensiveFor illustrated reading on the New available for reference at local website devoted to information about Oratia Native Plant Nursery inZealand and exotic wildlife that you can libraries (look for shelf-mark Auckland) have an informed interest native and exotic (weed) plants is thefind in backyards, see City Nature: A 581.993) or from council service in native plants and may be able to New Zealand Plant Conservationguide to the plants & animals of New centres. tell you the seed or cutting source of Network website – cities and towns, 1997, by Bob This website describes features and their plants on sale. Try to selectBrockie, published by Viking. (Over 80% Other cities and regions are taking ones originating from as near as distribution of all native species andof species listed are ‘exotic’, mostly up this approach: includes photos of nearly all plant you can find to your home area.human-introduced). Other references are • In Wellington, the Wellington For further information on protecting species in New Zealand.A House-full of Strangers: living with Regional Native Plant Guide: NZ native bush areas see QEIIcommon creatures of the NZ house and Using your garden to sustain our National Trust website: PlanterGuide was a useful webgarden, 1992, by P. Dale, Harper native ecosystems, 1999, is reference source but is off-line in 2009.SH8_Gardening3_Actions 9 (Includes DoC input) SH8_Gardening3_Actions 10 (Includes DoC input)
  6. 6. identification. Contact their ‘biosecurityWeed management: keeping invasive officer’ for plants out of bush areas. Some examples include: EnvironmentalPests can invade your garden but also Weeds - Delightful but destructiveescape out of it into natural areas. Over published by Northland Regional Council70% of New Zealand environmental and DoC; Marlborough Pests fromweed species have escaped from the Marlborough District Council and Weedsmostly-deliberate planting of gardens. in Christchurch from the ChristchurchSome garden ‘escapes’ of exotic plants City Council Parks/Waterways Unit.(introduced to New Zealand within the Auckland DoC has a War of the Weedspast 150 years), have become significant leaflet and Auckland Regional Councilpest plants in native bush areas (0800 80 60 40) a free booklet Grow methroughout the country, for example by instead, on ‘friendly alternatives’ to thesmothering or displacing native plants. garden plants that can invade native bush.1. Avoid growing invasive or pest plant species in your garden. In A national Weedbusters campaign is each region there is a list of pest being run by Department of Think in 3D, work upwards in smaller plants found to be so invasive, in that Conservation. See their website garden spaces. climate, that they should be removed or phone DoC from those gardens visited by seed at 04 471 3286 FURTHER READING and fruit-eating birds, which would Some neat money-saving ideas for To look up useful information with spread them to bush areas. These photos, see the New Zealand Plant gardeners are to be found in Helen pest plants should never be dumped Conservation Network website which is McKerral’s book Gardening on a in or near bush areas because some up-to-date and detailed. Shoestring published by Hyland House. will also spread from stem cuttings and roots. Another recommended recent one is Dennis Grevilles Easy on the pocket vegetable gardening, published by Hyndman (325 Purchas Rd, RD2 Amberley, 7482 North Canterbury) The monthly magazine NZ Gardener has features on Sustainable Gardening (from newsagents or libraries, and better value by subscription, for cash or on FlyBuy consumer points. Theres also an email circular for its subscribers. Another news-stand magazine that features organic gardening is OrganicPest plant ivy (Hedera helix) climbing its wayout of one city garden and into the next. NZ, published by The Soil and Health Association, PO Box 36-170 Northcote, Auckland 1330. (subscriptions available2. Become informed about invasive Feijoa (pictured) makes a handy wind- & a book list) www.organicnz.orgplant pest species in your region, and break hedge but also feeds birds and More on organic growing is available inlobby garden centres to stop selling provides fruit for us. The Permaculture our Sustainable Living action notes.these to gardeners. (permanent agriculture) principle aims to get several values from each plantYour regional council will have booklet orwebsite information on invasive plants and to garden in three dimensions using(environmental weeds) relevant to your perennial trees and shrubs as well as annual crops below them , plus livestockarea, plus colour photos to aid such as chickens.SH8_Gardening3_Actions 11 (Includes DoC input) SH8_Gardening3_Actions 12 (Includes DoC input)