Native plants & the vegetable garden 2012


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This lecture was given in June, 2012 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’.

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Native plants & the vegetable garden 2012

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Into the Vegetable Garden: Using CA Native Plants in the Edibles Garden C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve June 2 & 5, 2012 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. Many of us grow edibles in our homegardens (or are thinking of starting) © Project SOUND
  4. 4. Benefits of growing your own fruits &vegetables  Fun  Educational  Good exercise  Interesting looking plants  Saves money  Tasty, fresh ingredients  Opportunity to grow heirloom varieties – and to grow foods that are not genetically modified  Chance to grow & use ‘exotic’ ingredients – including CA native plants © Project SOUND
  5. 5. Are CA native plants and edibles gardens really compatible? © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Ways in which ‘conventional’ edibles may differ from native plants  Water requirements: many conventional edible plants require more water than many CA native plants  Nutrient requirements: many conventional edibles require more nutrients than most CA native plants like/need © Project SOUND
  7. 7. Of course you can plan for different water needs – that’s what Water Zone Gardening is all about © Project SOUND
  8. 8. You can also get around the otherdifferences – with a little planning © Project SOUND
  9. 9. Summer’s a good time to re-evaluate What works well? What needs changing? © Project SOUND
  10. 10. We look on-line for some inspiration © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Your resolutions:  Minor changes to most of the raised beds – a few repairs summer 2012  Convert the back beds to narrow beds for specialty crops – more space between them & back fence  Better use of the back fence area: ?? New vines  Add a few more beds – allow you to ‘rest’ some beds each year for plant health  Use the large pots more Incorporate native plants into  Create some open areas the edible garden; use more surrounding garden for heirloom varieties pollinator plants/ plants to attract beneficial insects © Project SOUND
  12. 12. You’ve got the whole summer to get ready for fall planting – time to get cracking! © Project SOUND
  13. 13. Guide to S. CA Vegetable Crops Warm-season Vegetables Cool-season Vegetables  Plant: Plant:  From seed: Aug-Oct in shaded  From seed: Mar-May; depends pots; Sep-Oct in ground on how cold the spring is  From starts: Oct-Dec  From starts: Apr-June (even July for late crops)  Ripen:  Early crops: Oct-Nov Ripen:  Late crops: Dec-Feb  Early crops: June-July (Aug) Late crops: Aug-Sept  Examples: Examples:  Early crops: broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale,  Early crops: beans, cucumbers, kohlrabi, mustard, lettuce and summer squash, tomatoes, other greens  Late crops: corn, melons,  Late crops: peas, cabbage, winter squash celery, © Project SOUND
  14. 14. How about some native cool-season crops? © Project SOUND
  15. 15. Planning our cool-season gardenTraditional vegetables CA native greens Lettuce  Allium haematochiton Spinach  Calandrinia ciliata  Camissonia species Peas  Claytonia perfoliata Broccoli  Mimulus cardinalis  Oenothera elata  Phacelia species  Plantago species  Trifolium species © Project SOUND
  16. 16. Miner’s Lettuce – Claytonia perfoliata ssp. perfoliata & mexicana © 2001 Steven Thorsted
  17. 17. Growing Miner’s Lettuce from seed Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Extremely easy  Sow in prepared soil in fall (best) through spring  Germinates with:  Damp soil/fall rains  Short days  Re-seeds  May want to remove plants if too prolific – will depend on site
  18. 18. Placement in our garden  Annual plant: dies to nothing in summer  Any soil: amended or not© by Gena Zolotar  Light: any (full sun to full shade)  Water: can take some extra water  Want to be able to pick it for winter salads
  19. 19. Fringed Redmaids – Calandrinia ciliata var menziesii © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Fringed Redmaids – Calandrinia ciliata var menziesii  Wide distribution:  Western United States , Central America, and northern South America.  In CA: California Floristic Province, some areas E. of Sierras  Usually in grassy areas, woodland openings or disturbed areas  Name:  Calandrinia: named for Jean Louis Calandrini (1703-1758), a professor of mathematics and philosophy, and a botanicalQuestion to ponder: does the author in Switzerlanddistribution of this plant suggest a  ciliata: indicates the slighthuman role? fringing of the petals like an eyelash © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Red Maids are spreading annuals  Size:  < 2 ft tall; tips of stems upcurviing  2-3 ft wide – side stems are spreading; plants will grow together  Growth form: sprawling/spreading herbaceous annual from a basal rosette.  Foliage:  Attractive light green  Slightly succulent leaves; spatula shaped  Roots: taproot; grow in place© 2006 Chris Wagner © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Flowers are an  Spring-blooming – as early as added bonus Feb. to May  Long bloom period with adequate water – flowers open sequentially along the stems  Flowers are:  Tiny - < ½ inch across  An unusual shade of hot pink/magenta – hard to photographRobert Potts © California Academy of Sciences  Open only during sunniest part of the day – flowers ‘disappear’ into their calyces at other times  Seeds are:  Tiny & shiny – but numerous; wind spread  Very tasty – were prized food for Native Californians (parched & ground to make pinole) © Project SOUNDJo-Ann Ordano © California Academy of Sciences
  23. 23. Red Maids is well suited to the vegetable garden…  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained soil; does super in sandy or rocky soils, but typical vegetable gardens soils would be great  pH: just about any local  Light: full sun; great in regular vegetable garden  Water:  Winter: needs good winter/ spring rains  Summer: regular water (Zone 2-3 or 3) will extend blooms slightly; no water for seed set  Fertilizer: fine with light fertilizerPlants re-seed very well – but it’s easyto weed out unwanted plants © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Redmaids make  Use only young leaves – bestpiquant greens before flowering; Arugala-like  Leaves contain oxalic acid, so it should only be used in moderation.  Oxalic acid can lock up certain of the nutrients in food - can lead to nutritional deficiencies if eaten in excess.  It is, however, perfectly safe in small amounts and its acid taste adds a nice flavor to salads.  Cooking the plant will reduce the quantity of oxalic acid.  People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones and hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Many uses for Red Maids in the garden  Very nice in pots – very green and attractive; helps control them to an extent  In the vegetable garden –  Edible greens and seeds  Flowers really perk up a vegetable garden  In the fronts of mixed beds  Among native bunchgrasses; needs bare ground to reseed  In the ‘Children’s Garden’ – easy  For bird habitat – many birds & insects relish the seeds © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Planning our cool-season gardenTraditional CA native greensvegetables  Allium haematochiton Lettuce  Calandrinia ciliata  Camissonia species Spinach  Claytonia perfoliata Peas  Mimulus cardinalis Broccoli  Oenothera elata  Phacelia species  Plantago species  Trifolium species  See Mother Nature’s Backyard blog for more-http://mother- © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Your resolutions:  Minor changes to some raised beds – a few repairs summer 2012  Convert the back beds to narrow beds for specialty crops – more space between them & back fence  Better use of the back fence area: ?? New vines  Add a few more beds – allow you to ‘rest’ some beds each year for plant/soil health  Create open areas surrounding garden for pollinator Incorporate native plants into plants/plants to attract the edible garden beneficial insects © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Clovers are often used as cover crops  Quick growing  Suppress weed growth  Prevent soil erosion  Increase soil organic matter (humus) – good for vegetable crops  Can be eaten (by humans or livestock)  Improve soil Nitrogen:  Interact with nodule-forming nitrogen fixing bacteria  Nitrogen is converted to a form that can be used by plants – including your veggies © Project SOUND
  29. 29. Bull clover/ Sour Clover – Trifolium fucatum© 2004 Carol W. Witham © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Bull clover – Trifolium fucatum  West coast of N. America from OR to Baja  In CA either:  Foothills of Sierras and other ranges  Coastally-influenced areas < 3000 ft. elevation  Locally abundant. Moist, open grassland, ditches, marshes, roadsides, sometimes saline or serpentine soils  fucatum: painted, dyed© 2005 George W. Hartwell © Project SOUND
  31. 31. Bull Clover is a fairly typical native annual clover  Size:  < 1 ft tall  1-3 ft wide; slightly spreading  Growth form:  Mounded; low-lying  Typical for clovers  Foliage:  Leaves typical ‘clover-leaf’ – often white-patterned  Stems robust, hollow  Roots:  Have symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteriaRobert Potts © California Academy of Sciences  Leave roots in soil to improve soil fertility (just harvest the tops) © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Flowers are among the prettier clover flowers  Blooms:  Usually Apr-June in S. CA ; after weather warms up  Long bloom period with supplemental water  Flowers:  Typical for clover; small pea-type flowers in a ball-like head  Cream-colored tinged with pink/mauve  Edible  Seeds:  Small  Edible fresh © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Clovers – not hard to grow once you know the trick  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any, including alkali  Even takes salty soils  Light: full sun to part-shade; good under deciduous trees  Water:  Winter: needs moist soils  Summer: needs regular water until flowering ceases – then cut back  Fertilizer: not needed, but probably won’t hurt  Other: to start seeds give them a© 2007 Aaron Schusteff hot-water treatment © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Most parts of clovers are edible in spring  Fresh greens  Raw or cooked  Limit intake of uncooked clover – causes gas  Use cooked clover like spinach  Flowers  Make nice addition to a salad  Leave some for the pollinators – great pollinator plants  Seeds  Native Californians ate them fresh  Many animals & birds also like clover seeds Native Californians look forward to fresh clover in the spring!© 2007 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Use any CA native clover as food, improve your soil & attract pollinators© 2004 Carol W. Witham © Project SOUND
  36. 36. Your resolutions:  Minor changes to some raised beds – a few repairs summer 2012  Convert the back beds to narrow beds for specialty crops – more space between them & back fence  Better use of the back fence area: ?? New vines  Add a few more beds – allow you to ‘rest’ some beds each year for plant health  Create open areas surrounding garden for pollinator Incorporate native plants into plants/plants to attract the edible garden; use more beneficial insects heirloom varieties © Project SOUND
  37. 37. Attracting pollinators to the veggie garden  Bees  Flies and fly-like insects (next month’s topic)  Butterflies  Moths  Beetles  Many others © Project SOUND
  38. 38. One reason to grow native annuals & perennials in/near the edibles garden © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Where might we plants some perennials? © Project SOUND
  40. 40. CA Sea Thrift – Armeria maritima ssp. californica © 2007 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND
  41. 41. The Plumbaginaceae  Sometimes referred to as the leadwort family or the plumbago family. Flowers in parts of 5.  Most species in this family are perennial herbaceous plants, but a few grow as vines or shrubs.  The plants have perfect flowers (have male & female parts) and are pollinated by insects.  Found in many different climatic regions, from arctic to tropical conditions, but are particularly associated with salt-rich steppes, Cape Plumbago – planted along freeways marshes, and sea coasts. © Project SOUND
  42. 42. CA Sea Thrift – Armeria maritima ssp. californica  Possibly S. Coast; definitely Santa Rosa Isl., San Luis Obispo Co (Cambria; Santa Lucia Mtns near San Simeon)  North to British Columbia  Near the beach: prairies, cliffs, bluffs & dunes < 1000 ft elevation,5646,0,5647 © Project SOUND© 2011 Chris Winchell Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  43. 43. Sea Thrift – dainty but tough  Size:  1-2 ft tall (foliage < 1 ft)  ~ 1 – 1 ½ ft wide  Growth form:  mounded perennial  evergreen  Foliage:  Narrow, stiff leaves – somewhat grass-like  Foliage in basal rosette  Roots: tough & woody; part is above-ground© 2011 Chris Winchell © Project SOUND © 2007 Neal Kramer
  44. 44. Flowers: lovely color  Blooms:  Spring/summer – usually May-Aug in our area  Long-blooming with regular water and dead-heading  Flowers:  Small; in dense ball-like clusters (somewhat like the fancy onions)  Color: magenta or pink  Very pretty in bloom – make good cut flowers  Attract native bees, butterflies & other insects© 2007 Neal Kramer © 2004, Ben Legler © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Available as plants: easy also from seed or divisions  From seed:  Use fresh seed  No pre-treatment  Quite easy, good germination in fall/spring  From divisions:  Divide with a shovel or uproot and cut  Re-plant the divisions  Reliable © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any from sandy loam to clay – good for clays  pH: any local  Light: full sun right along coast; part-sun (morning sun) elsewhere  Water:  Winter: adequate – supplement if needed  Summer: moderate to regular water – Zones 2-3 to 3  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils – but probably wouldn’t kill it  Other: if using an organic mulch, make it thin; no mulch or inorganic mulches fine © Project SOUND© 2008 John Dittes
  47. 47. Loved by gardeners as:  Sea-side ground cover  Rock garden plant  Attractive pot/planter species  Lining walkways extras/70/3/sea-ranch-gardens-most- successful-plants/ lawn_alternatives.php © Project SOUND© 2004, Ben Legler maritima-ssp-californica
  48. 48. Bring it into the vegetable garden,_Tower_Hill_Botanic_Garden.JPG You’ll also have a source of cut flowers otos/index.php/Succulents-2f5a-41ec-9c05-61c5ebfda0e9&PlantId=1115 Rock-Garden/IMG_0132 © Project SOUND
  49. 49. Many annual wildflowers are great forattracting pollinators – and fit easily intoan edibles garden  Clarkias  Gilias  Anything in Sunflower family  Lotus species  Phacelias  Annual Salivas  Many more (see pollinator lists: Project SOUND/ Mother Nature’s Backyard Blog Tansy-leaf Phacelia © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Attracting other beneficial insects  Predatory insects – eat the bad guys  Insects that attract insect-eating birds  Insects that provide other beneficial services in the garden Some native plants have a well-deserved reputation for attracting the ‘good guys’ © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Attract these By planting beneficial these species insects Bigeyed bug Native grassesCopyright © 2007 Ron Hemberger Polygonum sp. (Silver Lace Vine) Hoverflies Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Asclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Milkweed) Baccharis sp. (Coyote brush, Mulefat) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac) Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Prunis ilicifolia (Hollyleaf Cherry) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac) Lacewings Prunus ilicifolia (Hollyleaf Cherry) Lady beetles Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Asclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Milkweed) Atriplex sp. (Quailbush, Saltbush) Ceanothus sp. (California Lilac) Native grasses Rhamnus californica (Coffeeberry) Salix sp. (Willow) © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Attract these By planting beneficial these species insects Minute Achillea sp. (Yarrow) pirate bug Baccharis sp. (Coyote brush, Mulefat) Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Minute Pirate Bug Achillea sp. (Yarrow) Parasitic & Aesclepias fascicularis (Narrowleaf Predatory Milkweed) Wasps Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Tachnid Achillea sp. (Yarrow) flies Eriogonum sp. (Buckwheat) Heteromeles arbutifolia (Toyon) Rhamnus californica (Coffeeberry) Tachnid Fly © Project SOUND
  53. 53. * Southern Umbrellawort – Tauschia arguta © 2006 Michelle Cloud-Hughes © Project SOUND
  54. 54. * Southern Umbrellawort – Tauschia arguta  Outer coastal ranges, S. CA and Baja  Locally in Santa Monica Mtns, Hollywood Hills, San Gabriels  Dry fans and slopes below 6000, coastal sage, scrub, chaparral, woodlands, inland to desert edge © 2003 Brent Miller © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Southern Umbrellawort: Carrot family  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Low but erect form  Evergreen  Foliage:  Very green  Large-lobed & coarsely toothed – like flat parsley or celery  Larval food for Anise Swallowtail© 2006 Michelle Cloud-Hughes  Roots: stout © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Flowers attract beneficial insects  Blooms: mid- to late spring (April to June)  Flowers:  Small and yellow  In compound umbels typical of© 2006 Michelle Cloud-Hughes Carrot family; smells ‘carroty’  Many pollinator (and other) insects  Seeds:  Flat, ribbed seeds typical of the family  To start from seed, use fresh seed and rinse in several rinses of water to remove inhibiting hormones. © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Easy to grow  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: any local – including vegetable garden  Light:  Full sun to light shade © 2010 Gary A. Monroe  Water:  Winter: plenty of water; soils moist  Summer: dry out to Zone 1-2 or 2 in summer  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Little to no mulch – inorganic mulch fine © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Umbrellawort in the garden  Usually included in butterfly gardens  Unusual pot plant; in rock gardens  Good choice for margins of the vegetable garden © Project SOUND Michelle Cloud-Hughes © 2006
  59. 59. Others perennials for garden edges  Achillea millefolia  Asclepias species (Milkweeds)  Clematus species (Virgin’s Bowers)  Eriogonum species (Buckwheats)  Lomatium utriculatum  Solidago species (Goldenrods)  Native grasses © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Heirloom edibles and native plants: a good combination  Open-pollinated  Long relationship between heirloom varieties, ‘wild plants’ and insects  Unusual and tasty flavors – combine well with native seasonings  Are less likely to be genetically modified food plants © Project SOUND
  61. 61. What are genetically modified plants © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Genetically modified foods are here Experts say 60% to 70% of processed foods on U.S. grocery shelves have genetically modified ingredients. The most common genetically modified foods are soybeans, maize, cotton, and rapeseed oil. That means many foods made in the U.S. containing field corn or high-fructose corn syrup; foods made with soybeans and foods made with cottonseed and canola oils could likely have genetically modified ingredients. These ingredients appear frequently in animal feed as well.
  63. 63. Which view is correct?  The U.S. governments position: Genetically engineered crops are safe, resist disease better, and can provide much-needed food in starving nations.  The EU position: Keep it out. We prefer organic, which is much healthier. The risk of genetically modified foods to health and the environment outweigh the benefits. Only the multinational biotech companies will benefit, dominating the world food supply and squeezing out traditional farmers.We’ll discuss this topic in greater depth in our Julyclass
  64. 64. Keeping old varieties alive is another reason to plant heirloom seeds: biodiversity is important in agriculture as well as in nature © Project SOUND
  65. 65. You consider adding some native herb/spice or beverage plants to your vegetable garden © Project SOUND
  66. 66. After seeing this picture you decide to add some native fruits to your edibles garden Strawberries would be an easy place to start © Project SOUND
  67. 67. * Woodland Strawberry – Fragaria vesca ssp. californica © 2002 George Jackson © Project SOUND
  68. 68. * Woodland Strawberry – Fragaria vesca ssp. californica  Coastal mountains and Sierra Nevada from OR/WA to Baja  Locally in the San Bernardino & San Jacinto Mtns., San Diego Co.  In dry to moist meadows, young woodlands, sparse forest , woodland edges and clearings.  Often plants can be found where they do not get sufficient light to form fruit.,6723,6725 © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Flowers are sweet  Blooms:  Spring into summer  Usually Mar. to June in our area – may also have some summer bloom  Flowers:  Smaller than F. chiloensis© 2006 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy  Typical 5-petal white flowers of the genus  Really nice for a ground-cover plant; light, sweet fragrance  Attract butterflies  Seeds: usually will reseed  Vegetative reproduction: easy to dig up plantlets to produce new plants © Project SOUND
  70. 70. But the fruits are sweeter yet!  Larger fruit than Fragaria chiloensis (Beach Strawberry)  Among the most tasty of all the wild strawberries –sweet scent  Excellent choice for:  Eating fresh  Including in baked goods  Making preserves & syrups  Drying  Berries have antioxidant properties  Berry juice is a natural bleach© 2006 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy  Leaves make a tea for GI upsets © Project SOUND
  71. 71.  Soils:Plant Requirements  Texture: any, including clays  pH: any local including acidic  Light:  Full sun (cooler gardens) or dappled shade are best  Will grow fine in part-shade to quite shady, but fruiting reduced  Water:  Winter: likes good rains  Summer: wide tolerance – occasional (Zone 2) to regular water (Zone 3)  Fertilizer: fine with light fertilizer – really likes a leaf mulch  Other: good frost tolerance© 2006 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Many ways to use strawberries in the vegetable garden – all pretty © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Maybe you want to be a bit more adventuresome © Project SOUND
  74. 74. CA Blackberry – Rubus ursinus ssp. ursinius© 2005 Doreen L. Smith © Project SOUND
  75. 75. CA Blackberry – Rubus ursinus ssp. ursinius  Western N. America from British Columbia to Baja; 0 - 4500 feet elevation  Locally on Catalina, Santa Monicas, San Gabriels – possibly more in past  Moist places: canyons, river banks, etc.,6899,6910 © Project SOUND© 2011 Michael OBrien
  76. 76. Rubus ursinus in Santa Monica Mtns © Project SOUND
  77. 77. The genus Rubus  Large genus in Rose family (Rosaceae)  Latin name meaning “bramble” – most have prickly stems  Includes cultivated raspberries and blackberries  More than a dozen species native to western N. America  The Rubus fruit, sometimes called a bramble fruit, is anSome of our favorite summer aggregate of drupelets (small,fruits come from this genus! fleshy fruits surrounding a hard ‘stone’ or seed) © Project SOUND
  78. 78. CA Blackberry: characteristic of genus  Size:  1-3 ft tall  8-20 ft wide  Growth form:  Low, mounded canes; trailing or climbing habit  Evergreen or slightly winter deciduous© 2009 Zoya Akulova  Armed with prickles  Foliage:  Medium green with leaflets – typical of genus  Roots: will spread via suckers – modest compared to Himalayan Blackberry© 2009 Ben Stever © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Which Blackberry is it? Himalayan Blackberry (Rubus discolor/ R. armeniacus)  Native to Armenia in SW Asia  Introduced to Europe in 1835, and Australasia and North America in 1885Prickles of CA Blackberry are thin andeasily detach  Widely planted due to its flavorful fruit & availability  Because it’s so hard to contain, quickly got out of control, with birds/animals eating the berries and spreading the seeds.  Now a plant pest world-wide Flowers of CA Blackberry usually have longer, narrower petals © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Pretty white flowers  Blooms: in spring – between April & June, depending on the weather  Flowers:  Medium size: 1-2 inches across  Plants may be dioecious (separate male & female© 2008 Gary McDonald plants) or may produce perfect flowers (contain both sexes)  Attract many pollinators  Vegetative reproduction:  Branch tips root readily where they touch ground  Easy way to propagate – tip- layering (or just remove rooted tips in spring)© 2007 Neal Kramer © Project SOUND
  81. 81.  Soils: Garden  Texture: any – not particular Requirements  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade; afternoon shade in hot inland gardens  Water:  Winter: plenty  Summer: pretty drought tolerant once established; best fruiting in Water Zone 2-3 (moderate water)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; mulching is good  Other: Don’t plant brambles in a site where potatoes, eggplants, tomatoes, and peppers have grown in the past 3 years; site may contain verticillium wilt which will harm brambles.© 2012 Michael OBrien © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Blackberries: contain  Sometimes used as a thorny hedge  Best used in contained places; planters, areas bounded by impervious materials  Can be grown in large containers© 2010 Aaron Arthur © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Provide some support  Chain-link fence  Garden trellis or frame: attach with clothespins, twist-ties or strips of old nylons  More classic methods  One-line trellis (two-wire trellis)  Two-line trellis (Cross-arm trellis) One-line trellis for trailing blackberries. Spread floricanes up on a two-wire system. © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Pruning Rubus species  Primocanes: first year – non-fruiting  Floricanes: second year canes with side branches – produce flowers,Figure 1. Primocanes of thorny, erect berriesblackberries that have not been pruned.  During the growing season, tip back each developing primocane to ~ 4-5 ft. ; lateral shoots develop  When the fruiting season is over, cut out spent floricanes at the root crown. Do not prune floricanes before fruiting season unless damaged or diseased.  Discard all pruned plant material.Figure 2. Primocanes of thorny, erectblackberries that have been pruned. © Project SOUND
  85. 85. Other maintenance for Rubus species  Check for disease – prune out using sterile techniques  Rake up old leaves – dispose of them  Mulch: organic is best, but inorganic also fine  May give yearly dose of low- strength (1/2 strength of less) fertilizer, especially for pot-grown plants Crown borer © Project SOUND
  86. 86. Harvesting your bounty  Berries very tasty - parent of Loganberry, Youngberry, and Boysenberry  The best time to harvest the fruits is when they are easily pulled from the stem, taste sweet and have reached full color.  It is preferable to harvest in the morning when the plants are cool. Be sure that any morning dew has already dried before harvesting.  Place harvested fruit into shallow trays as the weight of the fruits piled high can damage the underlying fruit. © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Love those berries!  Quick syrups to top off ice cream  Dropping in red wine vinegar for use in summer salads  Steeping in vodka for liqueurs. Wild blackberry sorbet  Pies, tarts, muffins  Jams & jellies  Sorbet  Fruit rolls (dried)  The list goes on and on © Project SOUND
  88. 88. If you want a thornless cane berry you’ll have to sacrifice a little taste J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Thimbleberry – Rubus parviflorusDr. Robert T. and Margaret Orr © California Academy of Sciences © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Thimbleberry – Rubus parviflorus  Western N. America from AK to Mexico – E. to the Dakotas and NM  California Floristic Province (W. of Sierras) except Central Valley  Locally in the San Gabriels  It commonly grows on open, wooded hillsides, in subalpine meadows, along streambanks and canyons, on borders, and roadsides, and on dry exposed sites only at higher elevations.  Sites are usually cool and moist© 2009 Julie Kierstead Nelson © Project SOUND
  91. 91. Thimbleberry: Rubus, but different  Size:  3-6+ ft tall  spreading; 15+ ft wide  Growth form:  Low, scrambling or erect (depends on light; moisture) © 1991 Gary A. Monroe  Branches are hairy but not prickly  Foliage:  Typical for Rubus; palmate leaves  Leaves fragrant on warm days© 2011 Zoya Akulova © Project SOUND
  92. 92. Flowers are Rubus type  Blooms: in spring/summer; usually May-June in our area, but may be earlier or later  Flowers:  Medium size  White (rarely pink)  Very rose-like in appearance.  Quite showy – and attract insect pollinators  Seeds: hard  Vegetative reproduction: spreads well via rhizomes – consider placement/containment© 2004 Robert Sivinski © Project SOUND
  93. 93. Berries are Raspberry-like  Mild flavor & a little dry when red-ripe; can be dried  Makes good jellies, syrups, etc.© 2004 Robert Sivinski  Wildlife love them too !!!How Thimbleberry got its common name © Project SOUND main_page=product_info&cPath=35&products_id=67&zenid=44f82b96b2f0219f31ab9896b094afdc
  94. 94. Other human uses for Rubus species  Young shoots  They are harvested as they emerge through the ground in the spring, peeled and then eaten in salads.  Fibers from the stem used to make twine  Leaves  Dried for herbal teas (often in blends)  A decoction of the leaves is useful as a gargle in treating thrush and also makes a good general mouthwash.  Root  Cooked; neither to young nor too old - requires a lot of boiling.  Root-bark and the leaves are strongly astringent, diuretic, tonic. They make an excellent remedy for dysentery, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, cystitis etc, the root is the more astringent. Externally, they are used as a gargle to treat sore throats, mouth ulcers and gum inflammations. © Project SOUND
  95. 95. Thimbleberry  Soils: requirements  Texture: just about any  pH: any local  Light:  Best fruit production in part shade; dappled sun  Can take quite shady  Water:  Winter: adequate© 2001 Steven Thorsted  Summer: regular water – Water Zones 2-3 or 3  Fertilizer: best with yearly light dose; compost top-dressing fine  Other: likes an organic mulch © Project SOUND
  96. 96. Garden uses for Thimbleberry  Groundcover for moist, shady slopes  As an attractive pot/planter species  Along walls/fences (with support)  Rubus are good all-round habitat © 2009 Julie Kierstead Nelson plants: nectar, pollen, berries, shelter© 2010 Jean Pawek Project SOUND ©
  97. 97. How might you incorporate Rubus into your garden? © Project SOUND
  98. 98. In summary: several ways to use native plants in edibles garden  As edibles: greens, seeds/fruits, beverage plants; seasonings  To improve soil fertility  To attract pollinators  To attract other beneficial insects © Project SOUND
  99. 99. In summary: native plants can improve the edibles garden  Provide cut flowers  Just make your garden prettier  Make you want to spend more time out in your edibles garden © Project SOUND
  100. 100. So let’s get to work! © Project SOUND