Beverages from Native Plants - Notes


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Beverages from Native Plants - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Delicious Drinks: Native Plants for Teas & Other Beverages C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve November 5th & 8th 2011 Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2011 (our 7th year) © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Most of our parents didn’t pass along the ‘traditional ways’ What can I do with all those rosehips? © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 In the next year, we’re going to try to Please ask questions change that  Today’s class – beverages  Dec. 8 – Flavored Vinegars Workshop – Madrona  May class – Scents for potpourri and more  And more © Project SOUND © Project SOUND What do you think of when you think * Wild (Field) Mint – Mentha arvensis of beverage plants?  One of the first that comes to mind is mint – because mints are common and their leaves make such great tea! © 2005 Louis-M. Landry © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 * Wild (Field) Mint – Mentha arvensis Field Mint – a typical mint  Size:  Found throughout N.  1 to 1 ½ ft tall Hemisphere, incl. Europe, Asia  spreads to many ft wide; in  Locally in San Bernardino & San nature, forms a mat-like colony in Diego Co. mtns. favorable sites  Formerly many ssp & vars – now combined into single species  Growth form:  Always grows in moist places  Herbaceous perennial  Dies back in fall/winter,4779,4780  Upright or sprawling  Foliage:  Typical mint with square stems  Aromatic; strongly minty – repels deer, mice, unwanted insects  Roots: spreads via rhizomes © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Flowers are dainty  Blooms: anytime from July to Seeds Oct; usually in bloom about 4 weeks  Many tiny seeds in dry  Flowers: capsule typical of mint  Color: white to very pale family violet or pink  Tiny; bell-shaped  Best with 2-3 mo cold  In dense, ball-like clusters in moist stratificatoon leaf axils – often mostly hidden by the leaves  Vegetative reproduction:  Easy to propagate from stem cuttings in spring, fall  Let them root in water in a light place – no direct sun © Project SOUND © Project SOUND © 2004, Ben Legler 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013  Soils: Mint in the garden Plant Requirements  Texture: any  pH: any local but 6.0-7.5 best  Best use: as an attractive pot plant; evergreen most of the  Light: year  Full sun to light shade – dappled  In an herb or kitchen garden sun is fine  In water garden – lowest area –  Foliage has stronger flavor in or other moist area full sun  Water:  Winter: fine with seasonal flooding  Summer: needs regular water – Zone 2-3 to 3  Fertilizer: likes compost amended soils; light fertilizer if gown in containers © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College  Other: cut back in fall/winter © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Repotting mint Making fresh mint tea - easy  The leaves are harvested between  Required yearly – if not May and August. It is important to more often harvest only the well matured  Easy – hard to kill leaves as the half-mature ones do not have the fine mint aroma.  You can give the extras as gifts © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013 Or use fresh mint to make your Drying leaves for tea favorite summer beverage  Wash leaves – pat dry  Place on a cookie sheet in a warm oven (180º F or less – ‘warm’ setting)  Check for dryness – usually ~ 20-45 min. Leaves will be crackly.  Strip leaves off stems  Store in air-tight container © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The many edible uses of mints Medicinal uses of Wild Mint  The mint flavored leaves are  Leaves are used as a herbal remedy : used as herb in various  For stomach disorders like indigestion and gas. cuisines.  As an anti inflammatory agent  Sometimes raw leaves are  For treatment of fever, headache, cold and asthma. added to salads and other  To make cough syrups. preparations to add flavor to  To treat stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting and influenza. the food.  To reduce toothaches and swellings of gum.  Fresh leaves are also used to  To alleviate arthritis. make chutneys.  The oil extraction of these leaves is used in the  The oil extracted from these treatments of insomnia and nervous tension. plants is used as a flavoring agent for beverages and sweets. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013 The tea/medicinal connection  Many herbal teas are not only delicious, they also may have soothing & other effects  The medicinal benefits of  Plants make a number of specific herbs are often plant-specific chemicals anecdotal or controversial, (phytochemicals) and in some countries  Some are pleasant tasting to us (including the United – but actually repel herbivores States) makers of herbal [Mint] teas are not allowed to infusions are an easy  Some play similar, often make unsubstantiatedmeans of extracting plant medicinal, roles in both plants & claims about the medicinalchemicals it’s not surprising that animals effects of their products. are used as both traditional  These chemicals are the basismedicines and beverages of many traditional & ‘modern’ medicines © Project SOUND © Project SOUND The benefits of making beverages from A few words of caution plants growing in your own garden  Herbal teas can have different effects from  You know what the plant is – person to person – always start with a little, and so you don’t mistakenly never overdo substitute a toxic plant for an edible one  Some plants/plant parts are toxic; correct identification and correct preparation is essential  You can control the chemicals used on the  If you are pregnant, nursing, taking prescription plants medications, or have known allergies to certain foods or plants, caution and consultation with a  You can pick plant parts physician or pharmacist are advised. when they are at the ‘peak of flavor’ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013Fragrant Pitcher Sage – Lepechinia fragrans The genus Lepechinia  In the Mint family (Lamiaceae)  Occur in California, Mexico to South America, and Hawaii.  An interesting group of shrubs and woody-based perennials, some of them quite ornamental.  They vary in habit but have large paired, usually hairy and aromatic leaves and irregular flowers with broad tubes and 2-lipped “faces”. Attractive features of Fragrant Pitcher Sage in the garden Pitchersage  Good plants for the background of a perennial border  Soft contrast of leaf  For banks and open slopes and flower color  Mix with berry fruits in a border  Pleasant fragrance  Great addition to a butterfly garden  Interesting leaf texture  Planted near patios for their pleasant scent  Attracts birds and  In shaded areas (does equally butterflies well in sun or partial shade)  In the kitchen garden – makes a delicious tea, jelly, etc. 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013 Is Pitchersage ‘tea’ really a tea? Fragrant Pitcher Sage & Hummingbird Sage leaves make unique tisanes  Tea: infusion made from the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis).  Minty, but with distinct flavors  Herbal tea, tisane : herbal infusion that does not include  Make excellent hot and true tea leaves; often simply the iced teas combination of boiling water and dried fruits, flowers or herbs.  Can be used fresh or Can be used as beverage or dried for later use medicinal  Not only tasty – may have  Flavored tea: a true tea flavored medicinal properties with other herbs, spices, oils © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDLeaves are the most common plant part In fact, several different plant parts used for plants in the mint family can be use to make beverages  Leaves  Hot or cold herbal teas  Flavorings for other beverages  Syrups for cordials; sparkling waters  Liqueurs (alcoholic)  Fruits/berries  Hot & cold herbal teas  Juices  Syrups/Flavorings  Liqueurs (alcoholic)  Flower petals © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 CA Wild Rose – Rosa californica CA Wild Rose – Rosa californica  S. OR to northern Baja  In CA, everywhere but high mountain elevations  Common thicket-forming rose in S. & central CA foothills  Moist places, near streams, in shaded woods and canyons  Spanish padres called it ‘Rose of Castile’ because it reminded them of the roses of Spain.,6887,6889 A rose is a rose….  Size: to 6 ft. tall, 9 ft. wide  Winter deciduous  Growth form: upright shrub that spreads by suckers; typical wild rose  Garden requirements:  Light: full sun to semi-shade  Soils: any well-drained  Water: take cue from nature  Does best in full sun with some summer water  Will need less water in shaded areas  Less prone to fungal diseases than cultivated roses CA Wild Rose in nature: thicket-forming 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013 Wild roses are important habitat plants Dried rose petals  Blooms: for tea  Main season: May-Aug (but blooms intermittently in warm season)  Blown blooms (fully mature flowers) that havent browned  Flowers: single pinks; color varies slightly will make the most flavorful tea petals.  Important pollen source for bees and other insects  Rose petals and other flower dry quickly if youre using a heat  Fruits (hips)  Summer/fall source, so watch them closely to make sure they dont scorch.  Edible; good syrups & jellies They should be "shatter" dry, but  goldfinches, bluebirds, grosbeaks, not brown. robins, mockingbirds, and sparrows-- relish the hips  In a dehydrator, they just take a  Plants/foliage couple of hours to dry completely (in a single layer).  Dense, spiny foliage provides good cover and nesting sites for birds © Project SOUNDDrying nature’s bounty: many ways Making tisanes from flowers: requires a gentle touch for best flavor  Bring water to just under the boiling point, water should be very hot but never boiled.  Remove water from heat and add the fresh or dried petals. Allow petals to seep for one hour without stirring.  NEVER BOIL THE PETALS AS THIS WILL DESTROY THE LIGHT FLAVOR AND COLOR. IT WILL ALSO CAUSE THE TEA TO HAVE A BITTER TASTE. Note: cover with mesh if air-drying  You can re-heat the tisane or drink it cold © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 Flowers in the Honeysuckle family also Rose leaves also make make delicious tea a delicate tisane  Dry leaves – dryer or warm oven  Grind with a spice mill or crumple  Store in dry, well-labled container best-processed-foods#fbIndex9 tea.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Combining flavors: be creative Beach Strawberry - Fragaria chiloensis ssp. pacifica  Making mild leaf tisanes: ½ to 1 tsp dried leaves per cup; pour on boiling water and infuse for 10 minutes. Strain.  Drink hot or warm or iced with a sprig of mint or a slice of lemon. Tend to taste very ‘green’ - which you may or may not like alonetea.html  Consider adding to Rose leaves:  Loose leaf commercial green tea (to make a Roseleaf flavored tea)Many prepared ‘herbalteas’ and ‘flavored tea’  Dried wild rose buds or rose petals –are blends of several add to the visual appeal as well.dried herbs and spices © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013 Native Strawberries have much to Strawberries: a groundcover with lots recommend them…… of beverage potential  Easy to grow in the garden environment – including in light shade  Strawberry leaves make a  Attractive foliage, flowers & edible fruit delicate ‘tea’ with a taste  Excellent coverage – quickly spread by runners (even on sand!) all it’s own  Can mix with grasses & other plants – or  Wild strawberry fruits grow as a grass substitute make some of the best dried fruit tisanes and flavored teas – and can also be used for other Beach Strawberries ‘strawberry drinks’ are a delicacy in Chile © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Saving the fruits of Processing dried fruits for herbal tea summer  Why?  Collect only fully ripe, undamaged  Releases the flavor better fruit  Easier to handle, particularly if  Thoroughly wash with water; pat you’re filling tea bags dry  How?  Small fruits & berries (even small  Crumble with hands native rose hips) can be dried  Chop coarsely with a knife whole; slice strawberries or other  Break with mortar & pestle large fruits thinly  Use a spice mill or rotary- blade coffee grinder  Dry until fully dry  Use a small food processer to  Store whole or process/crumble coarsely chop then store © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013 Fill your own tea bags During summer a cold drink is nice  Readily available  Easy to fill & store  Make a nice – and unusual & trendy - gift Fortunately, there are some classical California cold beverages that use native plants commonly used in home gardens © Project SOUND * Hooker’s Manzanita – Arctostaphylos hookeri * Hooker’s Manzanita – Arctostaphylos hookeri  Native range extends from the coastal San Francisco Bay Area to the Central Coast  Sandy, coastal pine or oak woods, coastal scrub < 1000 ftBeatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences © 1991 David Graber © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013 Hooker’s Manzanita makes a good Several rare sub-species coastal groundcover  ssp. hearstiorum  Very low-growing – mat-like  Size:  Clays & summer fog-drip; very  mostly low – 1-3 ft tall moderate temperatures  spreading to 6-8 ft wide© 2011 Chris Winchell© 2006 Steve Matson  Growth form: ssp. hearstiorum near San Simeon  ssp. franciscana  Woody evergreen shrub  2 ft. groundcover  Matt-like to mounded  Now extinct in the wild; once  Red bark on older branches restricted to serpentine  Foliage: outcrops on the San Francisco  Medium green peninsula. It is now known only  Leaves upright on branches as a cultivated plant  Takes temperature extremes better than others © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Flowers: Manzanita Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: the species likes sandy soils; some cultivars have  Blooms: in early spring – other requirements usually Feb-Mar  pH: best with slightly acidic – 5.0-7.5 is fine  Flowers:  Typical for manzanita  Light:  Small white-pink urn-shaped  Full sun to part-shade flowers  Water:  Adored by hummingbirds  Winter: adequate  Fruits :  Summer: best with occasional  Typical ‘little apples’ of the summer water (Zone 2); rinse genus leaves in summer to simulate fog drip  Ripen in summer – turn a red-brown  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: use an organic mulch © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 1/6/2013 Hooker’s Manzanita is a Managing manzanitas natural groundcover  Avoid unnecessary pruning.  Under trees Most manzanitas develop a nice shape if just left to  On slopes their own devices  In front yards - evergreen  Manzanitas are prone to branch die-back, caused by a naturally occurring fungal pathogen.  When removing dead branches, sterilize pruning Be sure to leave a 6” circle of shears with alcohol between bare soil around manzanta cuts to prevent the spread of trunks the disease. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND ‘Ken Taylor’ ‘Monterey Carpet’  < 2 ft tall; spreads to 8+ ft. wide  Very low-growing ( 1 ft or less)  All the good traits of the species – dense  Does best in sandy soils along the coast evergreen foliage  Good under pines  Takes clay soils  Not very cold  Best nearer the coast tolerant  Excellent low-water groundcover plant © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 15
  16. 16. 1/6/2013 If you have a bumper crop of manzanita ‘Wayside’ berries, consider yourself lucky  2-3 ft tall x 8-10 ft wide  Manzanita ‘cider’  Low, mounding habit for now  Vigorous; fast-growing  Jams & jellies for  Takes heat & cold better gifts than other cultivars  Best in part-shade in hot  Syrup (can be used gardens for beverages) for later Project SOUND © © Project SOUND Making Manzanita ‘Cider’ How do I know if fruits are ripe?  Time of year: mid- to late summer  Wash 4 cups ripe berries (summer) for manzanita  Cover with water & simmer (don’t boil)  Color: know what color ripe until soft (~ 15 min.) berries should be; manzanita fruits are red when ripe  Cool until warm; pour the liquid into a large non-metal bowl or jar  Texture: many fruits are soft when ripe; manzanitas are rather  Slightly crush/grind/mash the cooked dry when ripe Strain again then berries in food processor or mash with drink; sweeten if potato masher; add to the liquid in the bowl/jar desired  Let settle 1 day; strain the liquid  Put strained liquid in glass (best) jar in refrigerator; let settle 1 day © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 16
  17. 17. 1/6/2013 Very ripe (dry) manzanita berries Another ‘Classic California’ drink – need to be ground before Lemonadeberry ‘lemonade’ making cider  Try about 15 berries per 8- 12 oz water (mild taste) or 1 Make manzanita cider with part berries to 4 parts water either ripe or semi-ripe berries (stronger) in either hot or cold water (in refrigerator)  Can use either hot or cold water for infusion  Berries mixed with cold water sat for 9-12  Usually takes several hours hours in the refrigerator and yielded a liquid much more clear than the hot.  Strain out berries, etc.  The hot water treatment included boiling  Very tart (acidic) – may need the water and pouring it over the crushed to sweeten to taste berries, letting it sit for one hour before straining. The hot water cider is darker. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Other ‘classic’ natural beverages include * California Juniper – Juniperus californica rustic ‘teas’ Juniper berry & juniper leaf tea Pine needle tea © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 17
  18. 18. 1/6/2013 * California Juniper – Juniperus californica CA Juniper is a well-shaped juniper  Mountain slopes of W. CA into Baja; desert  Size: mountains of S. CA, NV & AZ – locally in  10-20 ft tall (usual); may be Antelope Valley & desert side of San taller (to 40 ft) Gabriels  10-20 ft wide  In S. CA commonly occurs in pinyon-juniper  Growth form: woodlands that border and integrate with chaparral along desert margins  Large woody shrub/small tree with rounded, somewhat open habit  Multi-stemmed  Evergreen  Slow-growth – ½ ft / yr; long lived – to 150+ years  Foliage:  Medium-green scale-like leaves – typical juniper, fragrant © 2003 Monty Rickard © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Plant of the dry Use where ever you  Soils: foothills  Texture: any well-drained want a juniper  pH: any local  As an unusual bonsai  Light:  On hot, dry slopes  Full sun to part-shade  As a specimen or hedge plant  Water:  For it’s great habitat value  Winter: adequate  Summer: quite drought tolerant; water infrequently (Zone 1-2 probably best for gardens)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: good heat tolerance © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 18