Beverages from native plants 2011


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This lecture was given in November, 2011 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Beverages from native plants 2011

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2011 (our 7th year) © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Delicious Drinks: Native Plants for Teas & Other Beverages C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve November 5th & 8th 2011 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. What can I do with all those rosehips? © Project SOUND
  4. 4. Most of our parents didn’t pass along the ‘traditional ways’ © Project SOUND
  5. 5. In the next year, we’re going to try tochange that  Today’s class – beverages  Dec. 8 – Flavored Vinegars Workshop – Madrona  May class – Scents for potpourri and more  And more © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Please ask questions © Project SOUND
  7. 7. What do you think of when you think of beverage plants?  One of the first that comes to mind is mint – because mints are common and their leaves make such great tea! © Project SOUND
  8. 8. * Wild (Field) Mint – Mentha arvensis© 2005 Louis-M. Landry © Project SOUND
  9. 9. * Wild (Field) Mint – Mentha arvensis  Found throughout N. Hemisphere, incl. Europe, Asia  Locally in San Bernardino & San Diego Co. mtns.  Formerly many ssp & vars – now combined into single species  Always grows in moist places,4779,4780 © Project SOUND
  10. 10. Field Mint – a typical mint  Size:  1 to 1 ½ ft tall  spreads to many ft wide; in nature, forms a mat-like colony in favorable sites  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Dies back in fall/winter  Upright or sprawling  Foliage:  Typical mint with square stems  Aromatic; strongly minty – repels deer, mice, unwanted insects  Roots: spreads via rhizomes © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Flowers are dainty  Blooms: anytime from July to Oct; usually in bloom about 4 weeks  Flowers:  Color: white to very pale violet or pink  Tiny; bell-shaped  In dense, ball-like clusters in leaf axils – often mostly hidden by the leaves  Vegetative reproduction:  Easy to propagate from stem cuttings in spring, fall  Let them root in water in a light place – no direct sun © Project SOUND © 2004, Ben Legler
  12. 12. Seeds  Many tiny seeds in dry capsule typical of mint family  Best with 2-3 mo cold moist stratificatoon © Project SOUND
  13. 13.  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: any  pH: any local but 6.0-7.5 best  Light:  Full sun to light shade – dappled sun is fine  Foliage has stronger flavor in full sun  Water:  Winter: fine with seasonal flooding  Summer: needs regular water – Zone 2-3 to 3  Fertilizer: likes compost amended soils; light fertilizer if gown in containers© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College  Other: cut back in fall/winter © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Mint in the garden  Best use: as an attractive pot plant; evergreen most of the year  In an herb or kitchen garden  In water garden – lowest area – or other moist area © Project SOUND
  15. 15. Repotting mint  Required yearly – if not more often  Easy – hard to kill  You can give the extras as gifts © Project SOUND
  16. 16. Making fresh mint tea - easy  The leaves are harvested between May and August. It is important to harvest only the well matured leaves as the half-mature ones do not have the fine mint aroma. © Project SOUND
  17. 17. Or use fresh mint to make your favorite summer beverage © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Drying leaves for tea  Wash leaves – pat dry  Place on a cookie sheet in a warm oven (180º F or less – ‘warm’ setting)  Check for dryness – usually ~ 20-45 min. Leaves will be crackly.  Strip leaves off stems  Store in air-tight container © Project SOUND
  19. 19. The many edible uses of mints  The mint flavored leaves are used as herb in various cuisines.  Sometimes raw leaves are added to salads and other preparations to add flavor to the food.  Fresh leaves are also used to make chutneys.  The oil extracted from these plants is used as a flavoring agent for beverages and sweets. © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Medicinal uses of Wild Mint Leaves are used as a herbal remedy :  For stomach disorders like indigestion and gas.  As an anti inflammatory agent  For treatment of fever, headache, cold and asthma.  To make cough syrups.  To treat stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting and influenza.  To reduce toothaches and swellings of gum.  To alleviate arthritis. The oil extraction of these leaves is used in the treatments of insomnia and nervous tension. © Project SOUND
  21. 21. The tea/medicinal connection  Many herbal teas are not only delicious, they also may have soothing & other effects  Plants make a number of plant-specific chemicals (phytochemicals)  Some are pleasant tasting to us – but actually repel herbivores [Mint] infusions are an easy  Some play similar, oftenmeans of extracting plant medicinal, roles in both plants &chemicals it’s not surprising that animalsthey are used as both traditional  These chemicals are the basismedicines and beverages of many traditional & ‘modern’ medicines © Project SOUND
  22. 22.  The medicinal benefits of specific herbs are often anecdotal or controversial, and in some countries (including the United States) makers of herbal teas are not allowed to make unsubstantiated claims about the medicinal effects of their products. © Project SOUND
  23. 23. A few words of caution Herbal teas can have different effects from person to person – always start with a little, and never overdo Some plants/plant parts are toxic; correct identification and correct preparation is essential If you are pregnant, nursing, taking prescription medications, or have known allergies to certain foods or plants, caution and consultation with a physician or pharmacist are advised. © Project SOUND
  24. 24. The benefits of making beverages from plants growing in your own garden  You know what the plant is – so you don’t mistakenly substitute a toxic plant for an edible one  You can control the chemicals used on the plants  You can pick plant parts when they are at the ‘peak of flavor’ © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Fragrant Pitcher Sage – Lepechinia fragrans
  26. 26. The genus Lepechinia In the Mint family (Lamiaceae) Occur in California, Mexico to South America, and Hawaii. An interesting group of shrubs and woody-based perennials, some of them quite ornamental. They vary in habit but have large paired, usually hairy and aromatic leaves and irregular flowers with broad tubes and 2-lipped “faces”.
  27. 27. Attractive features of Fragrant Pitchersage  Soft contrast of leaf and flower color  Pleasant fragrance  Interesting leaf texture  Attracts birds and butterflies
  28. 28. Pitcher Sage in the garden  Good plants for the background of a perennial border  For banks and open slopes  Mix with berry fruits in a border  Great addition to a butterfly garden  Planted near patios for their pleasant scent  In shaded areas (does equally well in sun or partial shade)  In the kitchen garden – makes a delicious tea, jelly, etc.
  29. 29. Is Pitchersage ‘tea’ really a tea?  Tea: infusion made from the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis).  Herbal tea, tisane : herbal infusion that does not include true tea leaves; often simply the combination of boiling water and dried fruits, flowers or herbs. Can be used as beverage or medicinal  Flavored tea: a true tea flavored with other herbs, spices, oils © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Fragrant Pitcher Sage & Hummingbird Sage leaves make unique tisanes  Minty, but with distinct flavors  Make excellent hot and iced teas  Can be used fresh or dried for later use  Not only tasty – may have medicinal properties © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Leaves are the most common plant part used for plants in the mint family © Project SOUND
  32. 32. In fact, several different plant parts can be use to make beverages  Leaves  Hot or cold herbal teas  Flavorings for other beverages  Syrups for cordials; sparkling waters  Liqueurs (alcoholic)  Fruits/berries  Hot & cold herbal teas  Juices  Syrups/Flavorings  Liqueurs (alcoholic)  Flower petals © Project SOUND
  33. 33. CA Wild Rose – Rosa californica
  34. 34. CA Wild Rose – Rosa californica  S. OR to northern Baja  In CA, everywhere but high mountain elevations  Common thicket-forming rose in S. & central CA foothills  Moist places, near streams, in shaded woods and canyons  Spanish padres called it ‘Rose of Castile’ because it reminded them of the roses of Spain.,6887,6889
  35. 35. CA Wild Rose in nature: thicket-forming
  36. 36. A rose is a rose….  Size: to 6 ft. tall, 9 ft. wide  Winter deciduous  Growth form: upright shrub that spreads by suckers; typical wild rose  Garden requirements:  Light: full sun to semi-shade  Soils: any well-drained  Water: take cue from nature  Does best in full sun with some summer water  Will need less water in shaded areas  Less prone to fungal diseases than cultivated roses
  37. 37. Wild roses are important habitat plants Blooms:  Main season: May-Aug (but blooms intermittently in warm season)  Flowers: single pinks; color varies slightly  Important pollen source for bees and other insects Fruits (hips)  Summer/fall  Edible; good syrups & jellies  goldfinches, bluebirds, grosbeaks, robins, mockingbirds, and sparrows-- relish the hips Plants/foliage  Dense, spiny foliage provides good cover and nesting sites for birds
  38. 38. Dried rose petals for tea  Blown blooms (fully mature flowers) that havent browned will make the most flavorful tea petals.  Rose petals and other flower dry quickly if youre using a heat source, so watch them closely to make sure they dont scorch. They should be "shatter" dry, but not brown.  In a dehydrator, they just take a couple of hours to dry completely (in a single layer). © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Drying nature’s bounty: many ways Note: cover with mesh if air-drying © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Making tisanes from flowers: requires a gentle touch for best flavor  Bring water to just under the boiling point, water should be very hot but never boiled.  Remove water from heat and add the fresh or dried petals. Allow petals to seep for one hour without stirring.  NEVER BOIL THE PETALS AS THIS WILL DESTROY THE LIGHT FLAVOR AND COLOR. IT WILL ALSO CAUSE THE TEA TO HAVE A BITTER TASTE.  You can re-heat the tisane or drink it cold © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Flowers in the Honeysuckle family also make delicious tea © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Rose leaves also make a delicate tisane Dry leaves – dryer or warm oven Grind with a spice mill or crumple Store in dry, well-labled container tea.html © Project SOUND
  43. 43. Combining flavors: be creative  Making mild leaf tisanes: ½ to 1 tsp dried leaves per cup; pour on boiling water and infuse for 10 minutes. Strain.  Drink hot or warm or iced with a sprig of mint or a slice of lemon. Tend to taste very ‘green’ - which you may or may not like alonetea.html  Consider adding to Rose leaves:  Loose leaf commercial green tea (to make a Roseleaf flavored tea)Many prepared ‘herbalteas’ and ‘flavored tea’  Dried wild rose buds or rose petals –are blends of several add to the visual appeal as well.dried herbs and spices © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Beach Strawberry - Fragaria chiloensis ssp. pacifica © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Native Strawberries have much to recommend them……  Easy to grow in the garden environment – including in light shade  Attractive foliage, flowers & edible fruit  Excellent coverage – quickly spread by runners (even on sand!)  Can mix with grasses & other plants – or grow as a grass substitute Beach Strawberries are a delicacy in Chile © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Strawberries: a groundcover with lots of beverage potential  Strawberry leaves make a delicate ‘tea’ with a taste all it’s own  Wild strawberry fruits make some of the best dried fruit tisanes and flavored teas – and can also be used for other ‘strawberry drinks’ © Project SOUND
  47. 47. Saving the fruits of summer  Collect only fully ripe, undamaged fruit  Thoroughly wash with water; pat dry  Small fruits & berries (even small native rose hips) can be dried whole; slice strawberries or other large fruits thinly  Dry until fully dry  Store whole or process/crumble then store © Project SOUND
  48. 48. Processing dried fruits for herbal tea  Why?  Releases the flavor better  Easier to handle, particularly if you’re filling tea bags  How?  Crumble with hands  Chop coarsely with a knife  Break with mortar & pestle  Use a spice mill or rotary- blade coffee grinder  Use a small food processer to coarsely chop
  49. 49. Fill your own tea bags Readily available Easy to fill & store Make a nice – and unusual & trendy - gift
  50. 50. During summer a cold drink is nice Fortunately, there are some classical California cold beverages that use native plants commonly used in home gardens © Project SOUND
  51. 51. * Hooker’s Manzanita – Arctostaphylos hookeriBeatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  52. 52. * Hooker’s Manzanita – Arctostaphylos hookeri  Native range extends from the coastal San Francisco Bay Area to the Central Coast  Sandy, coastal pine or oak woods, coastal scrub < 1000 ft© 1991 David Graber © Project SOUND
  53. 53. Several rare sub-species  ssp. hearstiorum  Very low-growing – mat-like  Clays & summer fog-drip; very moderate temperatures© 2011 Chris Winchell© 2006 Steve Matson ssp. hearstiorum near San Simeon  ssp. franciscana  2 ft. groundcover  Now extinct in the wild; once restricted to serpentine outcrops on the San Francisco peninsula. It is now known only as a cultivated plant  Takes temperature extremes better than others © Project SOUNDJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
  54. 54. Hooker’s Manzanita makes a good coastal groundcover  Size:  mostly low – 1-3 ft tall  spreading to 6-8 ft wide  Growth form:  Woody evergreen shrub  Matt-like to mounded  Red bark on older branches  Foliage:  Medium green  Leaves upright on branches © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Flowers: Manzanita  Blooms: in early spring – usually Feb-Mar  Flowers:  Typical for manzanita  Small white-pink urn-shaped flowers  Adored by hummingbirds  Fruits :  Typical ‘little apples’ of the genus  Ripen in summer – turn a red-brown © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: the species likes sandy soils; some cultivars have other requirements  pH: best with slightly acidic – 5.0-7.5 is fine  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: best with occasional summer water (Zone 2); rinse leaves in summer to simulate fog drip  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: use an organic mulch © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Managing manzanitas  Avoid unnecessary pruning. Most manzanitas develop a nice shape if just left to their own devices  Manzanitas are prone to branch die-back, caused by a naturally occurring fungal pathogen.  When removing dead branches, sterilize pruningBe sure to leave a 6” circle of shears with alcohol betweenbare soil around manzanta cuts to prevent the spread oftrunks the disease. © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Hooker’s Manzanita is a natural groundcover  Under trees  On slopes  In front yards - evergreen © Project SOUND
  59. 59. ‘Ken Taylor’  < 2 ft tall; spreads to 8+ ft. wide  All the good traits of the species – dense evergreen foliage  Takes clay soils  Best nearer the coast  Excellent low-water groundcover plant © Project SOUND
  60. 60. ‘Monterey Carpet’  Very low-growing ( 1 ft or less)  Does best in sandy soils along the coast  Good under pines  Not very cold tolerant © Project SOUND
  61. 61. ‘Wayside’  2-3 ft tall x 8-10 ft wide  Low, mounding habit  Vigorous; fast-growing  Takes heat & cold better than other cultivars  Best in part-shade in hot gardens Project SOUND ©
  62. 62. If you have a bumper crop of manzanita berries, consider yourself lucky  Manzanita ‘cider’ for now  Jams & jellies for gifts  Syrup (can be used for beverages) for later © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Making Manzanita ‘Cider’  Wash 4 cups ripe berries (summer)  Cover with water & simmer (don’t boil) until soft (~ 15 min.)  Cool until warm; pour the liquid into a large non-metal bowl or jar  Slightly crush/grind/mash the cookedStrain again then berries in food processor or mash withdrink; sweeten if potato masher; add to the liquid in the bowl/jardesired  Let settle 1 day; strain the liquid  Put strained liquid in glass (best) jar in refrigerator; let settle 1 day © Project SOUND
  64. 64. How do I know if fruits are ripe?  Time of year: mid- to late summer for manzanita  Color: know what color ripe berries should be; manzanita fruits are red when ripe  Texture: many fruits are soft when ripe; manzanitas are rather dry when ripe © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Very ripe (dry) manzanita berries need to be ground before making cider Make manzanita cider with either ripe or semi-ripe berries in either hot or cold water (in refrigerator)  Berries mixed with cold water sat for 9-12 hours in the refrigerator and yielded a liquid much more clear than the hot.  The hot water treatment included boiling the water and pouring it over the crushed berries, letting it sit for one hour before straining. The hot water cider is darker. © Project SOUND
  66. 66. Another ‘Classic California’ drink – Lemonadeberry ‘lemonade’  Try about 15 berries per 8- 12 oz water (mild taste) or 1 part berries to 4 parts water (stronger)  Can use either hot or cold water for infusion  Usually takes several hours  Strain out berries, etc.  Very tart (acidic) – may need to sweeten to taste © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Other ‘classic’ natural beverages include rustic ‘teas’ Juniper berry & juniper leaf tea Pine needle tea © Project SOUND
  68. 68. * California Juniper – Juniperus californica © Project SOUND
  69. 69. * California Juniper – Juniperus californica  Mountain slopes of W. CA into Baja; desert mountains of S. CA, NV & AZ – locally in Antelope Valley & desert side of San Gabriels  In S. CA commonly occurs in pinyon-juniper woodlands that border and integrate with chaparral along desert margins © 2003 Monty Rickard © Project SOUND
  70. 70. CA Juniper is a well-shaped juniper  Size:  10-20 ft tall (usual); may be taller (to 40 ft)  10-20 ft wide  Growth form:  Large woody shrub/small tree with rounded, somewhat open habit  Multi-stemmed  Evergreen  Slow-growth – ½ ft / yr; long lived – to 150+ years  Foliage:  Medium-green scale-like leaves – typical juniper, fragrant © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Plant of the dry  Soils: foothills  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: quite drought tolerant; water infrequently (Zone 1-2 probably best for gardens)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: good heat tolerance © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Use where ever you want a juniper  As an unusual bonsai  On hot, dry slopes  As a specimen or hedge plant  For it’s great habitat value © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Flowers: insignificant  Blooms: in spring, but you probably won’t notice  Flowers:  Dioecious (usual) or have both sexes on same plant (rarely)  Cones (‘berries’):  Only from female flowers  Take 8-9 mo. to develop & mature  Begin green; blue-purple to red-brown when ripe (fall) © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Juniper berries spice up foods  The cones from a handful of species are used as a spice, particularly in European cuisine and native SW U.S. - also give gin its distinguishing flavor  In addition to J. communis (Europe), other edible species include Juniperus californica which is said to have ‘sweet’ berries  The mature, dark berries are usually but not exclusively used in cuisine, while gin is flavored with fully grown but immature green berries © 2005 James M. Andre © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Uses for juniper berries  To season meat, particularly wild game & fish (salmon)  As a flavoring for alcoholic beverages:  Gin (uses other seasonings as well as juniper berries)  Juniper-flavored liqueurs  For tea (fresh or dried)  Note: intense flavor (a little goes a long way) – often mixed with other teas, flavoring agentsJuniper tea is said to aid digestion © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Perhaps you’d like a beverage that’s slightly less rustic native fruits & berries make excellent syrups © Project SOUND
  77. 77. * Desert Peach – Prunus andersonii © Project SOUND
  78. 78. * Desert Peach – Prunus andersonii  High Sierra Nevada (e slope from Lassen Co. south), Great Basin Floristic Province, n Desert Mountains (Last Chance Range)  Often found on dry slopes, mesas, washes, ravines, draws, cliff bases, and rocky hillsides, 3500-6500‘  Yellow pine forest, sagebrush scrub, desert chaparral © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Small and shrubby, but a real peach  Size:  3-6 ft tall  3-6 ft wide – but spreading  Growth form:  Dense, mounded shrub; lots of side-branching  Individual stems live ~ 5-10 years, then die  Winter-deciduous  Bark light gray  Foliage:  Light green to gray-green  Leaves small for peach - desert  Roots: clonal; spreading via rhizomes © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Water-wise but adaptable to gardens  Soils:  Texture: most local except those with very poor drainage  pH: any local  Light: full sun; heat tolerant  Water:  Winter: needs good winter rains  Summer: quite drought tolerant but best with a little summer water – Zone 1-2 or maybe 2  Fertilizer: likes poor soils but could take light fertilizer © Project SOUND
  81. 81. Where to put a peach?  Hot dry areas of yard  In a desert-themed garden  As a natural hedge  In the edible & habitat garden – great plant for birds, pollinatorshttp:// © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Flowers are fantastic!  Blooms: Spring – usually Mar-Apr but may be earlier  Flowers:© 1982 Gary A. Monroe  Typical pink peach flowers ½ to 1 inch across  Plants are just loaded with blooms – extremely showy  Great nectar for native pollinators Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Yum, peaches  In wild, tend to be small & dry  With a little summer water they are© 1982 Gary A. Monroe delicious  Native Californians eat fresh, make into jelly, dry into fruit leathers  Stems, leaves & roots used for medicines, dyes © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Making syrup from native fruits: takes some time but worth the effort © Project SOUND
  85. 85. Most native fruits are easy to clean  Remove debris – leaves  Wash in water; use collander/sieve for berries  Pick out damaged fruit  Stone fruits: remove pits © Project SOUND
  86. 86. Cactus fruits require careful handling © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Cook fruit to produce juice Barely cover fruits with water Bring to a boil; reduce heat Simmer uncovered until fruits are soft; usually 15-30 min. Many fruits will be pale and the liquid will have taken up the color Your kitchen – and whole house - will smell delicious © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Next you need to strain out the pulp, seeds, skin, etc. A jelly/juicing bag and holder can be really useful if you’re making a lot of juice/syrup or jelly
  89. 89. Making syrup is easy from this point on Use a good standard recipe; see recipes Place juice, sugar, etc. in pot and follow recipe Don’t overcook – will thicken when it cools Prepare your jars; get out your jar-processing tools
  90. 90. Fill prepared jars Remove ‘foam’ Remove sterilized jar from hot water Fill, using a canning funnel Cap with sterilized lid
  91. 91. If you want to store your syrup for more than a few weeks Use glass jars with tight- fitting lids – regular canning jars best Process using a boiling water bath (follow instructions to the letter) Cool; store in a cool dry place for 1-2 years Refrigerate after opening
  92. 92. Use your syrup in so many ways  As a syrup for pancakes, deserts  As a sweetener for teas  Mixed with sparkling water for a fruit cordial  Etc. © Project SOUND
  93. 93. What to do with just a few berries? © Project SOUND
  94. 94. homemade-liqueurs-cordials.html made from native fruits are anotherdelicious and creative way to use a ‘small crop’ © Project SOUND
  95. 95. Chaparral Gooseberry – Ribes malvaceum
  96. 96. Chaparral Gooseberry – Ribes malvaceum  Coastal & foothill areas, including Channel Islands  Chaparral  Slightly more inland and higher elevation than white- and pink- flowered currants  malvaceum: leaves like a mallow
  97. 97. Chaparral Currant – fabulous cultivars  ‘Barrie Coate’ – bright pink  ‘Ortega Ruby’– darker flowers  ‘Christie Ridge’ & ‘Montara Rose’ – light pink flowers  ‘Dancing Tassels’ – long flower stalks; medium pink flowers
  98. 98. Many possibilities for currants/gooseberriesin the garden  As a berry bush in the edible garden; great for jellies  As a shrub in backs of summer-dry beds  Along walks or N- or East-facing walls  In a fragrance garden  As an accent plant – showy flowers & attractive foliage  Even in large pots & planters
  99. 99. Making liqueurs from native berries & fruits is simplicity itself  Follow the basic recipes I’ve given you  A general rule of thumb is 1:1:1 – fruit:sugar:vodka/rum; but you’ll want to ‘tweak’ the recipes for your fruits and taste  In general, you add all ingredients, let the mixture steep for several weeks, then strain out the fruit.  The best liqueurs are then aged for several months  A final filtering through a coffee filter/cloth and it’s ready to drink © Project SOUND
  100. 100. We hope we’ve inspired you to use the bounty of your native plants © Project SOUND
  101. 101. Several of the plants we’ve discussed are available at the plant sale © Project SOUND
  102. 102. And we’ve got some tisanes and syrups for you to try © Project SOUND